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CLDP 3362: WEEK of 3-22

by: Kimberly Notetaker

CLDP 3362: WEEK of 3-22 CLDP 3362.001

Kimberly Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover the material discussed in lecture for the week of 3/22 and all information for Exam 3, thus far.
Cognitive Development
Dr. Meridith Grant
Class Notes
cognitive development




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Meridith Grant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
INTELLIGENCE  DEFINITIONS OF INTELLIGENCE o What is intelligence? » Depends on your theoretical approach  The Psychometric Approach: o “Classic” approach o Intelligence can be described in terms of mental factors o Tests can be constructed that reveal individual differences in these factors o But… what are the mental factors? » Spearman’s g o General intelligence factor  Mental energy (g factor influences everything we do)  Impacts performance on all tasks o Specific factors  Related to specific Tasks » Cattell and Horn’s Theory o Fluid Intelligence (the answers to everyday type of problems)  Relatively culture free  Increases until early adulthood or so o Crystallized Intelligence (the facts we are learning)  Influenced by education  Increases throughout the lifespan (at least middle adulthood) o Fluid intelligence influences crystallized intelligence o Fluid tests correlate with one another more than crystallized tests. » Guilford’s Structure of the Intellect Model o 180 Mental Factors o 3 Dimensions  Psychometric Theories: » Spearman’s G » Fluid and crystallized intelligence » Guilford’s Structure of the Intellect Model » …All suggests some type of “g” that influences some lower level “mental factors”  Psychometric Theories: Support  Positive Manifold: High correlations between scores on different cognitive tasks (e.g., grades, test performance, information processing speed, and speed of neural transmission)  Caveats: o Higher correlations between IQ test scores and cognitive tasks for lower and average IQ scores than higher IQ scores. o Develops after age 2  Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence o The ability to adapt to, shape, and select environments to accomplish one’s goals and those of the one’s society and culture. o Use strengths to minimize weaknesses o Overall, intelligence depends on how we do in our environment. o Practical abilities, creative abilities, and analytical abilities are not hierarchically related (no g) but they can work together. o People should be taught in the style that matches their strengths. » Sternberg’s 3 Types of Intelligence: o Practical Abilities  Reasoning about everyday problems  E.g., conflict resolution o Creative Abilities  Reasoning in novel circumstances  E.g., creating “clean-up”, a fun game o Analytical Abilities  Traditional intelligence test measures  E.g., Language, math, spatial » Sternberg et al. (1996) // Study o Students attend a 4-week summer psychology course o Instruction either matches or mismatches their strengths  Practical: What are the implications of infantile amnesia for the legal system?  Creative: Design an experiment to test a theory regarding infantile amnesia.  Analytic: Compare and contrast theories related to infantile amnesia o Findings:  Matching strengths made a difference!  For each individual, only moderate correlations between their analytical, practical, and creative abilities  Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences o 8 – 10 autonomous intellectual competencies o These interact to produce a diverse mix of talents  Sternberg vs. Gardner: Contention o Gardner has suggested Sternberg’s theory is too similar to Spearman’s g o Sternberg suggests little research to support Gardner.  Sternberg vs. Gardner: Agreement o Sternberg/Gardner – schools focus on teaching children how they learn best.  Child with good spatial skills = charts and graphs.  Child high in social skills = discussion and group work. But do students learn best when teaching and learning styles matched?  Not a clear concept of “learning style”  Not a reliable way to assess “learning style”  Highly mixed evidence that matching instruction to “learning style” helps students in the classroom  INSTEAD “good” teaching tends to benefit most learners (i.e., innovative, engaging, motivating,…)  MEASURING INTELLIGENCE  Measure different mental factors to get at their underlying intelligence, like “g”  Must be based on observable behavior  Factor Analysis: o Statistical procedures that is used to determine what constitutes a factor o Which questions (and subtests) “hang together” best?  Stanford-Binet: o Often thought of as the first IQ test o To determine students who could benefit from public schools o Standford-Binet still exists  Mental Age Quotient (IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age x100) o Problems:  IQ may decrease with age as adult  Age 6 and age 10 with the same mental age quotient very different  Deviation IQ (what we use today) o Mean of 100 o Standard Deviation +/- 15 o +s and –s for deviation IQs  +s and + s for deviation IQs  +: Hold developmental differences constant, so there is more room for comparison of individual differences between children at the same age.  -:It is not a consistent measure for an individual across development. o Verbal Section – Crystallize intelligence; tests general knowledge o Performance Section – Fluid intelligence; tests spatial and perceptual abilities  STABILITY MEASURES  Continuity of IQ Measures o Infants:  Faster habituation correlates with later IQ  Especially for infants at risk  Different from short attention span  Visual recognition memory correlates with later IQ o Versus IQ, Infant Measures may relate to:  PROCESSING SPEED  INHIBITION o From age 8, correlations on IQ tests are high. (Lower between infancy and 5 years.) o The closer together tests taken, the higher the correlation o Scores are NOT constant  McCall, Appelbaum, & Hogarty, 1973 o Main findings:  Not just practice effects  Scores are not constant, but some rank order stability beyond age 8  Note: about 16 percent of the sample did not show a consistent pattern. Lots of room for change!  HOW DO PEOPLE DIFFER? (Genetics vs. Environment)  GENETICS: o Higher correlation for IQ in identical twins versus fraternal twins  Identical twins ~ .86  Fraternal twins ~ .60  Siblings ~ .50 o BUT by adulthood little IQ correlation o Why?  Non-shared environmental influences  ENVIRONMENT: o “institutionalization studies” infants who are separated from their mother’s and receive little stimulation o Those who are adopted before age two, are typically found to have higher IQ scores than those who are raised in orphanages (suggests age is an environmental component)  EDUCATION: o Correlation between years of school and IQ after controlling for SES o Drop outs frequently found to have lower IQ scores o For children in school:  Children who enter school later show a decrement compared to their peers  Children frequently absent tend to have lower IQ scores  Small drop in IQ for children over summer vacation  SES: o In many countries, children from wealthier homes score better on IQ tests o The greater the gap in wealth in a country, the greater the difference in IQ scores o Why?  Nutrition?  Emotional support?  Education?  Genetics, Environment, SES, and the US o Recent meta-analytic data examines role of genetics and environment BY nation (10,000 sets of twins) o Find… (definitely suggests concept of intelligence is not fixed)  US clear support for moderately sized Gene X SES interaction: genetic variance plays more of a role in high SES and environmental variance plays role in low SES  In Western Europe and Australia, Gene X SES interaction not there (or reversed; Netherlands)  Replicate: genetic influences on intelligence increase with age and shared environmental influences decrease o Interpretation?  National differences in concepts of letter and number are taught  Public education quality more broadly  Medical ad educational access  Macrosocietal characteristics (e.g., upward social mobility)  GENDER: o Boys and girls have almost the same IQ scores. o Specific differences (SMALL):  Girls: better at writing, perceptual speed, and verbal fluency  Boys: better at visual–spatial processing, science, and math problem solving o Similar gender differences seen cross-culturally o BUT similarities > differences  RACE and ETHNICITY: o IQ scores differ among groups:  Asian-American scores are higher than those of any other group in the United States.  The average IQ of Euro-American children is 10-15 points higher than that of African-American children. o BUT THAT IS NOT THE WHOLE STORY! 1. Statistical averages, not individual scores. 2. Millions of ethnic minorities have higher IQs than that of the average Euro-American child. 3. When researchers control for risk factors, effects of race and ethnicity generally go away.  RISK FACTORS: o Head of household unemployed o Mother did not complete high school o At least four kids in the family o No father in the home o Rigidity in parents’ beliefs about child development o Maternal anxiety and depression  CAN IQ BE INCREASED?  Flynn Effect o Average IQ has been increasing over last 50 years o Why?  Daily life is more challenging?  Better nutrition?  Head Start & Similar Programs o Preschool program (short) o Most show short-term IQ gains o BUT  few kids end up in special classes or held back  Programs often increase social competence and self-esteem  Abecedarian Project: o Very complete program: Intellectual, medical, and nutritional enrichment from infancy through preschool o Long-term 5-point IQ boost o MORE to success than IQ  The Mozart Effect o Claim: Listening to IQ boosts IQ by 8 or 9 points o Research: college students that listened to 10 minutes of Mozart did better on a paper folding task than college students that sat in 10 minutes of silence  Finding hard to replicate Summary: INTELLIGENCE  Intelligence can be defined in many ways  Intelligence does have a genetic component, but it is also strongly influenced by a person’s environment as well as a person’s choices  Success in life is likely determined by far more than just intelligence.  NEW IDEAS: WHAT MAKES US SMART? Brain Size: - Brain size correlates weakly with intelligence - BUT: o Women’s brains smaller than men o Neanderthals had large brains o Correlation is small  Self-fulfilling Prophecy  “maze bright” vs. “maze dull” rats (expectation of how the rat should perform affected their performance)  Do teacher EXPECTATIONS influence student LEARNING?  Method:  Start of school year, students in grades 1 to 6 administered nonverbal intelligence test (TOGA)  Teachers told: “Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition” that predicted academic “blooming”  Teachers told that 20% of children showed would show “unusual intellectual gains” during school year  BUT students were actually randomly assigned  Administer IQ test 8 months later  Bottom line:  Expectancies translated to the classroom, particularly for younger grades  Implications?  If you were given a list of students at the start of a school, some were “gifted” and others had learning/behavioral disabilities, how would that impact behavior?  Some later research:  Teacher expectations may lead to more positive interactions that influence students to enjoy school more  Findings for expectancies extended to a variety of settings  Growth Mindset  Executive Functioning Skills, including self-control


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