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by: Nellie Runte


Nellie Runte
GPA 3.8


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About this Document

Class Notes
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nellie Runte on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/227105/psy-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 10/22/15
roduc on Why Is There Sex 0 Hedge against environmental change 0 No current reason for humans phylogenetic inertia 0 Protection against pathogens Red Queen hypothesis The Sexes and Sexual Selection 0 Female sex that makes the larger parental investment per gamete 0 Male sex that makes the smaller parental investment per gamete 0 Sexual selection a type of natural selection in which members of one sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex 0 The means of competition can be structural or behavioral and often lead to sexual dimorphism Sexual Dimorphism O In most of animal kingdom females are much bigger than males 0 One major exception is in species With proportionally large brains O In those species males compete for females with displays of strength and prowess 0 Females choose mates based in part on these displays Overt female choice Cryptic female choice 18 01112 to his calling pert in his mrruury Morphological Displays Serving Sexual Selection Soxml Mallo Smiomm ilsplayg Arti cial Sexual Selection 2 quotBefore Tails Altered Mean Number of Nests Per Mala A Mean Number of Nests Par Male uh Shonened I ll39 Elongated Controls Tail Alteration Incitement Mating Systems 0 Monogamy pairbonding O Polygamy one animal has many mates Polyandry one female mates With many males Polygyny harem one male mates with many females o Promiscuity Naming Figure 916 DISII IDUUOHS of matmg systems among buds and mammals oercemages of spe faH into four mam classmca 391aes for birds from Lack e razhe39 moose so pememage emum Esnmazes for mem F oreczse so quot18 as a NO3C qand and V no gifen Data for 969 esnmales 10 quot Dal are Wxison 1978 100 Percentage of species 50 04 Mammals l 6 2 I Polyandry Monogamy Polygyny I Promiscuity I To W i Mm 13 MALE LION BITING the neck of his partner during copulation The bite may signal the female that she has received sperm from the male Photo graph by George Schaller Em Wmmm 13 FEMALE CHIMPANZEE IN ESTRUS with three male chimpanzees two adults and one juvenile clustered around her Photograph by Leanne Nash Some Features of Human Mating System I O Monogamy wl Some polygyny 0 Male gt Female Preference for sexual variety More diverse arousal patterns 0 Fetishes o Exhibitionism 0 Criminal patterns rape child sexual abuse Numbers of partners males are 0 less pickier 0 less careful Mating systems Standard CrossCunard Sample 186 Cum humum W Monogamy Polyandry General Polygyny gt20 Slight Polygyny 20 from cock 1903 Hum 1007 m Some Features of Human Mating System ll Sexual Orientation O Heterosexuality gt 90 of population 0 Gay males 4 of population worldwide 0 Lesbian females 2 of population worldwide 0 Bisexual males and females LL Ambiguous definitions leads to wildly discrepant s Usually resented by both straight people eg as cheaters or disease spreaders and gayslesbians eg fencesitters who exploit heterosexual privilege Early Hypotheses on Origin of Sexual Orientation 0 Family relations Freudian theory Rejecting punitive father Weak father domineering mother evidence suggests reversal of cause andeffect 0 Early experience Sexual segregation Early sexual behavior imprinting O Seduction I abuse by older male 0 Early samesex play 0 All of these are now discredited Modern Hypotheses Sexual Orientation as a Correlated Variation of Prenatal Androgens 0 Females Exposure to higherthanusual levels of prenatal androgens may contribute to homosexual orientation 0 otoacoustic emissions differ with sexual orientation 0 in women with a homosexual orientation righthand 2D4D finger lengths are lower more like those of men 0 Males may be an Xlinked trait region Xq28 that promotes fertility in females no comparable gene isolated for females each older biological not step brother raises the probability of homosexual orientation by 33 But men with a homosexual orientation may have received greater prenatal androgen exposure 0 more masculine auditory evoked potentials 0 mixed results on righthand 2D4D finger lengths 0 larger genitalia o more sexual partners than heterosexual men or women of either orientation Some Features of Human Mating System quotI o Incest taboo and outbreeding drive Edvard Westermarck s hypothesis The Origins of Human Marriage 1887 hereditary predisposition to avoid kin in mate selection vs solely cultural stigma Evidence against Westermarck Genetic sexual attraction GSA among siblings separated by adoption may be regulated by genes of Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC body odor preference studies genetic cost of incest usually overstated odds of birth defect if one parent has it are 0 3 if parents are unrelated o 4 if parents are first cousins 0 10 if parents are siblings Some Features of Human Mating System IV 0 lnfanticideFoeticide direct and indirect through killing neglect abandonment Designed to eliminate less wanted offspring Ofemale babies killed more India China males have earnings potential and care for aging parents 0 Communist China onechild policy two if the first is a girl often abortion after prenatal sex determination O defectiveretarded children Foeticide as infanticide in Western countries 0 genetic control rape and incest abortions about 1 O socialfinancial reasons about 99 O historically eugenic control racial ethnic also eugenic birth control In one study infanticides were more likely to be committed by stepparents than biological parents findings in dispute Some Features of Human Mating System V o Cryptic ovulation Estrus replaced by menstruation Perennial receptivity partial release from hormonal control Hypotheses Pairbonding vs sne akyfing 0 Male possessiveness mate guarding Restrictions on female behavior Jealousy and violence Female sexual mutilation male too 0 Testing of prospective mates predominance of female choice Female selection of males resources height muscular angular appearance especially during ovulation predictability gifts caring during illness intelligence sense of humor Male selection of females Youth youthful features symmetry hourglass figure waisthip ratio of 07 Each sex is attracted to faces most like their own Some Features of Human Mating System VI 0 Plasticity of sex roles emancipation from hormonal control enhanced role for learning 0 lncitement Female strategies 0 Spatial location 0 Action through intermediaries o lntrasexual competition dress hair makeup o Flirtation singlesbar studies 3A of meetings are initiated by females Phases of Love Helen Fisher 0 Lust Loveseeking Driven in both sexes mainly by testosterone and estrogen O Attraction Lovestruck fixating on the target Loss of sleep and appetite Driven mainly by dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine 0 Attachment Developing a bond lessening of attraction and lust Driven mainly by oxytocin released during orgasm and to baby through mother s milk and vasopressin which show higher levels in monogamous animals Human Femam F a on Repertoire FAC I ALI HEAD PATTERNS POSTU RE PATTERNS Smile Solitary dance Thigh touch Roomencompassing glance Lean Placement Laugh Point Approach Short darting glance Dance acceptance Foot to foot Fixed gaze Parade Request dance Hair ip Aid solicitation Hug Head toss Play Frontal body contact Head nod Brush Breast touch Giggle Knee touch Hang Whisper Shoulder hug L Lateral body contact Neck presentation Lip lick GESTURES Pout Coy smile Gesticulation Caress lback Face to face Caress object Arm exion Kiss Primp Caress torso Eyebrow ash Caress leg Lipstick application Caress arm Buttock pat Tap Z Hand hold Palm Caress facehair Hike skirt 7 7


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