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Psyc 100

by: Kate Notetaker

Psyc 100 PSYCH 100

Kate Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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Introduction to psychological science
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Motivation     The  study  of  motivation     • An  attempt  to  understand  what  causes  us  to  choose  our  behavior,  what   energizes  us  to  behave,  what  maintains  behavior,  and  what  stops  behavior…   • And  all  of  the  perceptual  and  attitude  changes  that  accompany  these  stages       **ESSAY  ALERT**     The  Four  Major  Classes  of  Motivational  Theory     1. Drive  Theories     2. Expectancy  Theories     3. Cognitive  Theories   4. Humanistic  Theories       Drive  Theories:       A  set  of  theories  that  explain  behavior  by  emphasizing  the  internal   conditions  of  arousal  (drives)  which  energize  the  seeking  or  maintaining  of  some   goal  (which  is  usually  to  re-­‐establish  a  state  of  physiological  well-­‐being  or   “homeostasis”.)  (food  or  sex)       Expectancy  Theories:       Explanation  of  motivated  behavior  that  emphasize  a  person’s  expectation  to   succeed  and  his/her  need  to  achieve  (learned  drive).       -­‐being  successful  about  something     Cognitive  Theories:       A  set  of  theories  that  emphasize  an  individual’s  choice  regarding  life  goals   and  the  means  of  attaining  them  (thinking/deciding  are  most  important)   -­‐If  I  want  a  raise,  I  will  get  a  raise     Humanistic  Theories:       Theories  emphasizing  the  tendency  of  humans  to  strive  to  reach  perfection,   total  self  acceptance,  and  self  actualization.       Self  actualization-­‐  the  process  of  realizing  one’s  uniquely  human  potential  for   good.  It  is  achieving  everything  that  you  are  capable  of  achieving!       None  of  the  four  types  of  theories  alone  can  explain  all  motivated  behavior!       I. Drive  Theory  Example   a. Hunger  Drive   i. Most  dieters  agree  that  anyone  can  lose  weight,  but  very  few   can  keep  it  off!     ii. Why?     iii. Obesity  changes  the  structure  of  fat  cell,  and  this  lowers  the   level  of  energy  expended     iv. The  metabolic  rate  of  obese  people  is  to  only  lower  than   normal-­‐weight  people  when  they  are  awake,  but  also  when   they  are  asleep!     In  order  to  understand  obesity,  psychologists  have  extensively  studied  the   hunger  drive.       What  causes  hunger?         Low  Blood  Sugar  (glucose)         -­‐Blood  sugar  is  needed  for  normal  cell  activity.  And,  when   blood  sugar  is  low,  the  body  sends  signals  to  the  brain  and  we  feel  hungry.       -­‐The  hypothalamus  controls  feelings  of  hunger  and  eating  behavior.     • Electrostimulation  studies  show:     o Later  hypothalamus:     § “start  eating  center”     § always  feel  hungry   § When  stimulated,  we  feel  hungry   o Ventromedial  hypothalamus:     § “Stop  eating  center”     § When  stimulated,  we  feel  full   So,  do  obese  people  have  a  stronger  hunger  drive  than  the  rest  of  us?       Two  popular  theories  of  obesity  say  NO!       Physiological  View  of  Obesity   1. several  researchers  have  shown  that  the  number  of  fat  cells  we  will   ultimately  have  as  adults  is  genetically  programmed  from  birth  (and   this  will  determine  our  weight  as  adults)     2. Body  fat  is  stored  in  fat  cells  throughout  the  body   3. and  obese  people  have  been  found  to  have  three  times  the  number  of  fat   cells  compared  to  normal-­‐weight  people     -­‐And  again,  these  researchers  propose  that  it  is  our  genetic  makeup  that  determines   the  number  of  fat  cells   -­‐However,  the  size  of  our  fat  cells  appears  to  be  determined  by  our  nutritional   experiences.  That  is,  by  what  and  how  much  we  eat!       So  people  born  with  many  fat  cells  are  more  likely  to  stay  fat  for  two  reasons:     1. Dieting  decreases  the  size  of  fat  cells,  but  not  the  number  of  them  (you   cannot  get  rid  of  fat  cells  once  they  are  there.)   a. Problem?  Obese  people  have  so  many  fat  cells  through  their   bodies  that  shrinking  them  does  not  make  a  bit  of  difference  in   terms  of  weight  loss     2. When  dieting,  the  body  automatically  tries  to  maintain  the  size  of  the   fat  cells  at  a  constant  level.     a. The  body  does  this  by  naturally  decreasing  energy  levels  when   food  consumption  goes  down     b. People  on  diets  often  report  constant  fatigue     • “Set  Point  Theory”   o Energy  in  (food)  à  Energy  out  (activity)     • When  dieters  do  start  losing  weight  (by  decreasing  food  intake  and   really  increasing  exercise  levels):     o Fat  cells  begin  to  shrink     o The  body  revolts   o “food  deprivation  state”  is  induced     • This  expectation  of  obesity  is  very  compelling  in  that  our  data  show   that:     o Most  formerly  overweight  people  report  that  they  are   constantly  battling  weight  gain     o 50%  of  all  people  who  lose  weight  will  gain  it  all  back  within  3   years  (99%  will  gain  it  all  back  within  9  years)     o Even  concentration  camp  survivors  of  WWII  returned  to  their   original  weight  within  one  year  of  being  released   o Each  time  you  diet,  it  will  take  longer  to  lose  the  same  amount   of  weight,  and  the  weight  will  return  faster!   § The  human  body  fights  weight  loss!     • What  about  liposuction?  (surgically  vacuuming  out  fat  cells)   o Liposuction  will  eliminate  unwanted  fat  and  weight  but  for  the   short-­‐term  only.     o However,  research  shows  that  within  2-­‐4  years,  the  remaining   fat  cells  will  expand  in  size  to  fill  the  void  left  by  the  removed   fat  cells     o And  individuals  will  return  to  the  same  weight  and  shape  they   were  before  the  liposuction.        


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