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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Motivation The study of motivation • An attempt to understand what causes us to choose our behavior, what energizes us to behave, what maintains behavior, and what stops behavior… • And all of the perceptual and attitude changes that accompany these stages **ESSAY ALERT** The Four Major Classes of Motivational Theory 1. Drive Theories 2. Expectancy Theories 3. Cognitive Theories 4. Humanistic Theories Drive Theories: A set of theories that explain behavior by emphasizing the internal conditions of arousal (drives) which energize the seeking or maintaining of some goal (which is usually to re-‐establish a state of physiological well-‐being or “homeostasis”.) (food or sex) Expectancy Theories: Explanation of motivated behavior that emphasize a person’s expectation to succeed and his/her need to achieve (learned drive). -‐being successful about something Cognitive Theories: A set of theories that emphasize an individual’s choice regarding life goals and the means of attaining them (thinking/deciding are most important) -‐If I want a raise, I will get a raise Humanistic Theories: Theories emphasizing the tendency of humans to strive to reach perfection, total self acceptance, and self actualization. Self actualization-‐ the process of realizing one’s uniquely human potential for good. It is achieving everything that you are capable of achieving! None of the four types of theories alone can explain all motivated behavior! I. Drive Theory Example a. Hunger Drive i. Most dieters agree that anyone can lose weight, but very few can keep it off! ii. Why? iii. Obesity changes the structure of fat cell, and this lowers the level of energy expended iv. The metabolic rate of obese people is to only lower than normal-‐weight people when they are awake, but also when they are asleep! In order to understand obesity, psychologists have extensively studied the hunger drive. What causes hunger? Low Blood Sugar (glucose) -‐Blood sugar is needed for normal cell activity. And, when blood sugar is low, the body sends signals to the brain and we feel hungry. -‐The hypothalamus controls feelings of hunger and eating behavior. • Electrostimulation studies show: o Later hypothalamus: § “start eating center” § always feel hungry § When stimulated, we feel hungry o Ventromedial hypothalamus: § “Stop eating center” § When stimulated, we feel full So, do obese people have a stronger hunger drive than the rest of us? Two popular theories of obesity say NO! Physiological View of Obesity 1. several researchers have shown that the number of fat cells we will ultimately have as adults is genetically programmed from birth (and this will determine our weight as adults) 2. Body fat is stored in fat cells throughout the body 3. and obese people have been found to have three times the number of fat cells compared to normal-‐weight people -‐And again, these researchers propose that it is our genetic makeup that determines the number of fat cells -‐However, the size of our fat cells appears to be determined by our nutritional experiences. That is, by what and how much we eat! So people born with many fat cells are more likely to stay fat for two reasons: 1. Dieting decreases the size of fat cells, but not the number of them (you cannot get rid of fat cells once they are there.) a. Problem? Obese people have so many fat cells through their bodies that shrinking them does not make a bit of difference in terms of weight loss 2. When dieting, the body automatically tries to maintain the size of the fat cells at a constant level. a. The body does this by naturally decreasing energy levels when food consumption goes down b. People on diets often report constant fatigue • “Set Point Theory” o Energy in (food) à Energy out (activity) • When dieters do start losing weight (by decreasing food intake and really increasing exercise levels): o Fat cells begin to shrink o The body revolts o “food deprivation state” is induced • This expectation of obesity is very compelling in that our data show that: o Most formerly overweight people report that they are constantly battling weight gain o 50% of all people who lose weight will gain it all back within 3 years (99% will gain it all back within 9 years) o Even concentration camp survivors of WWII returned to their original weight within one year of being released o Each time you diet, it will take longer to lose the same amount of weight, and the weight will return faster! § The human body fights weight loss! • What about liposuction? (surgically vacuuming out fat cells) o Liposuction will eliminate unwanted fat and weight but for the short-‐term only. o However, research shows that within 2-‐4 years, the remaining fat cells will expand in size to fill the void left by the removed fat cells o And individuals will return to the same weight and shape they were before the liposuction.
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