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by: Nellie Runte


Nellie Runte
GPA 3.8


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Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nellie Runte on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/227110/psy-3-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.




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Date Created: 10/22/15
Lecture 4 1202009 gtgt Neurotransmission I The Synthesis Transport amp Storage of Neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitter A chemical gas or hormone that is synthesized in and released from a neuron 0 Large neurotransmitters synthesized in the cell body then transported down the axon to the terminal ex peptides and hormones 0 Small neurotransmitters synthesized in the terminals ex amino acids monoamines acetylcholine and gases I Most of these are stored in membranes called vesicles 0 When vescicle dumps neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft neurotransmitter is released 0 Neurotransmission 0 Action potential travels down the axon of the presynaptic neuron o Membrane in terminals depolarize and activate voltagegated calcium Ca2 channels 9 Ca2 enters o Ca2 stimulates vescicles to move to the active zone Where vescicles dock prior to neurotransmitter release 0 Vescicle membrane joins with the cell membrane in the active zone and the neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft o The neurotransmitters interact with receptors on the postsynaptic neuron gtgt PSPs either EPSPs or TPSPs Exocytosis 0 Small neurotransmitters are released When the calcium signal is sent 0 Large neurotransmitters are only released when there is higher rates of ring and calcium levels in the terminal Receptors o Ligand 7 a molecule of the correct shape that ts into a receptor protein like a key and activate it or block it o Lonotropic receptors 7 directly control ion channels I quot i when they receive a particular neurotransmitter i o Metatropic receptors 7 receive particular transmitters but do not directly control ion channels They activate G a protein molecules instead I Autoreceptors 7 A metaropic receptor in the presynaptic membrane tell the axon terminal how much neurotransmitter has been released and regulate exocytosis Reuptake 7 transporters in the terminals or on the dendrites take the neurotransmitter back inside the neuron to be repackaged or degraded Enzymatic degradation 7 enzymes found in the synaptic cleft break down the neurotransmitter after it is released Diffusion 7 neurotransmitters simply move out of the synaptic cleft Neuropeptides larger molecules that more resemble proteins 0 More than 100 different kinds in the brain 0 Endorphins 7 pain and pleasure o Slower signaling than the small molecule neurotransmitters 0 broken down by degradative enzymes in synaptic cleft Amino acids 7 small molecule neurotransmitter and the building blocks of proteins 0 exeitatory from food ex aspartate glycine glutamate o inhibitory found in the majority of fastacting directed synapses ex GABA Calcru n enters cell Release of neumuansmrtar lnlelaciim oi neuro ransmiller with receptor exciting or y Psych3 The Biological Basis of Psychology Winter 2010 Ami Cohen Lecture 1 Introduction About psych 3 Ami Cohen Office hours Thursday 115315 PM Location Psychology 3239 TA Shelley Su Office hours Wednesday 1100 AM1 00 PM Location Psychology 1308 Psych 3 webpage httpgauchospaceucsbedu includes the following Syllabus contact info mandatory readings exam dates exam policy grading scheme and recommended readings lecture notes Textbook Instructors elp Keep the of Textbooks Down or Details 5 3 Fun books Descartes39 error emotion reason and the human brain Antonio R Damasio An anthropologist on Mars seven paradoxical tales Oliver Sacks The man who mistook his wife for a hat and other clinical tales Oliver Sacks Emotion explained Edmund T Rolls The selfish gene Richard Dawkins The curious incident of the dog in the night time Mark Haddon Exams Midterm Final noncumulative 40 60 Top 15 A A A Next 30 B B B Next 40 C C C Last 15 D to F 80 of the questions on the exams will be taken from the lectures and 20 from the textbook Makeup exams will be possible only in cases of documented serious illness or death in the family Course Objectives Basic introduction to the exciting world of BioPsychology Preparation for upper level BioPsychology courses How to succeed in psych 3 Course Outline Part 1 Basic function of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Communication between cells of the nervous system Anatomy of the nervous system Part 2 Sensorv and motor svsm Vision Touch and pain oMotor control Midterm Part 3 complex behaviors and the nervous svstem Genetics and behavior Motivation sex and reproduction Emotions Cognition Language Learning and memory Course Outline Part 4 Plasticity and pathology Development Brain damage Drug abuse and addiction Psychopathology Lecture 1 Objectives Define BioPsychology Describe the different subfields of biopsychology and provide an explanation for how each subfield contributes to our understanding of brain and behavior in its own way Explain the mindbody problem and its suggested solutions that were discussed in class What are the arguments of Descart and what are the weaknesses of the dualistic approach Describe the 3 major brain imagine technique and their relative advantages and disadvantages Explain the main principles that are in the bases of MRI and functional MRI and describe the limitations of MRI in the study of biopsychology What is Biopsychology The scientific study of the biology of behavior Neuroanatomy o Neuropathology Nervous system disorders o Neuropharmacology Effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology Functions and activities of the nervous system Structure of the nervous system o Neurochemistry Chemical bases of neural activity o Neuroendocrinology Interactions between the o nervous system and the endocrine system All these areas of research combine in an attempt to understand how does the nervous system control behavior The Mindbody problem Our biological and physiological structures and Body funchons Self awareness Judgment imagination etc Dualism The brain and the mind soul are separate entities Interactive dualism Point of interaction The contribution of Rene Descart Rene Descart Cogito Ergo Sum I If it is not possible for an evil being of supreme power to convince me of X when X is false then I cannot rationally doubt X II It is not possible for an evil being of supreme power to convince me that I am thinking when it is false that I am thinking llll cannot rationally doubt that I am thinking Rene Descart Descartes can rationally doubt that his body exists Descartes cannot doubt that he exists Descartes is not his body Cartesian dualism Formulated by Rene Descart 1596 1650 Spiritual mind that is unique to humans Mechanistic body operates as an automated hydraulic system The mind interacts with the brain in the pineal gland The pineal gland Alternativedualistic views Occasionalism and Parallelism Formulated by Malebranche and Von Leibniz Mind and body operate independently from each other but in parallel Bod It only seems as If physroal and mental events y cause one another Monism Idealismphenomenalism Only mind is can be considered real Physicalism Only the physical is real The mental can be reduced to the physical In other words The mind is merely a set of physicalbiological events E This the dominant perspective in modern psychology


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