CULT INFLUENCE COMM
CULT INFLUENCE COMM COMM 123
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Comm 123 Lecture Notes 1142011 94900 PM Lecture 1 Approaches to intercultural communication 0 Social values approach 0 Social identity approach 0 Macrosocial approach Social Values Approach 0 What are cultural dimensions that de ne a certain culture 0 What are their norms o Atheoretical and taxonomic though 0 Individualintercultural relationshios Social Identity Approach 0 People driven by beliefs about intergroup 0 Positive social identities favorably identify their group in comparison with others 0 intergroup con ict Macro Social Approach 0 Cultural relations in media 0 Genocide Office hours 0 Wed 13 SSMS 4411 Assessment 0 Answers to 2 take home questions 10 o 1St purpose think and struggle with ideas and express those ideas clearly 0 2nd purpose create fodder for class discussion 0 Midterm 25 0 Final 20 0 Research proposal 45 1200 words 56 pages 0 Written answer to questions 0 typed response 0 12 pt font 0 1 inch borders 0 double spacing 0 put question and name at top 0 before writing read Zinsser article on writing PERSUASIVE argument show 2 be plausible Persuade ur answers are correct Use evidence google scholar What hes looking for 0 Logical coherent arguments 0 Not opinion piece think then write 0 Empirical evidence Coming up with Research Proposal RP Formulate a question Lit search Take notes Set up paper THEN write Write following Zinssers suggestions Come up with own hypothesis Read research and come up with own idea Or read research and prove them wrong Wed 1511 Farmingville Video Illegal Immigrants June 1998 civics meeting at the rehouse for regular everyday citizens The meeting was lled with anger about the huge increase of illegal aliens 0 Many horror stories about women being solicited for seX too many ppl living in one house the streets were crowded etc If you are on American soil you have to assume that people are citizens Police said the immigrants weren t doing anything illegal o Ppl didn t belive them Cititzens broke up into groups those very adament about xing the problem became actives FAIR was helpful to their search of how to get aliens out Demonstrations held every Saturday to try to raise awareness and support for their ght Demonstrators would take pictures to document US citizens going to the day laborers illegal aliens for work to turn into police as evidence SQL decides to sue INS when an illegal immigrant kills a young mother in a drunk driving accident and vanished o Looses by 1 vote 0 Protestors go to Benedict Arnold s house 0 2 young day laborers are attacked and beaten by 2 younger white mensupremacists 0 this attack changes the game because it makes people very upset o Farmingville gets labeled racist March 2001 0 When a work center is created many aliens will ock there 0 Hiring center is approved Residents try to veto the hiring center 0 Override vote so hiring center will not be built 0 Veto was upheld Summer 2001 o Brought in 18 groups from across the country to trey and counteract what was happening in loval communities to back immigrants llOll Lecture 3 Individualism 6 9 Collectivism Question for this lecture o What causes cultural differences in individualism 7 collectivism Cultural Value Dimensions 0 Hofstede s dimensions 0 Individualism 7 Collectivisim Power Distance Uncertainty Distance Masculinity Femininity O O O 0 Trying to gure out what kind of differences were in organizations O Invariance assumption internal set of things we go through that work he suggests WRONG He says there is a cultural variance and there is not an underlying universal way to organizational life 0 There are 4 dimensions of cultural difference 0 Assumptions of the Social Value Approach 0 It is possible to characterize differences between cultures in terms of the degree of emphasis placed on a few basic values Cultural values differences account for intercultural miscommunication 0 Because different people from different cultures have different values we will communicate differently based on the assumptions and what is acceptable and normal behavior in their culture Differences 9 miscommunication Miscommunication can be relieved by being mindful and respecting of cultural differences ie assumes relativism 0 You just have to be mindful that these differences exist Hofsede 1983 0 My favorite definition of culture is precisely that its essence is collective mental programming it is that part of our conditioning that we share with other members of our nation region or group but not with members of other nations regions or groups Once we start off with a set of assumptions it is hard to break them or see something in a different way Can get different versions of the image image is both a young woman and an old woman If the image you saw to begin with was the old lady and then you see the ambiguous image its extremely difficult to see the young lady and viceiversa 0 Set of assumptions are hard to shake Its very hard for people to see the opposite of what they were primed with o Hofstede suggests cultural differences are shown in just this way An example of Individualism 0 From Britannica o as a philosophy individualism involves a value system a theory of human nature a general attitude or temper and belief in certain political economic social and religious arrangements 0 Namely The individual is of supreme value premium is placed on self reliance and individual freedom Example of Collectivism In Kenyan tribes nobody is an isolated individual Rather his uniqueness is a secondary fact First and foremost he is several peoples contemporary His life is founded on these facts economically socially and physically In this system group activities are dominant responsibility is shared and accountability is collective Because of the emphasis on collectivity harmony and cooperation among the group tend to be emphasized more than individual function and responsibility Saleh amp Gufwoli 1982 p 327 cited in Gudykunst amp Kim 1987 In individualistic cultures strong emphasis placed on individual rights Collectivistic emphasis on collective as a whole individuals expected to go along with the group Hofstede 1983 IndivColl The fundamental issue involved is the relation between an individual and his or her fellow individuals INDIVIDUALISTIC At one end of the scale we find societies in which the ties between individuals are very loose Everybody is supposed to look after his or her own self interest and maybe the interest of his or her immediate family This is made possible by a large amount of freedom that such a society leaves individuals COLLECTIVISTIC At the other end of the scale we find societies in which the ties between individuals are very tight People are born into collectivities or ingroups which may be their extended family including grandparents uncles aunts and so on their tribe or their village Everybody is supposed to look after the interest of his or her ingroup and to have no other opinions and beliefs than the opinions and beliefs in their ingroup Individualistic countries tend to have more money than collectivist cultures Amount of cultural variability is greater among individualistic cultures rather than collectivist cultures Depends on emphasis of group importance US is most individualistic culture Individualistic cultures Australia Canada Denmark France Germany 0 Great Britain 0 Ireland 0 Netherlands 0 New Zealand 0 Norway 0 United states 0 Countries all have relations with each other 0 Countries all were founded by or had colonies founded by European countires Collectivist cultures 0 Brazil 0 China Egypt 0 Greece 0 India 0 Japan 0 Kenya 0 Korea 0 Mexico 0 Pakistan 0 Vietnam Cultural Value Dimensions 0 Continuum o Individualist quot9 Collectivist 0 Dimensions 0 O o 0 Core idea of LC ie elements of both extremes in all cultures dimensions are often but not always related I e g high individualism tends to equal low uncertainty avoidance etc Another correlate is actually pathogenic disease Correlation between 39 quot 39 39 quot vs quot quot 39 and 1 0 There is one dimension varying from Ito C o in Individualistic cultures people subordinate group goals to individual goals 0 In collectivistic cultures people subordinate individual goals to the group 0 All kinds of traits and effects ow from this basic value difference Social Value Dimension 0 V Speci c traits within a given culture 0 V Communicative tendencies People view their values are right and that others should share their values ethnocentric Individualistic perceive Ursula as more unique and different from other people C connected to other people 1 6 i Individual autonomy Group unity and harmony Selfrealization Grouprealization Personal goals Group goals Unique and independent Conforming and interdependent Individual privacy Group belongingness Nuclear family Extended family Individual rewards equity Equal distribution of reward equality Universalistic Particularistic about whos in group and whos out Competition Cooperation Many groups with little in uence Few groups with a general in uence Communication suggestions for individualists o l Collectivists look to and use group memberships to predict others behavior 0 attribution o 2 When collectivists group memberships change their behavior changes o 3 collectivists are comfortable in vertical unequal relationships 0 Association between power distance and individualism C culture strong chance you are going to be in culture that s big on power distance o 4 Collectivists see competition as threatening o 5 Collectivists emphasize harmony and cooperation in the ingroup Communication suggestions for Collectivists o 1 individualists behavior cannot be predicted accurately from group memberships 0 But individualists behavior is affected by group memberships 0 Difference not a matter of 1 group doing 1 thing and other doing other its a matter of emphasis Not cause we dont have group membership 2 Individualists are proud of their accomplishments and say negative things about others 3 Individualists are emotionally detached from their ingroups 0 There are circumstances where that is FAR from true 911 4 individualists prefer horizontal equal relationships 5 individualists do not see competition as threatening Correlates Hofstede 1978 Individualism at an ecological level is correlated with o 1 Gross national product how rich a nation is o 2 greater need for affiliation ie people in individualist countries feel more lonely W more social capital 9 more individualism more consumption 9 subjective wellbeing relationship mediated through individualism O O Individualism index IDV versus 1970 National Wealth per capita GNP for 50 countries Graph W Individualism is correlated with GNP income More social capital 9 more individualism More consumption 9 subjective wellbeing 0 Relationship mediated through individualism The farther you go up the axis to the left the more collectivist countries coming The think that must be causing these IC cultural differences in countries is wealth because the more money a country has the more individualistic the country is QuickTimeT39V39 and a e o sor are needed to see this picture What is the better place to live I or C cultures o Allik and Realo 2004 0 Survey of 42 countries measured I C Social capital civic participation trust in people time spent with friends o More social capital 9 more individualism o support durkheims view that when individuals become more autonomous and Liberated from social bonds they actually become more dependent on society Ahuvia 2002 IC and happiness o More consumption gt subjective wellbeing SWB o Economic development leads to Subjective wellbeing SWB yet it is mediated by individualism When one increases others do too Subjective Wellbeing SWB Economic Development Individualism What causes IC o Government is necessary how much power should it have 0 Mill as little as required 0 Locke 17th 18th century men have natural rights which governments must protect and even be defended against government o Asian Tiger Economics leading to less filial piety ie people are becoming more individualistic with introduction of capitalism 0 Whole set of countires around asia with huge poverty but within 10 to 15 years explosion of economic progress Values shift in ways that are consistent with the economic principles A whole set of countries around the pacific rim in Asia that has had an explosion of economic progress and growth 9 huge amount of social change With these changes in economy and social change comes a shift of cultural values 0 O Pathogens o The Red Queen Hypothesis 0 Red Queen Alice and Wonderland Shes trying to get away and no matter how far she runs she just cannot get away Faster she runs the faster the red queen goes 0 Biology based on assumption that host and parasite live in a relationship of constant competition What happens Things evolve O In biology this hypothesis says that predator and prey live in a relationship of constant competitionbattle either the prey will get away and the predator loses while the pret gets to survive and reporudce or the predator wins and kills the prey Coevolution process 0 People become immune to their pathogens 0 Recreate your resistance when you mate with others Offspring and Disease Resistance 0 Mate with someone with different pathogen resistance will lower offsprings chances of survival 0 The more you like the way someone smells the different their immune system is from yours In a pathogen lled environment you want someone with the SAME immune system as you More pathogens more collectivism and restricted sociosexuality ethnocentrism languages and religions tend to have resistance to pathogens and they share that with their group because they evolved in the same environment GRAPH historical with contemporary pathogens Correlation 7 so it works QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture NEXT GRAPH disease richness predicts the number of religions you nd Creates psychology that keeps us away from other people so no collectiVistics cuz our particularistic draw sharp boundaries among others another way of keeping away form others DONT share religions More religions in culture more pathogens more religions QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture NEXT GRAPH Languages pathogens predict language as well QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture Critique of Social Value Approach to Individualism 7 Collectivism o Redescribes what was to be explained o Taxonomic branch of science concerned with classi cations systematic not a theory just a way of describing people who live in different cultures 0 Described in much more parsimonious way 0 Historically contingent 0 Values shift over time which means we are constantly redoing surveys trying to gure out what people are about 0 Seems to re ects socialpolitical realities o No dramatic shift in any given moment Can imagine fairly important blips September 11m peoples behavior really changed during this time This approach isn t something that allows us to explain those things we need another theory o No intercultural dictionary 0 Can t have fixed dictionary that tells us about what different cultures are Question for Lecture 4 c There are many differences between cultures Given such differences how is it that American culture has been exported around the world Even to places where people have very different values and even to places where people are staunchly anti American 11 21 1 Lecture 4 Cultural Values Part II Question for Lecture 4 c There are many differences between cultures as this set of lectures will attest o Given such differences how is it that American culture has been exported around the world Even to places where people have very different values and even to places where people are staunchly antiAmerican QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture US image SLIPS Outside countries claim they hate the US yet their culture is lled with American products 0 Americans are the best at selling things for pro t 0 We look around the world and there are loads of individualistic countries 0 Values we make our products palatable to other countries Malaysia caught in the middle 0 You have to cater to the values of the speci c culture you are targeting otherwise you could offend the people syour product will not be demanded or wanted Cultural Value Dimensions 0 Hofstedes dimensions 0 IndividualismCollectivism Power distance Uncertainty avoidance O O O Masculinity femininity QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Example of Power Distance 0 Situation 0 An organizational interaction between a supervisor from the US And a subordinate from Greece The US Norm is to have the employee participate in decisions whereas in Greece the norm is for ordersdirections to be issued QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture 0 The report actually requires 30 days to complete So the Greek worked day and night but at the end of the 15111 day he still required 1 more day QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture 0 Different assumptions based on the background power distance makes mis communication POWER DISTANCE 0 De nition PD concerns the degree to which people consider the exercise of power to be legitimate o Belief about importance of authority respect 0 Low Power Distance Don t value authorityrespect as much 0 O O O O O O O O 0 Australia Canada Denmark Germany Ireland Israel New Zealand Sweden United States Britain I Employees are involved I Similar to individualistic cultures I We elect our leaders These lists are mostly the exact same High power distance is associated with other variables Low power distance the list is basically similar Should expect correlation between individualism and power distance is strong with low power distance group Low power distance isn t producing anything particularly different from individualism When comparing Gross Domestic Product GDP low power distance a lot more stable than high power distance High Power Distance must respect authority very important 0 O O O O O O O O 0 Egypt Ethiopia Ghana Guatemala India Malaysia Nigeria Panama Saudi Arabia Venezuela I Employees take order from bosses I Doesn t necessarily associate with collectivist culture Coercive power in charge because of force The list has changed signi cantly so we should except correlation between collectivism and power distance to not be particularly strong High power distance is very distinctive from collectivism is it producing something di erent High power distance correlated with very unstable things in comparison to low power distance cultures high power distance cultures have unstable GDP and economics SO if looking at IC and power distance what do we see we know association with individualism collectivism and power distance but we know its not a perfect association We should expect the correlation is strong with low power distance group but not particularly strong with the high power distance Therefore low power distance isn t producing anything particularly different from individualism but high power distance is very distinctive from collectivism It could be something to do with economics and social organization Compare lists on Gross domestic product etc and the low power distance are a lot more stable than the high power distance Therefore high power distance is correlated with very unstable things The countries that have a high power distance has something to do with largely unstable social contexts 0 History of conflict genocides who has access to water etc Low PD countries are similar to individidualistic countries 0 Association between high PD and collectivism Defining POWER DISTANCE Idea comes from Mulder 1977 The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally 0 Its awed We don t have high power distance because low power people are saying please leader make our lives miserable IT is the high powered people that want to stay in power Surely it s the powerful members that are important New definition of Power Distance Power distance concerns the degree to which people consider the exercise of power to be legitimate The Power Distance continuum small differences matter compare how hierarchical Americans are in relative to the British both are low power distance countries QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture o latent hidden AA Power Distance o Low Power Distance Cultures 0 Expert and Legitimate power Power based on legitimacy and expertise We don t let people tell us what to do just because they are older than us Indiv s as equals Superiorssubordinates interdependent Orders not accepted at face value Old people not respected or feared Latent harmony bw powerful and powerless PD cultures Coercivereferent power Referent recognizing person and realizing person has all kinds of power Look at news Individuals as unequal Subordinates dependent on superiors Obedience to orders Old people respectedfeared O O O O O o 2 L0 339 O O O O O o Latent conflict bw powerless and powerful KNOW DEFINITIONS ABOVE AND FIGURE OUT WHERE THESE LAST IDEAS WOULD BE ABLE TO FIT Correlates of Power Distance o 1 autocratic ruler with absolute power and oligarchic small group of people having control over a country organization or institution government higher power distance o 2 Larger populations higher power distance o 3 greater GDP lower PD Brockner et Al 2001 QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture o Procedural justice effects tyler et Al o Compare high vs low power distance countries US Germany vs high power distance countries China Mexico Hong Kong 0 See their level of involvementcommitment People in high PD follow orders and commit People in low PD less involved 0 Takes 2 groups from each power distance group Gives scenarios where theres high and low voice in an organization high voice leader asks opinions of employees low power distance Giving voice to employees LOW voice leader simply issues commands no voice for employees high power distance 0 What happens in the US in a high voice organizational setting which is usually for high power distance countries not low power distance countries like US 0 Americans like low power distance they want a voice If asked questions they would feel more involved and everything but its resonating between our normal low power distance 0 In US a low voice creates a high PD and Americans commitment goes down to company 0 But Chinese are opposite they don t mind low voice Chinese high power distance So what happens in 2 scenarios They feel more committed if they have someone that tells them what to do high power distance 0 People from high power culture more comfortable when bosses just simply issue orders and they comply 0 So Chinese likes high power culture If you give them a say low power its dissonant with their values US low voice not committed to organization high they do China THIS IS ALL ABOUT RESONANCE WITH VALUES Bond Wan Leung and Ciacalone 1985 Male Chinese undergrads CUHK and Americans SUNY Read a onepage organizational scenario Imagine corporate meeting 2 people we are interested in the department manager and the assistant manager One condition manager insults assistant manager Other condition Assistant manager insults the department manager How reasonable is this to happen 0 Insult from high status source dept Manager to a low status source asst Manager or vice versa People involved either from same or different departments Measured acceptability of insult Chinese how legitimate is insult to go from top up to bottom or vice versa bottom up to down 0 Not acceptable to go from bottom to top Chinese say assistant manager insulting dept manager is NOT okay 0 Accepted from the top down manager to assistant manager Americans numbers still go down but not as sharp as the Chinese Results 0 If Chinese insulter had higher status insult accepted If insulter is subordinate the insult is not accepted o If US insulter had higher status insult not accepted Americans didn t really mind either insult QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture Critique of Power Distance Social Stability and Power Distance trust in leaders in time of war trust scientists when uncertain 0 Trust people at different times depending on their power Power central to all social relations isn t it a matter of what form power takes Example of Uncertainty Avoidance o Engholm 1991 0 Observation of fist fights in Korea to clarify who has higher status 0 Age is important to your standing One guy wouldn t let other guy tell him how old he was in relation to him lead to a fist ght 0 0 They don t like uncertainty they like to know where they stand in relation to others Low Uncertainty Avoidance o Now things are starting to change 0 Totally newdistinct list becoming different from individualism and low power distance QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture 0 Defining Uncertaintz Avoidance o The degree to which people tolerate uncertainty 0 Find ways of producing social rules 0 To define culture rules of etiquette Good thing in high uncertainty avoidance culture People don t like to do weird stuff o Boils down to toleration of social uncertainty 0 Uncertainty 9 anxiety 9 need for rules o Effect less tolerance of deviance o Uncertainty avoidance is NOT the same as risk avoidance QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture Shane 1994 o Role of uncertainty avoidance and how they will accept different kinds of leaders o More uncertainty avoidance wont like the bosses who don t pay attention to the rules o Leadership preferences in 43 organizations across 68 countries Leadership preference an innovation new o Uncertainty avoidance and leadership o 4 kinds of leaders 0 1 Network Facilitator make decisions without higher officials works without formal plans high uncertainty avoidanceless support for them 0 2 Organizational Maverick bends organizational rules bypasses budgetary procedures high uncertainty avoidanceless support for them 0 3 Transformational leader demonstrates organizational benefits works with senior management high uncertainty avoidanceless support for them ask them what leaders would they rather have Increases in uncertainty avoidance equals 1 less support for the network facilitator 2 less support for transformational leader 3 less support for the organizational maverick O O Masculinitz Femininitz Feminine countries getting smaller list of countries because procedure establishing what these mean is a statistical procedure only 4 factors MS is final one QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture INDIVIDUALISM captures most o Power distance o Uncertainty avoidance o MF captures less QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture o Feminine cultures value feminine values o Masculine cultures value masculine values Correlation between ambience weathertemp and masculinity Cold low masculinity Hot high masculinity Van de Vliert Schwartz Huismans Hofstede amp Daan 1999 When hot people fight When cold people get along okay Association with heat and violence Cultural masculinity and femininity has something to do with this Violence Heat mediated through masculinity and competition over mates leads to Violence Temperature 9 Violence 9 Cultural Masculinity QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Temperature Violence Cultural Masculinity 0 0 0 Summary of Social Values Approach o For 0 Diplomacy activity of managing international relationsavoid miscommunication Parsimony extreme unwillingness to spend money or use 0 resources 0 Understanding cultural diffusion o Against 0 Taxonomicatheoretical not a theory simply classificationssystematics Dimensions change Too much to remember 0 0 RESEARCH PROPOSALS o Check the Van de Vliert study data in appendix o What predicts cultural violence 0 Mean daily temperature Population size Gross Domestic Product GDP Parasites 0 O 0 Question for next lecture o How might cultural values impact the way in which people reduce uncertainty in interculturalinteractions 11911 Lecture 6 uncertainty reduction in intercultural encounters How might cultural values impact the way in which people reduce uncertainty in interculturalinteractions High context Low context 0 People stating things directly in concrete details All info you need is inherent in the message itself 0 Germans Uncertainty came around hwen other person answered in an unexpected way and wasn t ethnocentric Questions What is What is What is uncertainty When do we become uncertain The process of uncertainty reduction Strategies in reducing uncertainty A couple of examples Uncertainty Berger and Calabrese 1975 initial interactions uncertainty is a function of both the ability to predict and the ability to explain actions of other M of self Explanatory uncertainty explaining the behavior of ourselves and others Predictive uncertainty predicting the behavior of ourselves and others uncertainty Two forms of uncertainty and both forms apply to ourselves and others Uncertainty about myself Subjective experience of uncertainty 0 What you say we become subjectively aware when we are the fish out of water because lack of correspondence between way we are thinking and social circumstances 0 Some assumption you bring to conversation about social status that you bring into the conversation that affect your uncertainty but you might not actually be consciously aware of it 0 Can use a stereotype to explain a behavior and reduce uncertainty o Unconscious reduction of uncertainty 0 CAT you accommodate your language 0 Complimentary mutually reflect each other 0 Uncertainty about ourselves and how it affects your behavior and attributions 0 When you function outside your normal cultural situation subjective 9 really pay attention to whats going on and make attributions to whats going onhow people will act 0 Not knowing your status in relation to other people Degree to which you care about it Complimentary o Stereotypes and social norms help you categorize and understand other peoples behavior unconscious makes stereotypes without realizing or knowing it o Role incongruity Congruent role can reduce uncertainty You are a fish out of water status differences What is uncertainty o Schacter and Singer 1962 0 Question how do we label our own emotional states 0 Emotion cognition relation 0 Cognitive relation can come first labeling and then emotion Trained to act in two ways More uncertainty you look into your environment to see how you are going to act a IE were at a party I should be having fun I am having fun a Our subjective sense of emotion can affect how we feel and act a We notice social situations and then label emotion then experience emotion o What would happen if you had physiological symptoms but no explanation ex you were slipped a drug 0 Great way of showing that subjective sense of ourselves can affect us Experiment on the effects of vitamin supplements on vision a small injection of suproxin mild and harmless actually an adrenalin injection 0 explanation conditions manipulating peoples certainty about hteir psychological responses n adrenalin informed sweating palpitations 9 uncertainty reduced n adrenalin ignorant harmless no sideeffects 9 uncertainty high a adrenalin misinformed itching feet etc 9 highest uncertainty o giving info about a specific physiological response 0 How do people reduce uncertainty from initial meetings Causal Difficulty figuring out what other people are going to do explanatory Figuring out what you will do next predictive 0 Label conditions behavior of an experiemental stooge Euphoria rolls up paper and plays basketball makes paper planes slingshots from rubber bands hoola hoops Anger complains about the injections Gets agitated about the questions rips up the questionnaire Put them in room with euphoric person more uncertainty your not sure whats going on so you look to the physical environment to see whats the expected physiological response If the uncertainty increases the more stooge affects them So when were uncertain we look to social environment for cues o Anger condition more uncertainty more anger O O QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture 00 happiness going down anger going up Euphoric behaviors playing goes Degree of angry behavior starts out with small number and then anger goes up when you are uncertain o Similar others and uncertainty reduction 0 We look to people similar to ourselves to reduce uncertainty 0 You assume the other person is similar to you so you use them to define our situation o What is uncertainty 0 Conclusion When we are uncertain about our inner state we look to the social environment to provide an explanation Similar others and uncertainty reduction o Cognitive uncertainty uncertainty about ones own and others values beliefs attitudes and feelings What is Uncertainty o Berger and bradac 1982 ongoing interactions o Explaining and predicting 0 Cognitive uncertainty uncertainty about ones own and others values beliefs attitudes and feelings Initiative and ongoing interactions we don t just meet someone figure them out and have no uncertainty People do weird things 0 behavioral uncertainty how to act 0 UR continues over time people might surprise you do something you lack an explanation for O 2 When do we become uncertain c We become uncertain for reasons other than uncertaincy itself o Berger 1987 uncertainty is not reduced for its own sake o 1 deviation from norms or expectations 0 2 expectation of future interaction if we are going to get to know someone and spend al ot of time with them we become uncertain because we know we will see them again 0 3 incentive value getting stuff if someone has something that we want then chances are that incentive can lead us to try and reduce uncertainty 0 add 4 relevanceimportance to selfdefinition self conceptual uncertainty when you become uncertain you can look for a group membership to define yourself and use that group membership to make sense of things Weird social circumstance you notice a few other UCSB students you indentify with them and you do what you do o Continuum of uncertainty Gudykunst 1995 think of it as continuum 0 Very low uncertainty When low you aren t going to be able to react 0 Very high uncertainty Something new happens you are probably gunna deal with it As uncertainty goes up ability to do stuff goes up also o Low to moderate uncertainty o Uncertainty and the ability to reduce it 0 When do we become uncertain o Yerkesdodson law 0 As arousal level increases performance improves but only to a point beyond which increases in arousal lead to a deterioration in performance As uncertainty increases ability to reduce uncertainty increases then decreases its an upside down U graph with ability to reduce uncertainty on left and uncertainty at bottom of graph n IE coffee will prime cognitive functioning o 2 cups your peak you will perform at highest level not too weird o 4 shots of expresso you are too wired to perform your functioning at an ideal level functioning goes down o How does where you fall on the continuum affect how you interact with the world 0 Low don t deal with new stuff well If you are very low you wouldn t be able to work with a new boss or new product move to a new school 0 Medium you deal with new uncertaintly 0 High your ability to deal goes up 3 The Uncertainty Reduction process o Berger and Bradac 1982 o Model 1 0 Communication 9 judgmentattribution of group memberships 9 judgment of similarity 9 uncertainty 9 Hear professor talk think where hes from judge how similar professor is to me then uncertainty Oh youre a senior in my major at UCSB Uncertainty decreases O o model 2 0 communication 9 judgment of physiological traitstate are they crazy or normal 9 judgment of similarity 9 uncertainty 9 IE crazy person talks to me I judge them as nutcase see no similarity high uncertainty o Model 3 communication 9 judgment of group membership 9 judgment of psychological traitstyle 9 uncertainty 9 o Stereotyping 0 IE Italian talks with excitable manner about pasta low uncertainty 0 Italian acting shy high uncertainty Stereotypes are based on group membership and how they are acting o Traits can be mismatched from group membership thus uncertainty goes up because of the inconsistency 0 Using stereotypes is a way of making sense of things and categorizing Reduces uncertainty o Gudykunst amp Hammer 1988 0 Hispanic and angloamerican participants 0 Think of a relationship you have with someone from the other ethnic group both typical and atypical o The Uncertainty Reduction Process 0 Typically member condition Greater ethnic identification greater n Increased perceived intimacy of encounter a Increased selfdisclosure n Increased interrogation n Increased perceived similarity o Atypical condition no relationships for those variables 0 Conclude We aim to reduce uncertainty about typical members of different ethnic group Stereotypes can aid connection between groups if member is a typical member of a group Strategies for reducing uncertainty o Passive strategies 0 Strictly observational 0 Reactivity search U want to see person react to stuff socially Reading a book at lib etc o Disinhibition search When we want to reduce uncertainty and we don t want to interact we want 2 do it where people are disinhibited When people are not constrained by rules want to see how they will interact outside of a constrained environment a Ie how someone acts outside of class compared to in class 0 Observational strategies o Active Strategies 0 Ask other people 0 Environmental structuring Set up social circumstance to see how people will react n More aggressive o Interactive strategies 0 Interrogationinvestigative Who are u where are u from etc o Selfdisclosure Norm of reciprocity therefore reduce uncertainty through selfdisclosure Wont selfdisclose a lot of info if you judge person as dissimilar to you or if they don t disclose back What does this theory tell us o The process of intercultural interaction o The content of intercultural interaction o It s a general theory that should be apply across cultures o How might cultural values impact the ways in which people reduce uncertainty in intercultural encounters Lecture 7 Nonverbal communication wwwglumbertcommedialaugh Question for Lecture 7 There is good evidence that some emotional reactions and their nonverbal expression are innate There is also evidence that some nonverbal reactions are contagious Which nonverbals do you think are likely to be contagious and why Are nonverbals equally contagious across ethnic groups o Under some circumstances laughter can be contagious people will laugh till it literally hurts but yet they wont stop Yawning itching laughing sad smiling Perhaps this contagious nature that we have is due to a deeper reason such as wanting to reduce uncertainty hey take up emotions based on how uncertain they are Emphasizing with them maybe wanting to bond within groups Dependent on how close you are to their ingroup Subject of study took on emotional disposition of other Affection as a function of uncertainty Laughter Fear and anger could be part of our want to survive There are varying degrees of how displaying emotions is culturally accepted But there must be something deeper going on When you are yawning you are actually more alert than when you are not You are also drawing in more oxygen to the brain 0 Yawns are contagious across animals as well Why are yawns associated with an increase of attention o If you were german and you meet someone else s dog you are more likely to make dog yawn Yawns are contagious in primates Monkeys apes etc Species that have contagious yawns seem to be communal social species We used to be hunted down by animals and animals that are good at that tend to do it at night Strong selection feature if we can figure out how to be less likely to be eaten So 1 possibility when sitting in tree and predators out you are dragging in more oxygen and become hyperalert Everyone in the group does it and its beneficial Questions o 1 are there universal nonverbal communications o 2 wh Are there universal nonverbal communications part I o Darwin 1872 acute observer o Speculated we have emotions bequeathed to us through evolution 0 Evolution is innate you don t have to think about it when someone is upset you just know and subconsciously pick up on their emotion o 6 Basic emotions that we are equipped withare innate to us 0 Anger Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Disgust Unconscious immediate process readily perceivable These emotions are innate Chimps used isolated emotion to excite different muscles in the face Some guy had some kind of debilitating diseas and he cannot feel so he gets electric shock and he is fine There are specific clusters of muscle groups causing these emotional expression o If emotions are innate we immediately nad unconsciously express them o You can also tell if its genuine or not Ekmans research o Photos of facial expressions of six emotions o What emotion is being expressed pictures of diff emotions shown and classified across cultures around world If emotions are innate similar o Ekman 1971 gave to o 9 western cultures 0 3 Eastern cultures 0 2 tribal cultures o If Darwin is correct when everyone looks at pictures they will know emotions and if its innate it should be consistent among and between cultures 0 O O O O o FoundCrosscultural agreement of emotions confirming Darwin s observation o Everyone should be able to and could understand the 6 emotions Some further results o Agreements across 10 cultures in STRENGTH of emotions o Vary in intensity o Vocal cues also above change pitch loudness rate 0 Easier with vocal cues to determine o Combined audiovisual decoding better itd be easy to figure that out emotion o Krauss et Al 1983 0 Videos of American and Japanese soap operas 0 You may not know Japanese but it is obvious what emotions are being displayed 0 Foreign emotion effect emotions are very obvious to tell o Conclusion 0 Socialization practices or innate People born blind and deaf show same facialnonverbal emotions again as per Darwin 0 Strong evidence that facial and vocal expression of emotion is innate crossculturally Ekman s 1972 Neurocultural theory o Facial expressions of emotion innate o Cultural constraints display rules 0 When to express emotions When not to express How to express emotions Intensifyneutralizemask emotions These are culturally taught 0 To who we express them o Smile Study 0 Ekman 1973 Facial expressions while watching a stressful film in private and discussing it in public 0 O O QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture major component of collectivism group is what matters harmony in group this normative effect could be attributed to individualism and collectivism 0 Interpretation Cultural display rules exist Matsumoto explanation from individualismcollectivism n Collectivists avoid negative reflection on the group n Individualists direct communication Biological disposition and social context He constructed a scale GRAPH NOT ONLINE Overall expressivity endorsement vs individualism very strongly associated with individualism Japanese don t display emotion to their ingroup Matsumoto and Willingham 2006 All of these emotional displays are in controlled experiments what about the real world 2004 Olympics Judo Competition Photographs after winning or defeat associated with gold silver bronze or 5th place Interested in du shin smile versus showing range of negative emotions Gold medalist going to get full deshin smile Silver shit I just lost the gold medal Bronze QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture gold and bronze pretty damn happy Silver and 5th pissed off Silver didn t get gold 5th didn t get medal o A lot of emotions seems intimately related to peoples aspirations O O QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture Part2 Defining nonverbal communication Often unconscious and spontaneous as long as genuine a reaction to the social situation that you are not thinking about Synchronous with emotions 5 mins later you don t smile you do immediately Reflects momentbymoment reactions Attributional prominence o If we are trying to explain someones behavior and they are speaking verbally about it and we are watching them experience emotion hearing voice seeing hands shaking If someone says im really happy but nonverbally they are sad we wont believe its genuine and we will listen to nonverbals Multichannel o All of this happen at once 0 When people are processing emotions they get bette rand better at it and agree more when you introduce more emotions verbal nonverbal Part 3 Forms of nonverbal communication Argyle s 8 categories Facial expressions Kinesics body movements Proxemics territoriality Appearance biologicalacquired O O O O Smell oCuIesics gaze HapticsTacesics touch Paralanguageprosody voice features Body movements kinesics o The finger o The fingers peace sign V for victory o Japanese bow 0 Cultural feature but there is distance status and time are all variables associated with bow And what predicts those a Social hierarchies characterize this 0 O O O Territory Proxemics o Intraculturally distance between 2 ppl 0 Primary space office home etc 0 Secondary neighborhood bar club 0 Public public transport parks restaurants o Interculturally 0 Distance and sensory emphasis Arabs MediterraneansEuropeans To deny the smell of your breath to a friend is considered an insult in most Arab cultures a sense of what feels natural If ur close enough you can sense the persons breath and so it feels more intimate c We do what feels naturalintimate in our culture Appearance o Honest signal of status picture basis of status in society that she comes from is from age neck length is indicator of age because it takes a long time to stretch ur neck out Paralanguage and prosody o Prosody discretely coded there are certain features of language that you use that would make that noise its weird for a man to walk into a man and say hello up down way 0 Stress loudnesspitch 0 Center he went HOME yesterday Juncture breaks in rhythm Pitch direction Pitch height and range Prototype magnet effect You can break words down into sounds In condition where u give ppl the typical version and ask them to make a decision when the second one was different they cant hear difference But the nontypical sound of E they notice the difference The typical version has frequency and are magnetized so you cant hear difference between the two o Paraanguage continuously coded o Loudness o Pitch o Silences pauses 0 Speech duration 0 Speech rate Why do groups differ o Languages are related to common language roots o Ingroup can easily distinguish you c Honest signal cant fake knowing a language o Prototype magnet 0 Can break up language to its root 0 Sample play sounds group o Typical sound can be magnetized certain sounds cant be replicated if you aren t a native speaker Contagious nonverbals o Yawns why contagious o and intercultural study o Itching o Laughter o Coughing o EMbarrassment Variations o Loudness Africans Americans perceived as sincerity to Arabs o Slow rate of speech 0 O O O Summary o Universals innate tendencies and social circumstances o Features of nonverbal multichannelhere and now o Forms and variations synchronizations Wednesday 12611 lecture 8 Movie Something of the Pacific Hawaiian o Language will strengthen future of native people Languagesoul of your culture Almost lost language through colonization 0 Americans 3 years after colonization banned the Hawaiian language 0 Took 3 years to change the law that banned the language from 18 something Built school to teach children Hawaiian it is the primary language taught and used within the school USA American Indians o Myth American indian s depleted the Salmon supply 0 Tribes would have to share their salmon supply with the state of Washington Strike against SeaFirst Signing a resource treaty between Alaskan Washington Canadian treaty Pacific northwest treaty 1994 0 New Zealand o Education isn t necessarily just a house full of books o Colonial school standardized their traditional notions of learning o Want to teach their young the culture and not lose it Australia NSW o Were in freedom for 40000 years then colonized in 1788 o Had to fight for their own voice o Main employment was boxing for Native Australians o Racism was rough o Struggle getting employment and running their own businesses o Selfempowerment vision on moral justice health etc Canada British Columbia o Lost storytelling tradition o Wants control of education to teach traditions and culture o Indians had no formal education prior to the colonization of Europeans 13111 Lecture 9 Social Identity and SelfCategorization o Focus on social identity and intergroup relations o How well people get alonghow they communicate is driven by one s social identity and how they want others to view them o Social identity is something that makes possible collective behavior o Scottish men trapped in the elevator o President of Egypt is in charge for 30 years he has torture chambers and has been doing nasty things to his own population for a long time Egypt may be on the brink of democracy 0 Collective sense of identity fostered by their goals Study o Kadinsky raitings people give money to ingroup look at 5 groups of paintings and allocated money to artists o Money allocations 0 Not to yourself personally 0 Anonymous 0 Allocations between Klee and Kandinsky groups o Results if all group variables are removed 0 More money allocated to ingroup members Tend to give money to someone who shares their aesthetic preference even if there are no group variables 0 Tended towards maximum difference I would rather have 12 for us and 7 for them Economically irrational n Would rather have less money as long as they preserve a difference the gap between their group and the other group 0 Maximum joint profit would be choosing the most money 23 and 29 to get the most money Pull to get as much money as possible BUT you don t want to give more money to the people who have different aesthetic preferences 0 Rules out Authoritarian personality Frustration aggression Realistic conflict of interest 0 When does group behavior occur When history presents itself Share the same preferences Not necessarily self economically motivated 9 trying to find a way to feel good about group membership What is social identity Tajfel 1969 o Socialsocial psychology o The minimal group paradigm o In a social context and peoples beliefs about what is going on in that context 0 People try to make themselves feel good about group membership Social Identity Theory o Assumes there is an individualintergroup continuum o How we perceive ourselves is based on group membership 0 Behaviors based on intergroup 0 We can conceive of ourselves in different identities in terms of individual identity or as intergroup identity 0 2 poles one would be myself defined entirely in terms of individualpersonality pole that defines you 2nd pole how does your self concept and way of conceiving yourself and how important is this to your individual identity n Sometimes my behavior will be entirely determined by social factors c We can conceive ourselves as individuals or as group members or social identity 0 Behavior can be determined by group identity 0 Clear group difference 9 you vs the enemy Why people can do such horrible things to others in war Undifferentiated mass US vs them o Purpose of this theory 0 Explaining shifts to the intergroup pole o Prejudicediscrimination social conflict and social change explained in this theory QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture 0 AA list of stereotypical traits all defined contextually social identity is generally composed of stereotypes a set of features that defines one group in relation to another 9 this theory says theres personally defining features Behavioral effects affect self concept Defining yourself relative to a group o Stereotypes o Closer of people how share attributes and behaviors o Category descriptions o Selfdescriptions stereotype created Defined contextually n IE Im a happygolucky girl at bars but im a studious person at school o All components of self concept are defined in social context or in relation to you Psychological process o Social categorization 9 social identity 9 social comparison 9 positive distinctiveness 0 Positive distinctiveness is composed of 2 things Differentiation from others in the other group But at same time trying to make ur social identity status look better positive social evaluationquot finding something different and better than the group your comparing too Better status we are better hierarchy of groups economic racial etc o social structural constraints need all three for status hierarchy o stability in social order in hierarchy how stable is the govt o legitimacy wealth is concentrated in a small population is this good or bad from reids last class legitimacy was how the hierarchies were perceived as legitimate or not if they were perceived as legitimate the subordinate groups believed it was rational for them to be inferior o Permeability Ability to move up the social hierarchy Is it possible to move between groups or are boundaries fixed o Theory says we all want status but its based on our beliefs of social identity and those 3 constraints o 2 strategies on positive social identity 0 1 seeing hierarchy as illegitamite but nonetheless stable o 2 joining group with illegitimate hierarchy and hoping for change social conflict another option 0 move to another group social mobility orientations to social structure o social mobility 0 moving up hierarchy o the American dream 0 cultural assimilation o social creativity 0 who you compare with o changing values 0 you aren t directly confronting another group IE black is beautiful o Social change direct confrontation o Reversal of the situation Selfcategorization theory o Similar to social identity but fills up one hole how we see ourselves and how identity switching occurs o Salience 0 which identity is the strongest Some behaviors become activated in different contexts o Prototypically what makes sense to context define yourself by context 0 The very content of these selfdefinitions is fluid we don t come with single unchanging personality 0 When we think of a category we are putting them in prototypical areas selfconcepts are put to certain contexts o Fitdepersonalization selfstereotyping 0 Use prototype to define yourself in that context o Complimentary to social ID theory 0 How you conceive yourself changes activated by social context 0 How well identity works for making sense of whats going on around you 0 Set of features that define an identity are fluid until context fixes features Stereotyping o In heaven 0 Policemen are English 0 Cooks are French 0 Mechanics are german o Lovers are Italian 0 And its all organized by the swiss o In hell 0 Policemen are german o Cooks are english o Mechanics are French 0 Lovers are swiss 0 And its all organized by Italians Haslam 1992 o Context 0 19901991 Gulf War 0 Australian stereotypes of Americans note students were against the war to start 0 List of 83 traits list those you see as most characteristic of ppl in US 1 Restricted range Americans different from Australian and Britain RR 2 Medium range Americans diff from Australian britian ussr MR 3 extended range Americans diff from aus britian ussr iraq er o 2 phases 0 phase 1 sept 1990 forces amassing 0 phase 2 end feb 1991 final week of war o results 0 positive traits industrious scientifically minded assigned more frequently at start of war negative traits argumentative arrogant tradition loving more likely to be assigned at end of war traits depend on frame of reference 0 O o context of what ur asking people about others will valence a group of people who don t like war are asked to define different groups in different times in relation to how and then now they are thought of ie our attitudes about Iraq at beginning of warn and now how that has switched before war different countries aligned with us and we were all in the same ingroup as the war progressed they have distanced themselves and pushed us out of their ingroup sharply valenced attitudes QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture 0 o Conclude stereotypes reflect social comparisons AND social reality of conflict Summary o What is social identity o What are the strategies in SIT o What does selfcategorization theory help explain 2211 lecture 10 Collective guilt Question o Collective guilt how might collective guilt arise Why don t I you feel guilt for the bombing campaigns by US and BRittain of WW2 that deliberately killed 1005 of thousands of German civilians Collective Guilt Defined o Guilt noun mass noun a feeling of having committed wrong or failed in an obligation o Collective guilt feeling of having committed wrong or failed in an obligation that is due to membership in a group and not personal responsibility 0 being part of the same groupshared identity 0 sense of identity 9 trying to get ride of guilt through making amends Collective Guilt Around the World o US white guilt and affirmative action o Germany and holocaust c European Empires 0 Beligians British French Dutch Portuguese Spanish o Exploitation of indigenous cultures 0 US and native AmericansHawaiians 0 Australia and Aborigines 0 New Zealand Maori c European empires 0 Aspects of this phenomenon Political Economic Natives unaware of law Using communication can help produce guilt to majority o SelfDetermination Groups 0 Zapatistas in Mexico IRA in Northern Ireland Basques region in Spain Tibet Chechnya O O O O minorities can try to create guilt in majority for their own selfdetermination o Reconciliation movements 0 South Africa Nelson Mandela gets monarchy to express their guilt instead of taking revenge 0 Rwanda amnesty that forces people to admit wrongs to be same Social Identity and Collective Guilt o Identification with a group and the experience of emotions eg pride for successes guilt for wrong doing 0 Social Identity can produce collective guilt and undermine collective guilt 0 Strong identity with group stronger guilt or defensive of group actions 0 Simple group identification cant be full explanation for collective guilt o Recognizable membership to a group but it depends on strength of belonging Doosje Branscombe Spears amp Manstead 1998 o Dutch students very high and very low Dutch identification levels o Given 1page Dutch history on colonialism in Indonesia o Told that this was an excerpt from a well respected American encyclopedia written by an expert historian o Favorable history Dutch had Improved Indonesian infrastructure Introduced a solid legal system Inititiated a good education system 0 Unfavorable history Exploited Indonesian land Abused Indonesia labor Killed a lot of Indonesians o Ambiguous history Solid legal system Improved infrastructure Abused Indonesian labor O QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Results 0 O O O O Favorable people don t feel collective guilt Unfavorable people both groups feel guilt Neutral low commitment feel more guilt than high identifiers Your committed to a group you have low guilt because you try to justify your group did nothing wrong Search for positive identity SIT Positive both groups low guilt Ambiguous low identifies more guilt High identifiesless guilt The more you identify with a group the more likely you are to find positive things about the group because they want a positive social identity Negativeboth groups guilty QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture ambiguous people highly committed see more variability within group because they are finding someone to blame for their negative history o collective guilt is a reaction to negative history of the ingroup 0 people who are highly identified with a group feel less guilt when group action is ambiguous You see good and bad and you identify with good and scapegoat someone else for the bad this is because high identifiers scapegoat the bad apples n torture pictures of Abu Grab president separates the US soilders as individual not as with US people o Collective guilt as reaction to negative history 0 Identify with the good of the group when you identify highly with them IE president bush they don t represent America Reid Gunter amp Smith 2005 o Selfdetermination groups and the political pursuit of power o Choice of how to pitch group in relation to majority 0 Choose who to associate with Martin Luther King Jnr Stoker Carmichael Malcolm X o Selfcategorization we can choose what we want to identify with o Moral boundaries can be narrow or broad Reid et al 2005 o Selfcategorization and social influence 0 Opotow Moral boundaries can be narrow or wide bounda es Oldenquist morals and loyalties Selfcategorization not like to see things negative done to ingroup members 9 minorities that can make us all feel like we are part of a group can produce collective guilt most effectively o Design 2 frame multiculturalismseparatism x social value orientation universalism o Dependent measures 0 Collective guilt o Persuasion o Attitudes towards compensation o Attitudes towards specific reparations o Rokeach Value Survey 0 Universalism understanding appreciation tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature equality world at peace social justice 0 ppl rate on 9point scale the extent to which these values are important to them high universalist people 9 have wider moral boundaries low universalist people 9 narrower moral boundaries how much do you care about humanity o Multiculturalism Frame First I would like to emphasize the point that Aboriginals are an integral part of contemporary Australian society Quite simply any other view is incompatible with reality Australia is an inclusive multi ethnicmulticultural society Our nation is made up of peoples from Italy Greece England Ireland Vietnam 0 O Scotland Malta Germany and many other countries AboriginalAustralians are as all of these groups a complementary part of what makes up our multi cultural reality We are all the same 0 Separatism Frame Emphasize point that Aboriginals are very different from mainstream Australians Any other view is incompatible with reality Aboriginals have a historical and cultural heritage that differs from all other groups in Australia Aboriginals have inhabited this land for at least 50000 years it is no accident that Aboriginals have separate customs and traditions Indeed Aboriginals wish to emphasize their differences both politically and economically from mainstream Australia We are all different i QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture collective guilt Y Universalism X positive increase line from 4Y on Frames separatist multiculturalist More collective guilt with multiculturalism than separatism If highly universalistic 9 frame doesn t matter because both high a Low universalistic ppl have fluid moral boundaries QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture o Results boundaries are fluid 0 Not universal separatist frame decreases guilt 0 Universal multicultural frame increases guilt o In separatism condition they increase compensation the more universalistic they are 0 They feel more guilty Conclusion o Collective guilt is a reaction to negative actions against people who are defined as ingroup members o People who are highly universalistic are more likely to see people as falling within their moral boundaries and experience more guilt o Increase of universalistic people experience increase of guilt because they see more people as falling into their moral boundaries o Guilt motivates attitudes in favor of compensation and reparations Future research o Who supports affirmative action and why 0 Collective guilt and white advantage 0 Universalistic social values 0 Political position Lecture 2711 Is prejudice a human universal o Why do we see prejudice and discrimination o Ethnocentrisms set of values rules and beliefs 0 You encounter ppl with different rules and norms and they don t understand why people do things the way they do and rather than trying to understand they disregard 0 Cultural values approach o Is universal but different strengths o Because we value our ingroup so much we have to disvalue our outgroup 0 People have pressure to assume their group is in some ways better than others pingroup preferencefavortism 0 But then you have people killing out group members which is dramatic evidence that we do bad things to people in out groups this is more than dislike o Prejudice is more outward people say they are more for equality o If you loook at deaths we are slowly but surely getting less violence o Social identity theory 0 If we know about ur group and how you identify with it we can then determine your discrimination 0 Knowing your group membership can predict your pattern of discrimination o The pattern of prejudice reflects the normative belief what is okay to say about some people but not others o Specificially to do with the norms and beliefs shared within those groups 0 Definitions Prejudice unfavorable A39I39I39ITUDES toward a social group and its members Discrimination BEHAVIORAL expression of prejudice A result of prejudice Ingroup favoritism attitudes or behaviors that favors the ingroup over an outgroups Outgroup favoritism attitudes or behaviors that favors the outgroups over the ingroup This is rare Ethnocentrism evaluative preference for all aspects of ones own group relative to other groups 0 Normative appropriateness of prejudice GRAPH v reported level of prejudice QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Extent to which people actually have feeling of prejudice very closely reflects how another group of people say its okay to have prejudice Norms they share in those groups who its okay to be nasty 2 Ex 0 Forms Racism Sexism Ageism Homophobia Nationalism Speciism Social identity theory o Breaks things up into 3 categories 0 1 social mobility ppl try and travel thorugh group hierarchy people try to move up in categories 0 2 social competition in group and want to beat out other group wants to prove their group is better than other groups 0 3 social creativity ppl in group don t bother trying competition we can do this for subordinate and dominant groups No matter how hard they tru they are going to lose so why try Keep away from confrontation so they avoid losing think theyre going to loose so avoid other groups 0 Applied to following forms Racism sexism ageism homophobia nationalism speciism o Example 1 Social mobility in a subordinate group 0 Sound young People willing to spend to get surgery to try and cling to membership in high status group the young attractive people Old people old wrinkled unattractive trying to sound and look more young which is the dominant high status group 0 Enunciate English sounds more clearly Finding way to learn outgroup language Subordinate groupimmigrants trying to cross language barrier If English is high status group you can manipulate your pronunciation to identify more you can get surgery to better pronounce certain words in certain languages 0 Get lighter skin Can buy beauty products a cream will lighten the color of your skin O O O Permeability must be possible in this case through changing body Changing your body to join the dominant group How easy it would be to change position in social hierarchy Also believes that the status hierarchy is legitimate and stable Don t particularly identify w ur group you believe status is permeable and believe the status hierarchy is legitimatestable Ex 2 dominant group and social mobility O O 0 ex 3 When does a dominant group endorse social mobility ie linguistic assimilation if your in a dominant group you already have positive social identity you either want it or ur going to protect privileged status you need to find ways to keep ppl out of ur group maintain differences between subordinate and dominant groups maintaining hierarchy and just let BARELY anyone in maybe 1 or 2 Tokenish of few examples of people who have made it and say we are fair we are open we allow ppl in theory is about promoting their group above others if you are in dominant group you are going to try to preserveprotect your positive and priviledged status if you want 2 protect status you need dto keep people out so for example you enforce a law you have to learn English to come here but we aren t going to teach you English eg English only movement allows a few people to permeate the boundary ppl who have made it past lawsrequirements and use that to justify your advantage we re fair maintain advantage and boundaries show tokenism to let people thin k they re being faire but really they re being restrictive Code Switching social creativity of subordinate group O O o Ex4 O O O 0 code switching in New Zealand the wire movie ebonics different form of language that we aren t used to hearing social creativity 9 ebonics changing the way they speak so they don t fit in with the other people different ethnic groups use different language creativity ie Slangebonics why do they use these creative forms of language to create a boundary between their group and other groups Want positive social identity Keeps other people out the white man in hardware store cant speak the way she does keeping ppl out of your group to maintain group exclusivity and keep others out Diglossia social creativity among dominant group Diglossia is a pattern where a society evolves high and low forms of language The high form is often language of govt and education and the low variety is the language of the people Dominant groups language is strongly associated with the way you use language Can use language to try and keep ppl our of ur group Di two glossia language 9 low permeability ExGerman vs French after Normal invasion Ex high and low swiss german Ex China and Mandarin vs Cantonese If u have official system to produce a standard form The way you speak suggests your advantage in society is highly linked to the way you use language Social creativity not doing something that involves direct confrontation with another group Maintain distinctiveness by avoiding Status advantage Do things to manipulate stability in groups to keep lower class out Dominant groups use of language can keep lower groups out O Cant reproduce language or even understand How do we get to this Trying to keep people out of ur group Creativity and competition are both social ideals n One variable that affects these stability of status hierarchies If its stable you need to find another way of maintaining identity permeability low social creativity n Ppl do things on purpose to manipulate perceptions of permeability and legitimacy o Example 5 Linguistic Revivals social competition among subordinate group direct contrast to diglossia O O O O O O 0 Social competition belief in stability of the system that the system is somewhat unstable and could be changed Improve the vitality of their group Ppl in subordinate group engaging in social competition Commitment to group is high Get rid of standard and make their language prominent Distinction in status shown to be unstable Identification commitment to their group must be high Hawaiians throw away dominant language and use theirs as dominant Status differences have to be view ed as unstable Gaelic revivals belief theres a status difference between Gaelic and English and that they can change the system Social competition Belief in status difference among languages o Example 6 social competition in dominant groups colonialism 0 Hawaiian language outlawed English language shall be medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools provided that where its desired that another language shall be taught in addition to the English language such instruction may be authorized by the Department either by its rules the curriculum of the school or by direct order in any particular instance Any schools that shall not conform to the provisions of this section shall not be recognized by the Department a Large dominant group taking small minority and forcing them to take their language People came on the boat and invaded Hawaii therefore took control of natives and outlawed language Dominant group competition trying to take political control with language a One group takes control of another o Conclusions 0 Patterns of prejudice and discrimination reflect wider patterns of intergroup relations We love our ingroups which leads to 3 strategies 0 Ultimately these patterns reflect the nature of intergroup relations and struggle for evaluative politive social identity o Research proposal suggestions 0 Social identity theory and ethnocentrism in dating preferences Some groups engage in ethnocentrism more 0 Ethnophaulisms what predicts their complexity and valence Ethnophaulisms ethnic slurs Since we have multiple terms to call groups u can also compute complexity of slurs Some groups have lots and lots fo ethnic slurs used to describe their group complex Some only have 1 Ppl in ethnic groups with more negative and less ethinc slurs more likely to drop dead at young age 0 Why don t we all speak Esperanto 0 2911 Language and Social Identity Why hasn t Esparanto become the international lingua franca o Came up by a guy who said wherever he looks in Europe there was always slaughter that correlated with linguistic divisions So his assumption is close to a social values approach o Argument you keep your original language and puck up an auxiliary language a language on top 0 Esparanto pretty simply language to learn Why are lots of languages dieing out in favor of Chinese English and Spansih o Seems like theres a natural inclination for English to be spoken all around the world English is a large world influence 0 Economic incentive to learn English 0 England colonized and took over a large chunk of the world 2nd set of lecture peoples subjective sense of collective values o there is a level of power military etc Lecture plan o Cover ELVT ethnolinguistic vitality theorySITCAT 0 Social identity approach metatheoretical all these theories share the same idea but is applied differently 0 People are motivated for a positive identity different names 0 Social beliefs being realized as some form of linguistic change 0 Managing social distance using communication o Language attitudes o Language survival and death o General social identity approach 0 Share psychological process when an context of group conflict occurs 0 End up with mobility creativity competition 0 ELVT Predicting Language Use c Objective and Subjective group vitality o What you can measure about group status ie wealth o How many supporters Are they wealthy GDPperson in that group Do they get a lot of media support The more of this stuff they have the more likely they are to survive Objective and subjective Subjective vitality is most predictive of behavior o Social identity theory strategy o Mobility creativity and competition can manage social identity strategies 0 my group sucks their group is doing really well im going to go learn their language and join their groupmobility 0 want to differentiate your language from outgorups o communication accommodation theory 0 if you want to join them accommodate them and you can 0 give in and learn other language o predictors for attitudes and behavior o start to tell us about more general this like what languages take off and what languages done o objective vitalityincrease objectivity o features of group income how many people speak it o subjectively group vitality explains behavior Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory extension of SIT people want status o Vitality a function of 0 Status variables econ social historical 0 Demographic territory proportion immigration 0 Institutional support media politics government religion So vitality increases which attracts people A o Ceteris paribus more vitality more people are likely to maintainjoin a language less vitality less likely to maintainjoin a language o So vitality increases and thus increases the of people attracted 0 But people struggle for power so this isn t true all things are not equal Identification stability legitimacy permeability are all factors If you don t have mobility into that group you may not be able to join o Low vitality language might be socially competitive and try to change status 0 O QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture o Graph what do you think of language status o But subjective is whats important ELVT strategies o Social mobility IE learning an outgroup language o Social creativity IE develop distinctive ingroup language o Social competition IE language revival movements CAT communication accommodation theory QuickTImeT39V39 and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture 0 o primary idea people use language to achieve a desired social distance between self and interaction partners CAT basics o Convergence increasing closeness to interaction partner o Divergence increasing distance often to emphasis identity distinctiveness o In terms of linguisticparalinguisticprosodicnonverbal features 0 Microsocial interpersonal language shifts o Macrosocial shifts across generations Language attitudes o Outgroup favoring occurs with the disparity and vitality of the group 0 Prejudice comes out of attitudes Stereotypes negative carry prejudice Lambertet al 1960 Matched Guise Technique o French and Anglo Canadians rate series of bilingual speakers o French seen low on all dimensions except kindness and religiousness 0 French have outgroup favoritism and thus low vitality which leads to social mobility o Anglos seen high on all IQ competence attractiveness etc ingroup favoritism if your AngloCanadian o If peoples research participants ratings are different then those differences are propelled be prejudice Anglos have ingroup favoritism o What intergroup context would promote this Pattern 1 Dominant group higher on status and solidarity dimensions of comparison o Explanation Pattern 2 Dominant group higher on status and low solidarity dimensions of comparison o Cheyne 1970 Scottish and English evaluations o Participants listened to Scottish or English speakers o English dominant group rated higher on status prestigeIQ o Scots rated higher on solidarity friendlinessliability esp by scots o Solidarity variables friendliness likeability pleasantness niceness warmth o Social creativity find different positive traits about each group no outright hostility 0 Each group agree on distinctions between groups o Explanation social creativity finding something about your group that is distinctive and better than the other group 0 BUT YOU ARE NOT ACTIVELY ENGAGING IN ANY TYPE OF FIGHT both find a way to find a positive and distinctive aspect of their group that is different than the outgroup n therefore groups can interact Pattern 3 Mutual Downgrading between Israelies and Arabs o Lambert anisfeld amp YeniKomsian 1965 o MGT study in Israel 0 Arabs Ashkenazic Jews and Yesemite Jews o Arabs amp Israelies downgraded each other on status variables 0 each group grades the other negatively 9 mutual downgrading o explanation social competition 0 pattern ingroup favoritism for each group 0 groups upset with each other don t get along 0 social competition outright hostility o evenly balanced Language Attitudes and Optimal Shifts o Bourhis Giles amp Lambert 1975 o Degree of prototypicality ppl were happy with prototype that s the norm o Ingroup favortism DundeeGlasgow o No social competition between DundeeGlasgow but yes between RT Welsh athlete heard in two consecutive interviews English interviewer or mild Welsh interviewer Varied accent with the English intervewer QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Pattern 4 Variability in perceptions Abrams amp Hogg 1986 o Subjects Scottish students from Dundee o Listened to Dundee v Glasgow or Glasgow v RP QuickTimeTM and a decompreor are needed to see this picture condition 19 ingroup favortism social competition once they have someone to compare it to selfcategorization o identities get activated and people try to extract meaning Language Survival and Death Tower of babel illustration 9 god made people speak different languages to keep them apart Graph illustrating the correlation between human parasite richness and the natural log of indigenous living languages per country found across the world 9 the more infectious disease richness the more living indigenous language Sound and Fury video about deaf kidfamily what will happen to deaf culture with the cochiar implants Deaf people think their culture have more vitality than other cultures they take pride in their group and feel threatened by technology they make boundaries more permeable people can leave group easily Deep emotional attachment you get from groups when you identify with them 0 So whenif your group is threatened people get very emotional 0 Specific reason their group is under threat is because the cochiar implant has changed boundary permeability 9 because of the technology there has been a change from social creativity to social mobility Threatening because this underminds their sense of id Bourhis amp Giles 1997 language threat study PROBABLY IMPORTANT welsh language learning lab survey of 2nd language learning verbal questions from a RP speaker neutral condition vs ethnically threatened condition why are you studying a dying language with a dismal future more Welshness of relies ie divergence 0 they get very offended when you insult them welsh dying language comment and thus get more Welsh people have emotional attachments to their groups and group language the culture they value Language death Its been estimated there are approx 6000 languages in the world o Estimated that 50 of languages will die within next 100 years RP suggestions o Language shifts and prototypes o Attitudes to govt and language policy in California 0 English only movement o Language learning lab esperanto vs Conclusion o Language variation driven by motive for positive identity but this motive is directed and constrained by social beliefs o Combinations of ELVT SIT CAT predict variation in language attitudes and language use lecture 10 1142011 94900 PM slide 2 O O slid 4 0 being part of the same groupshared identity sense of identity 9 trying to get ride of guilt thorugh making amends minorities can try to create guilt in majority for their own self determiniation slide 6 0 social identity can produce collective guilt and undermine collective guilt strong identity with group stronger guilt or defensive of groups actions simple group identification cant be full explanation for collective guilt Slide 9 graph 0 O O Poss both groups low guilt Amb low identifies more guilt High identifies less guilt The more you identify with a group the more likely you are to find positive things about the group because they want a positive s ocila identity Neg both groups guilty Slide 10 graph 0 11 O 13 O O Amb ppl highly committed see more variability within group because they are finding someone to blame for negative history Abu Grab president separates the US soilders as individual not ass with US ppl opotow moral boundaries can be narrow or wide bounda es selfcategorizzation not like to see things negative done to ingroup members 9 minorities that can make us all feel like 15 18 O O O O O O we are part of a group can produce collective guilt most effectively high universalist ppl 9 have wider moral boundaries low universalist ppl 9 narrower moral boundaries collective guilt Y Universalism X positive increase line from 4Y on Frames separatist multiculturalist More collective guilt with multiculturalism than separatism If highly universalistic 9 frame doesn t matter because both high Low universalistic ppl have fluid moral boundaries
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