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Introduction to Psychology Week 3 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology Week 3 Notes Psych 111

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About this Document

Covers Module 3, 4 and 24 including Memory.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
01/25 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 3: Research in Psychology Scientific Method 1. Begin with curiosity 2. Develop a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis 4. Draw conclusions 5. Report the results 6. Replication (optimally) Descriptive Methodologies - Case Study - Naturalistic Observation - Survey Case Study - Long History - Beyond Anecdotes - Inform Larger Studies Naturalistic Observations - Unobstruction/structive (or it should be) - Authentic - Hawthorne Effect (observer effect) - People pick up on the fact that they’re being watched and change their actions Survey/Questionnaire - Broad Overview - Tricky to Word - Need Appropriate Samples - Wording - Leading - Do you think that _____ should start helping the country and stop focusing on politics? - Confusing - Are you happy in the morning or evening? Experiments - Two groups (at least) - Control - Experimental/Treatment - Two Variables (at least) - Dependent → Want to see a change - Independent → No change (what is controlled) What about what you can’t control? - Experiments can randomly assign - Can’t always do this? - Unethical (ie. socioeconomic status) - Impractical/Impossible (is. gender) Correlational Studies - Associations between two variables - No random assignment - Can examine existing data sets Correlation Coefficient - Statistic or measure of association - Reflects Magnitude - Correlation is NOT Causation - Coincidence - Caused by 3rd factor Why do they correlate? - Third factor - Coincidence - Legitimate Always ask… - Does this make sense? - Can it be replicated? Experimental - Random assignment of variables - Can determine cause and effect 01/27 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 4: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Significance (statistical vs practical) Traditional Statistical Significance Guidelines - Must be p ≤ 0.05 to be statistically significant - 0.01-0.04 to be sufficiently significant - P>0.01 is very significant Statistical Significance: the odds the difference will be found again Practical Significance: whether the difference is worth talking about Module 24: Memory Long-Term Memory: - “Learning that persists over time, information that has been stored and can be retrieved. - Recall - Relearning - A measure of how much less time it would take you to learn something you have learned before, even if you don’t recall learning it before. How does memory work? - Encoding: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored. - Storage: the information is held in a way that allows it to be retrieved. - Retrieval: recalling information How memories (probably) are made Record → Rehearse → Encode External Events → Sensory Memory → Short Term → Long Term Sensory Memory: - Records a brief image or echo of sound - Echoic Memory - “What did you say?” - Iconic Memory - “What did you see?” Working/Short Term Memory - Active Processing - Very Small - Magic Number is 7 ± 2 Two types of memory: Explicit Memory: - Consciously Aware - Effortless Processing Implicit Memory: - Not consciously aware - Effortful processing - Used to encode explicit processing Remembering Words is an Example of Explicit Memory: - Easier to remember words that are meaningful - Visual imagery Chunking Mnemonics - A device, such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations, that assists in remembering something - PEMDAS Pegword Mnemonics - Using pictures to help remember passages/poems Method of Loci World Memory Championship - Competition to memorize massive amounts of information - Remember 364 digits - Often use mnemonics 01/28 (lab) 9-9:50 am What is paraphrasing? - Putting someone else’s ideas into your own words - Not “quoting” - Not just moving some words around Naturalistic Observation - Recording behavior in a natural environment - Descriptive methodology - Benefit: unobtrusive ­ Disadvantage: no control, lack of consistency (sometimes)


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