SPEC TOP IN PHYS
SPEC TOP IN PHYS PHYS 150
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This 56 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Halvorson on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 150 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/227140/phys-150-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Physics 2 at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Motivation 39 Ineffe ctiveness of many Cancer treatments Numerous side effects Difficulties in early Cancer detection No immunization J w39 i 7 Scale and Scope The nanoparticles discussed in this presentation are typically between 20150 nm or roughly 100 times smaller than most human cells CdllLel lebedl U is interdisciplinary and incorporates Biology Chemistry Engineering Medicine and Physics xi a nanapgvllclc was mean at mum wulhz l O m at9w wumdjics big is New mm 1 A mm mm In um gsgnuum i0 Properties of Cancer Cells Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor EGFR over expression and over activity have been associated many different types of Cancer 39Cancer cells have a unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles Their rapid rate of growth causes them to intake an abnormal amount of nutrients ie folic acid nNanoparticles can be used to target biomarkers or antigens that are highly specific to Cancer cells Nanoparticle Specialization QM af chammhara 3 drugs do that reach the Cancer cells Nanetubes nanorozla dend mers nanospheras na noantennas using carboni iron gadalinium gold silicnn eta Antigen binding peptide ligands are attached tr the nanustructures Folicracid baitin Pmive targeting Leaky blaod vessels near tumors cause the nanoparticles in cluster around the tumurs Uses in Treatment Intracellular Drug Delivery The Trojan Horse Cytotoxic chemical payload Methotrexate Docetaxel etc RNA lummvbndm moleculaa J r L fFEGlh39drupmlnlmb tules 39 Controlledrelease Dnl m ev 1 I5a nm Uses in Treatment Experiment on mice bearing human prostate tumors maxifi A er approximately 3 months 100 ofthe mice treated with the targeted nanoparticles survived Docetaxelruntargeted nanoparticles 57 of the mice treated with untargeted nanoparticles survived Dm axe E W 14 of the mice with Docetaxel alone survive Untreated Amount of weight loss and white blood cell count con rmed far lower toxicity for the targeted nanoparticles WNW H1 w y n hmmmm DtxlNP cm y m Hm m Mean Tumor Size mm3 O 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time days DtxleNPApt DtxlNP Dtgtltl I NP Saline C 7 g 100 6 o a g 5 5 5 80 4 g E e 5 3 60 3 2 g 2 l 40 z 2 7 E U 20 0 E YQ 3999 0 9 2 e E o 399 0d a n y y I y d 0 20 4O 60 80 100 120 DComplete Tumor RegressionDTumor Progression Time days a Partiai Tumor Regression I Mortality Dtxl N P Apt O DthNP Dtxl I NP Saline Farokhzad O C etal PNAS 200610363156320 2006 by National Academy of Sciences Uses in Treatment WW 1 lblmn Cam can Haiti C 10 FL amt cells die at am WC 115 F Cum optical ber 6mm WW quotquot quotN 4quot abwbinyl rgmmm mm than 304i gold nanopamcbs Nampw dasmbemmdbobamitedeydeW Uses in Treatment In another study preclinical trials reveal that a single intravenous nanoparticle injection eradicated 100 percent of tumors in mice when exposed to nearinfrared light Most work is being done with nearinfrared light which is harmless to humans but can only penetrate human tissue about 15 inches Nanoparticles heated up to 70 C 160 F The Kanzius RF Machine uses radio waves for dielectric heating Uses in Detection Gold nanoparticles in this image showed 600 percent more affinity to Cancer cells than healthy cells EGFR binding White light and simple ineXpensive microscope is all that s necessary for powerful ex vivo Cancer detection The scattering is so strong that even one nanoparticle can be detected Uses in Detection Using a metalorganic framework with metals such as gadolinium or iron nanoparticles can be used as MRI contrast agents Forthe same amount of contrast only 13 ofthe contrast agent is necessary using nanoparticle targeting W Blocompatible polymeric backbone Fluorescent tag Arijg Reactive sidechain Reactive endg roup for attachment Gadolinium metalorganic framework nanoparticle Magnetic resonance imaging Therapeutic agent for treatment of disease Y Targeling ligand for biomolecular recognition Uses in Detection Fluorescent Microscopy Nanopanicles can serve as dual detection devices for both magnetic resonance and microscopy Current Limitations Jamar targeting is highly dependent an surface chemistry Natjust any nanoparticle will work The naed for biommpatible and stable nanaparticles Sidee acts and toxicity Environmental impact Uncharted territory Future Human clinical trials within the next 23 years 3 y F m in the discovery treatment and prevention of Cancer growth Safer more consistent and highly speci c nanoparticle production Turning Cancer into a chronic but manageable disease within the next 1520 years Summary Different types of Cancer cells have unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles to target the Cancer cells Nanoparticles can be used to detectmonitor by utilizing or adding optic magnetic and fluorescent properties and to treat Cancer by Heat ablation chemotherapy gene therapy No human trials have been performed yet and human trials are still at least a few years away Unknown side effects toxicity difficulty in manufacturing and harmful byproducts need for highly specific nanoparticles Sources University of California Santa Cruz 2009 March 28 Hollow Gold Nanospheres Show Promise For Biomedical And Other Applications ScienceDaiy Retrieved May 24 2009 from httpwwwsciencedailycom reIeases200903090322154415htm University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center 2009 February 8 Targeted Nanospheres Find Penetrate Then Fuel Burning Of Melanoma ScienceDaiy Retrieved May 24 2009 from httpwwwsciencedailycom releases200902090202074856htm Couvreur P Vauthier C Nanotechnology intelligent design to treat complex disease Pharmaceutical Research 2006 237 141750 Sunderland CJ Steiert M Talmadge JE Derfus AM Barry SE Targeted nanoparticles for detecting and treating cancer Drug Development Research 2006 67 7093 Yih TC AlFandi M Engineered nanoparticles as precise drug delivery systems Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2006 97 118490 EISayed Mostafa Gold Nanoparticles May Simplify Cancer Detection Georgia Institute of Technology 2005 Misty D Rowe Douglas H Thamm Susan L Kraft Stephen G Boyes PolymerModi ed Gadolinium MetalOrganic Framework Nanoparticles Used as Multifunctional Nanomedicines for the Targeted Imaging and Treatment of Cancer Biomacromolecules 2009 10 4 983993 Chungang Wang Jiji Chen Tom Talavage Joseph lrudayaraj Gold NanorodFe304 Nanoparticle NanoPearlNecklaces for Simultaneous Targeting DualMode Imaging and Photothermal Ablation of Cancer Cells Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2009 o L Denton Michael S Foltz Gary D Noojin Larry E Estlack Robert J Thomas and Benjamin A Rockwell Determination of threshold average temperature for cell death in an in vitro retinal model using thermograph Proc SPIE 7175 71750G 2009 DOI10111712807861 Targeted nanoparticleaptamer bioconjugates for cancer chemotherapy in vivo PNAS 2006 10363156320 published online before print April 10 2006 doi101073pnas0601755103 httpenwikipediaorgwikiEpidermaIgrowthfactorreceptor httpenwikipediaorgwikiNanomedicine httpenwikipediaorgwikiSurfaceplasmonresonance httpenwikipediaorgwikiFIuorescencemicroscopy httpenwikipediaorgwikiMethotrexate httpenwikipediaorgwikiDocetaxel Artificial Muscles Douglas Thor Human Muscles I 3 types of muscle I Skeletal connects bones voluntary striated I Smooth involuntary I Cardiac heart muscle involuntary striated 4 4 v tquot Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle httpenwikipediaorgwikiMusoles Skeletal Muscles I These are the type of muscles that Artificial Muscles emulate Striated contain sarcomeres and are packed into highly regular arrangements Generally come in pairs an agonist and an antagonist I ie Biceps Brachii and Triceps Brachii http lenwikipediaorgMikiSkelelalmuscle Why develop Artificial Muscles I Uses in nano to medium scale robotics I Bionics and Robotic Prosthetics I The Future I Hope to be adapted for implants or replacement muscles to cure problems such as muscular atrophy certain types of paralysis or muscle death I Possible uses in artificial hearts Artificial Muscles I 3 primary types I Pneumatic Artificial Muscles PAMs I Electroactive Polymers EAPs I Carbon Nanotube Muscles CNMS httpenwikipediaorgwikiArtificialMuscle httpenwikipediaorgwikiPneumaticar1ificiamuscesz Aliev etal Science 323 1575 2009 Pneumatic Artificial Muscles I First attempt at artificial muscles 1950s I Uses pressurized air or Nitrogen to expand and contract a membrane httpenwikipediaorgwikiPneumaticartifioialmuscles Pneumatic Artificial Muscles I Advantages I Forceextension relationship is similar to human skeletal muscles I Good for use in medium scale robotics I Disadvantages I Nonlinear system I Gas is compressible I Requires large and heavy electric valves and air compressor httpenwikipediaorgwikiPneumatioartifioialmusoles Electroactive Polymers EAPs I Most common type of Artificial Muscle I Two types of Electroactive Polymers I Dielectric Elastomers I Ionic Electroactive Polymers I Used as actuators sensors and well suited for small to medium scale robotics I Strains usually 1035 max 300 I First used in the early 90 s httpenwikipediaorgwikiEIectroactivepolymers Dielectric Elastomers I Squishy Capacitor I High voltage little to no current needed I Key Physics I Poisson s Ratio I Capacitor Equations I Lorentz Force hm Hen wwpema urgmimElemuacuveipulym Ers Page 0 Physics FQF F QE gtQE Dielectric Elastomers I Made from primarily silicones and acrylic I Requirements for a good Elastomer I Low stiffness I High dielectric constant I High electrical breakdown voltage I Can be arranged in a multitude of different ways to achieve various results I Cylinders diaphragms stacks etc httpenwikipediaorgwikiDieeotrioelastomers Ionic EAPs I Movement caused by displacement of ions within the polymer I Requires lower voltage than a dielectric elastomer but requires more power EN7 Deformation a5 a Reault of I Constant power is 39 needed to maintain a given position httplenwikipediaorgwikiElectroactivepolymers Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles CNMs I Published in 2009 I First description of nanotubenanotube interaction was by Kim and Leiber in 1999 I Nanotube tweezers actuated by a potential difference I Very stiff in one direction superelastic in other two directions Aliev et al Science 323 1575 2009 Carbon Nanotube Muscles Nanotube sheets made by drawing nanotubes from a forest I Held together like twine or yarn Carbon Nanotube Muscles I A high voltage W is applied to the ends of the sheet I width expansion at center up to 220 I length contraction lt3y Madden Science EiZ SBZi Niev eiai Science 3211575 2mg Carbon Nanotube Muscles A 50mm x 2mm nanotube sheet I B same sheet 5kV applied at ends 220 width increase at center I C 25mm x 2mm 3kV applied 1500K Aliev et al Science 323 1575 2009 Carbon Nanotube Muscles I Maximum Characteristics I Expansion 220 I Expansion Rate 37 x 104 per second I Natural muscles 10 per second I Operating Temp 80 to 1900K I Poisson s Ratio 15 most materials lt5 Aliev et al Science 323 1575 2009 Carbon Nanotube Muscles Other Notes I Actuation can be frozen by laying expanded sheet on a substrate of goldcoated silicon and letting van der Waals bonding hold it in place I First use of electrostatic attraction and repulsion between nanotubes 1999 I Can generate 30 times the force per unit area of natural muscle Demo with CG animation Laser Diffraction pattern Drawing the nanotubes Applied voltage httpwwwwiredcomwiredscienee200903nanomuscle Summary I Three types of artificial muscles Pneumatic Electroactive and Carbon Nanotube I Currently useful in robotics hope to be used as replacement muscles Most advanced form are Carbon Nanotube Muscles Thank You References httpenwikipediaorgwikiMuscles httpenwikipediaorgwikiEectroactivepoymers httpwwwwiredcomwiredscience200903nanomuscle Stiffer Than Steelquot John D W Madden Science 323 5921 March 19 2009 DOI 101126science1171169 GiantStroke Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles Ali E Aliev etal Science 323 1575 2009 DOI 101126science 1168312 Nanotube Nanotweezers Philip Kim and Charles M Leiber Science 286 5447 pp 21482150 December 10 199939 DOI 101126science28654472148 httpndeaajpnasagovnasandeIommaseapEAParmwrestlinghtm httpwwwazomcomdetailsaspArticleD885 httpenwikipediaorgwikiPneumaticartificiamuscles httpmechvubacbemultibodytopicspamhtm httpenwikipediaorgwikiCarbonnanotubeactuators And any citations referenced by the aforementioned articles Questions 1 Which was the first type of artificial muscle a electroactive polymers b carbon nanotube c pneumatic cl unicorn muscle e none of the above LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins pia near sightedness sed by either an elongated or steep cornera focal point is in front ofthe 1a instead of on it lcally corrected with concave rative ootical Dowerl lenses eropia far sightedness sed by a flat cornea or art eye Li point is behind the la cected with concave es positive optical m gmatism arises from di erent focal points in di erent es ofthe eye sed by non uniform curvature ofthe cornea or scarrii lens gular astigmatism cannot be xed by glasses just cont IK Laser Assisted in Sltu Keratomileusis 1tomieusis is the procedure of opening the eye and ing the cornea IK uses an excimer laser to perform the alterations ar er a knife or a femtosecond laser to create the openii IK is an alternative to wearing glasses or contacts as it ects mvooia hvoerooia and astigmatism llt began in I950 in Bogota Columbia With the elopment of llteratomileusis cealltthrough was the I973 announcement of the egtltci A Gholam Peyman filed the rst LASIK patent in I989 2 thod for modifying corneal curvature It includes the edure of revealing the cornea using an excimer laser ino the eve SIK is performed while awake th an occasional mild sedative hinged flap is cut with either a etal blade or a femtosecond er l l 1 Egtltcimer laser remodels the l mea by ablating tissue ie flap is repositioned and left Inaal ting the ap is either done with a microkeratome ore tosecond laser rents the hip Ihe lnlrulose FS Laser uses an inhnred beam 04 iighi to beiowlhe sutfuwoi the omen usmg insideoui protessvr1uuly me sight LL in lhe beomoi inseriighr is lncused in u pmise poim within the svromu cenrml infBI ol Ihnmmeo where a smug oi miuouopit bubbles is iormed Ihousundsof Ihese Iiny bubble me premer positioned In dafin the ilap s dimensionsund dim1 hauled edge as we as 10mm of the hinge Buhbfes me than slatked along the edgeoi Ihe Hnn unm lhu Inmanlmrtma mer lasers are UV lasers that utili le gas halides y often use a combination of an such as argon krypton or xenon I a highly reactive gas lillte chlorin rine iOl t lived molecule called an excimer Q V lQP tn thiQ lacpr lioht mers are formed an the inert gas 3 into an excited 3 in this state they d with the halide arm a molecule Front Reamidlar 0pm EPdin 1 Fiedrc es nghvallage Sn pply en the noble gas SL139 rhs to its ground ic 3 it repels the halide ray W h gives rise to the 7M Lviolet light Excwma Wave ength mm Energy 6 cal wavelengths for A 26 985 Kw 46 850 ms eXCImers Fl 57 790 Xezquot 72amp x75 72 gm bond energy ofan H O ArF I93 643 J of H20 is about 476 W 248 500 eBr 282 440 nd to39break a C H bond 60 308 403 hane It Is 438 eV Xe 35 354 Can 93 643 rle light is 2 3 eV while Krc 222 559 oz 259 479 n nmnnral um is IlA n ultraviolet light is absorbed by tissue and organic mattt added energy breaks the bonds ofmolecules at the sur se molecules ablate into the air without adding heat to This is called Ablative Photodecomposition cent excimer lasers typically pulse for l0 ns at lOO Hz se used in eye surgery reposition to follow the eye 40 2s per second lovv absorption depth Ol Discharge circuit expen 5um and require frequent maintenanceLaser gas mi ngy highly absorbed by I I I is togtltic and corrosive ends The laser must be re llec orm power density over fresh gas regularly ively large area me higher order abberations can cur as they cannot be diagnosed th normal eye exams we is halos and starbursts vision ne during the day but at night 3 pupil can expand and pass the ge ofthe LASIK flap this gives e to halos and other abberations Surgery induced dry eyes Over or under correction Visual acuityfluctuation Halos or staroursts arouni sources at nigth Light sensitiVity Ghost images Wrinkles in tiap Decentered ablation Debris or growth under ti induced astigmatism Corneal Ectasia Floaters Epitneiiun erosion lK is limited by the excimer laser and can cause some age to the eyes nerves so new methods are being eloped ther popular method is PRK it is similar to LASIK vvitl essitating a flap to be cut necessary for pilots npared to LASIK it has a longer recovery period and I omfo rt 1 39 7 A V
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