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by: Shawn Pfannerstill IV


Shawn Pfannerstill IV
GPA 3.56

T. Lewis

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T. Lewis
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shawn Pfannerstill IV on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by T. Lewis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/227172/phil-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in PHIL-Philosophy at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Philosophy 1 Short Introduction to Philosophy Instructor Tim Lewis TA Alex Bundy For next time read Introduction pp 7577 amp Saint Anselm s The Ontological Argument pp 7879 The Philosopher s Toolkit The practice of philosophy chiefly involves providing and critically evaluating arguments But what is a philosophical argument What a Philosophical Argument Isn t What a Philosophical Argument Is Def of an argument But what sorts of philosophical arguments are there Two kinds of arguments But what s the difference between a deductive and a nondeductive argument Deductive Arguments A deductive argument is an argument whose premises purport to provide support for its conclusion that is so strong that if all of the premises are true it is impossible for the conclusion to be false The Virtues of a Deductive Argument Two questions we ask 1 Is this argument valid Does the conclusion follow from the premises An argument is deductivey valid or simply valid just in case it is such that necessarily ifall of the premises are true then the conclusion is true Validity is a property ofthe logical form of arguments The logical form of an argument is constituted by the inference underpinning the relation between the premises and conclusion An argument can be valid and yet have some or even all false premises and a false conclusion Some Valid Arguments with False Premises Conclusions P1 If Bernie Madoff is poor then he is a model citizen P2 Bernie Madoff is poor C Thus he is a model citizen P1 If Socrates was handsome then he was a bad philosopher P2 Socrates was handsome C Therefore he was a bad philosopher Modus Ponens P1 If P then Q P2 P C Therefore Q Another example P1 If Tony Soprano is a mobster then he is a criminal P2 Tony Soprano is not a criminal C So he s not a mobster Modus Tollens P1 If P then Q P2 NotQ CSoNobP P1 Either Britney Spears is the greatest pop vocalist of all time or Phish is an excellent band P2 Phish is not an excellent band C Thus Britney Spears is the greatest pop vocalist of all time Disiunctive Svlloqism P1 P or Q P2 NotQ C Thus P P1 lf Michael Jackson is alive then the Jonas Brothers will be unable to publicly release their next album P2 lfthe Jonas Brothers are unable to publicly release their next album then Larry King will be the happiest person on Earth C Thus if Michael Jackson is alive then Larry King will be the happiest person on Earth Hypothetical Svllogism P1 If P then Q P2 If Q then R C Thus if P then R The Chief Virtue of a Deductive Argument Is the argument sound Def of soundness NonDeductive Arguments A nondeductive argument is one that does not purport to provide premises that if true guarantee the truth of the conclusion Instead a nondeductive argument purports to provide premises that if true probilify the conclusion ie make the truth of the conclusion probable A nondeductive argument may be strong or weak depending on the extent to which it succeeds in this Example of nondeductive arguments inductive arguments Examples of inductive arguments P1 All crows observed to this point have been black C Thus the next observed crow will be black P1 80 of students at UCSB in the sample are from California C Thus 80 of students at UCSB are from California Other nondeductive arguments Argument by Analogy P1 An eyeball is like a machine in that it has a very specific function P2 Machines are the products of intelligent design C Therefore an eyeball is the product of intelligent design


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