Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 12
Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 12 115-01
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzannah Hudson on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Geddes, Matthew J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Chapter 12 Our modern concept of art took shape during the 18th century European philosophers separated painting sculpture and architecture from other kinds of skilled making and placed them together with poetry and music in a new category called the ne arts They were made to be touched to be handled to be used or worn in daily life or in ritual settings such as religious ceremonies We start off with a widely used range of media clay glass metal wood ber ivory jade and lacquer Clay 0 Ceramics Greek for quotkeramakosquot meaning quotof potteryquot The art of making objects from clay a naturally occurring earth substance 0 When dry clay has a powdery consistency mixed with water it becomes plastic that is moldable and cohesive 0 Once a clay form has been built and permitted to dry it will hold its shape but it is very fragile To ensure its permanence the form must be red in a kiln at temperatures ranging between about 1200 and 2700 degrees or higher 0 Firing changes the chemical composition of the clay so that it can never again be made plastic 0 Earliest known ceramics are from China A major requirement for most ceramic objects is that they be hollow that they have thin walls around a hollow core Two reasons for that 1 many ceramic wares are meant to contain things 2 and a solid clay piece is dif cult to re and may very well explode in the kiln o Slab Construction a sheet of clay is spread out like a pie crust and then left to dry a little It then can be rolled up into a cylinder laid over a mold or cut into shapes and pieced together 0 Coiling For making a thin hollow form clay is rolled out into thin ropelike strands and then coils them on top of another and joins them 0 The fastest method of creating a hollow rounded form is by means of the potter39s wheel The potter s wheel known as the fast wheel seems to have been invented rst in China 0 Porcelain a ceramic made by mixing kaolin a ne white clay with nely ground petunse also known as porcelain stone When red at high temperatures elements within the medium result into a hard white translucent mixture fused into a glassy substance 0 Vitreous When creating a clay pot and it has been red in a kiln this is when we can place liquids inside of the pot and it won t suck up that liquid Glass 0 The most fascinating of pottery techniques Metal Wood Fiber Its principle ingredient is usually silica a hard unreactive colorless compound that occurs as the mineral quartz and as a principal constituent of sandstone and other rocks or sand When heated glass becomes molten and in that state it can be shaped by several different methods Unlike clay glass never changes chemically as it moves from a soft workable state to a hard rigid one As glass cools it hardens but it can be reheated and rendered molten again for further working Blowing the most familiar way of shaping a hollow glass vessel The artist dips up a mass of molten glass at the end of a long metal tube and by blowing into the other end produces a glass bubble that can be shaped or cut while it is hot Glass was a luxury product in the ancient world Stained Glass a special branch of glasswork this is a technique used for windows lampshades and similar structures that permit light to pass through Made by cutting sheets of colored glass and placing them together by strips of lead to form a patter hence the term leaded stained glass Ever since humans learned to work metals they have made splendid art as well as functional tools from this versatile family of materials Metal can be shaped by heating it to a liquid state and pouring it into a mold ForgingSmithing metal is shaped by hammer blows Some metals are heated to a high temperature before being worked with hammers a technique known as hot forging Iron is an example of a metal that is used for hot forging Gold is an example of a metal this is used for cold forging in which it can be molded at room temperature ChasingRepousse chasing quotpush from the backquot Repousse quotpush to the frontquot Fabricating Welding Widely available renewable and relatively easy to work wood has been used by almost all peoples across history to fashion objects for ritual or daily use Wood is vulnerable head and cold can warp it water can cause it to rot re will turn it to ash and insects eat away at it The most common product of the woodworker39s art is furniture The chair seems to have been developed in Egypt around 2600 BCE Turning opposite of a potter s wheel instead of adding wood is subtracted Carving free hand hammering chiseling Assembling a lot of furniture putting separate pieces of wood together A pliable threadlike strand Almost all naturally occurring bers are either animal or vegetable in origin Animal bers include cotton ax raf a sisal rushes and various grasses Some can be spun into yarn and woven into textiles others can be pressed into felt or twisted into rope or string Still others can be plaited to create baskets and basketlike structures such as hats Basket weaving is traditionally a women39s art it began with the harvesting of materials Textile is the ber at we are most intimately familiar with for we clothe ourselves in it Felting a technique in which bers are matted and pressed together Weaving involves placing two sets of parallel bers at right angles to each other and interlacing one set through the other in an upanddown movement generally on a loom or frame WarpWeft One set of bers is held taut this is called the warp The other set is interwoven through the warp to make a textile this is called the weft Ivory Jade and Lacquer Ivory Jade and Lacquer are rarer materials Ivory and Jade have been considered precious in themselves Lacquer is unique to East Asia where it has been the basis of an important artistic tradition for some three thousand years Technically ivory may refer to the teeth and tusks of a number of large mammals Elephant tusks have been the most widely soughtafter and treasured form Ivory was treasured not only by cultures that obtained it through trade but also by cultures for whom elephants were a living presence Jade is a common name for two minerals nephrite and jadeite Ranging in color from white through shades of brown and green the two stones are found principally in East and Central Asia and Central America Lacquer is made of the sap of a tree that originally grew only in China Harvested puri ed colored with dyes and brushed in thin coats over wood the sap hardens into a smooth glasslike coating Lacquer requires a great deal of patience because it requires up to 30 layers of it and each layer must dry completely before adding the next Maria Martinez 18811980 Famous Pueblo potter liked to work with red clay of New Mexico Her pots are known for their black tonalities that were produced during the ring process when the re was smothered and the smoke blackened them which she then painted designs on them with a slip liquid clay Began her career as a folk potter and ended it six decades later as a rst ranked potter of international reputation As a child learned how to make pottery using the coiling method by watching her aunt and the other women in the community 0 She and her husband formed an early partnership for making potter she would do the building he would do the decorating 0 Around 1919 the Martinezes developed the special blackonblack pottery that was to make them and the pueblo of San lldefonso famous 0 Maria and her husband became wealthy by the standards of the pueblo and as was customary shared that wealth with the entire community 0 Maria39s greatest achievement was in reviving and popularizing the traditions of ne pottery making among the Pueblo people 0 quotWhen I am gone essentially other people have my pots But to you I leave my greatest achievement which is the ability to do itquot History Section 1945Present 0 After World War II and going into the Cold War many artists noticed that the center of art life was no longer in Paris but in New York where the center of energy had shifted 0 One of the pavements that led to this is the found of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1929 0 Nothing is new we are all in uenced in our art work Abstract Impressionism OP ART Victor Vasarely mathematicallyoriented art which uses repetition of simple forms and colors to create vibrating and other visual effectsquot A lot of geometric shapes that are warped and shifted to create and illusions Moire Patterns Peripheral Drift lllusions o POP ART Andy Warhol Vibrant colors subjects from popular and everyday commercial culture 0 PHOTOREALISM Richard Estes Embracing photography paintings and drawings that look like photographs MINIMALISM Simplifying images and paintings CONCEPTUAL ART Christo where the art is its concept is not meant to last forever 0 POSTMODERNISM Michael Graves TODAY Computer illustration architecture computer animation 3D printing digital photography
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