ETHICS PHIL 100A
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shawn Pfannerstill IV on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 100A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/227174/phil-100a-university-of-california-santa-barbara in PHIL-Philosophy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Phil 100A Section Handout 8 I Hume on Justice 1 Establishment of the Moral Order Hume argues that the moral order is the result of mutually beneficial selfinterested cooperation Cooperation Games 0 Coordination games o The main problem of a coordination game is to converge on a cooperative pattern 0 A successful strategy can be secured by agreement salience precedence convention etc 0 Prisoner s dilemma o The main problem is getting the participants to not freeride on the cooperative efforts of the other participants 0 The provision of public goods including the establishment of the moral order is an example of a multiperson prisoner s dilemma 0 Solutions 1 Coercion Hobbes s Leviathan 2 Promisemaking 3 Hume Since it is in our selfinterest to cooperate it isjust a matter of coordinating behavior What s wrong with Hume s solution 2 The Circumstances of lustice For Hume the establishment of the grid can be thought of as the establishment of property Distinction Having property rights is having moral control while having possession is having de facto control We only have a reason to create property ie establish the moral order in the presence of 1 Moderate scarcity Why 2 Limited generosity Why 3 lustice as an Artificial Virtue Justice is an artificial virtue in that 1 One s positive sentiment toward justice is grounded on a human artifice namely the moral order 2 Justice is ultimately grounded in selfinterest 3 Justice is primarily about actions while virtue is primarily about motives 1 Mill on Liberty 1 The Harm Principle The main question that Mill is addressing is What kinds of socialgovernmental coercion are morally legitimate The Harm Principle quotThe sole end for which mankind are warranted individually or collectively in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number is selfprotectionOver himself over his own body and mind the individual is sovereign pg 940 The harm principle legitimizes the use of coercion to get people to respond appropriately to the interests of others Is the Harm Principle consistent with Mill39s utilitarianism 2 Puzzling Features of the Harm Principle 0 How are the interests of others to be understood In particular does the harm principle legitimize use of coercion to stop someone from acting in a way that is merely offensive to another Distinguish between harm and offense 0 Is denial of association permissible according to the harm principle 0 Where are we to draw the line between harming oneself and harming others 1 Freedom of Speech There is no more justification for the majority to suppress the speech of one than there is for one to suppress the speech of the majority Four Reasons for Freedom of Speech 1 We are not infallible and so can t be sure that the suppressed opinion is false 2 Even ifthe accepted view is true it will not be held in the right way if it is not open to dispute Phil 100A Section Handout 5 Virtue Ethics 1 The Good 1 What is the highest good achievable in action Aristotle39s Argument 1 The ultimate end highest good is complete without qualification 2 Happiness more than anything else seems complete without qualification 3 Thus happiness is the ultimate end What is it for a good to be complete without qualification Complete goods are not instrumental They are intrinsically good Examples Unqualified intrinsic goods These are goods that are inherently good but never instrumentally good Examples Question Is happiness the only complete good without qualification Phil 100A Section Handout 7 I Metaethics 1 Semantics of moral discourse Are moral claims truthapt Do moral utterances express beliefs Do moral claims purport to representdescribe the world in a certain way YES descriptivism 2 Metaphysics of Morals What is the nature of moral facts NO nondescriptivism 0 Reductivism Moral facts are reducible to some other kind of fact 0 Nonreductivism Moral facts are irreducible they are sui generic Types of reductivism 0 Naturalism moral facts are reducible to natural facts 0 Divine Command Theory moral facts are reducible to facts about God the gods is uttered Cultural Relativism moral facts are reducible to facts about the culture in which the moral claim 0 Subjectivism moral facts are reducible to facts about the speaker s sentiments 3 Moral Epistemology How do we come to know moral truths 0 Rationalism the justification for our moral beliefs comes from reason 0 Empiricism there is no rational justification for our moral beliefs 0 Skepticism our moral beliefs are neverjustified 4 The View from the Inside vs the View from the Outside The view from the inside The view from the outside Objective Realism there are moral facts that hold independent of moral judgmentsentiment There are no moral facts that hold independent of moral judgmentsentiment Objective Descriptivism moral claims purport to represent the world in some way independent of moral judgmentsentiment Moral claims do not purport to represent the world in some way independent of moral judgmentsentiment nondescriptivism or non objective descriptivism Problem shaded box What are these moral factsproperties that are supposed to be independent of moral judgmentsentiment Problem shaded box How are we to explain the view from the inside in particular how do we explain moral disagreement 5 Open Question Argument The open question argument is an argument for the irreducibility of moral properties i quot PE 1 Hume Question 0 below is an open question 0 x is good but does x have property N If x is good means x has property N then the above question is synonymous with the question C x has property N but does x have property N But C is not an open question so 0 and C are not synonymous Therefore x is good does not mean x has property N 1 lIumean Psychology Action is the result of a desire goal setting and a belief means to satisfy the desire Practical reason only deals with meansend beliefs 1 2 3 4 5 Reason can only be used to discover truth and falsehood Truth and falsehood only consist in ideas representing or failing to represent things to be as they actually are Passions do not represent anything Therefore passions cannot be true or false So reason cannot be used to judge passions quotIt is not contrary to reason to prefer the destruction of the whole world to the scratching of my finger quotIt is not contrary to reason for me to choose my total ruin to prevent the least uneasiness ofa person wholly unknown to me quotIt is as little contrary to reason to prefer even my own acknowledged lesser good to my greater
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