SHORT INTRO TO PHIL
SHORT INTRO TO PHIL PHIL 1
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shawn Pfannerstill IV on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/227179/phil-1-university-of-california-santa-barbara in PHIL-Philosophy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
PHILOSOPHY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE 1 Philosophers use arguments to establish a claim they think is correct Explain what an argument is What are the two ways in which an argument can be critically evaluated USE EXAMPLES Argument a series of statements where the conclusion last statements follows from or is supported by the premises first statements I Example I Everyone who lives in Santa barbara lives in California Premise I Alvin live in Santa Barbara Premise I Therefore Alvin lives in California Conclusion Two ways in which an argument can be critically evaluated is by judging its validity and soundness I Validity An argument is considered valid if it satisfies the following condition if its premises are true then its conclusion has to be true above argument is valid because both premises are true I Soundness An argument is sound if it is valid and also has true premises 2 Compare russell s account of the value of philosophy to Socrates message for the Athenian people Be sure to explain socrate s philosophical mission What are some of the parallels between Socrates life and russell s account Are there any relevant differences Pgs 1821 Russell Pgs 2236Socrates RUSSELL Philosophy is only valuable to those who study it Need to free mind from prejudices of practical men those who recognize only material needs Philosophy aimed at knowledge but provides no definite answers as soon as there are definite answersit is no longer philosophy Keeps alive speculative interest in the worl Value of philosophy is in its uncertainty Diminishes our certainty while increasing our knowledge as to what things may be SOCRATES Seeking to disprove the Oracle at Delphi which said that he is the wisest of men Questioning people to uncover contradictions in their beliefs Realizes that he is the wisest solely because he does not think he knows things that he doesn t know much like the people he interviewed 96 L V Politicians poets craftsmen quotcraftsmen wisest actually did know craft Scoms people who live super cial lives where wealth and power are most important over understanding or truth Explain the Socratic elenchus What is the philosophical purpose of the elenchus and what does it do to the person who is subjected to it Why does Socrates develop the elenchus and what personal purpose does it serve for him The Socratic elenchus is a method of search and inquiry through oneonone philosophical conversation It is designed to expose contradictions in the belief set of the person being questioned Socrates develops the elenchus in order to test the oracle that he is the wisest man of all by questioning people s beliefs and nding any contradictions that lie within them What is the traditional de nition of Knowledge Explain the sense in which Descartes thinks the structure of our knowledge is similar to that of a building Be sure to include the concepts of support and foundation when giving your answer Traditional De nition of knowledge S knows that p S believes that p P is true S is justi ed in believing in p Structure of knowledge similar to building because Beliefs stem from a foundation and build on one another old beliefs supporting the new ones Foundationalism the view that all of our knowledge must begin with selfevident beliefs foundation which are not evidenced by any other beliefs but which provide the justi cation for the rest of what we believe and know UI V What is the dream argument and what is it intended to show How is this argument intended to establish a skeptical conclusion Explain the role that the dream argument plays in Descartes overall epistemological project Brie y evaluate this argument can use simple version 1 If I cannot rule out the possibility that I am dreaming then I cannot know anything about the external world 2 I cannot rule out the possibility that I am dreaming 3 Therefore I cannot know anything about the external world Intended to show how foundational beliefs can affect all other beliefs Intended to establish skeptical conclusion through Modus Ponens because Descartes only searching for beliefs that can not be doubted Modus Ponens follows the format If p then q P Therfore q Eventually comes up with refutation of the argument that proves that there is an external world 6 In the 2quotd Meditation Descartes discovers his foundational beliefs What are they and why does Descartes think they are foundational What does Descartes intend to do with these beliefs I exist as a thinking thing cannot question existence without actually existing Physical objects are grasped by understanding know what a piece of wax is no matter what its form Descartes intends to break old habits of his thought with this new thought and build upon these beliefs Rely less on sensory experience than the mind 7 Descartes presents his own refutation of skepticism in Meditations 46 Explain the argument Descartes uses to show that we can have knowledge of the external world Brie y evaluate this argument Descartes refutation of external world skepticism is that l I exist as a thinking thing 2 Sensory experience often seems to suggest an external world 3 Ihave an idea of a supremely perfect god 4 God exists and is supremely perfect 5 IF there s no external world then I am being deceived by God 6 And ifI m being deceived by God then God is not perfect 7 I am not being deceived by God 8 Therefore there is an external world 8 What is the paradox of Socrates Be sure to explain his disclaimer of knowledge What are some possible answers to this paradox Do you think any of these answers are adequate Why or why not Socrates claims he has no knowledge of the most important things but this con icts with his Certainty in moral matters Skill in crossexamination Mission to care for the soul Confidence in the face of death Scholarly Answers to the paradox a Socratic irony Socrates not being completely sincere when he says he has no knowledge of the most important things b Knowledge v belief there is a difference