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by: Naomi Block


Naomi Block
GPA 3.78

Y. Okamoto

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Y. Okamoto
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Block on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ED 111 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Y. Okamoto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/227191/ed-111-university-of-california-santa-barbara in Education and Teacher Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
ED 111 Final Review Family Impact of marital conflict children learn how to deal with conflict in that way wide range of adolescent problems anxiety and depression Impact of divorce Immediate Effects are mediated by gender temperament supportive relationships age boys have harder time younger children more anxiety relationship with outside adults important Adolescents have more difficulties than those from nondivorced homes most difficult immediately following divorce Has negative impact when Continued conflict lack of contact with noncustodial parent stress financial quality of parenting provided Potential difficulties that families experience with the addition of a new stepparent adolescents more at risk of academic problems substance use delinquency challenges adjustment probs especially girls but eventually do new roles need to be defined age differences younger children see stepparent benefit better gender Potential negative and positive effects of remarriage Positive A good relationship with noncustodial parent consistency in discipline between custodial and noncustodial parent economic benefit The nature of parentadolescent conflict Describe what is typicalnormal about everyday things clothes curfew chores never deep moral issues Parents seeing right and wrong teens seeing personal choice and identity important Adols don t have conflict over moral safety Why conflict increases in adolescence Time of storm and stress Differing perceptions in the importance of topics desired change in the balance of power living in separate realities puberty and need for privacy need for autonomy and individuation adols less physically affectionate with family during puberty Results of the Larsen study related to family time and adolescents Shows that time with mother only and father only stays relatively the same but time with mom always more Time with extended family less and time with family group less Positive and negative effects of sibling relationships Siblings who are close in middle childhood gtgt close in adolescence With age conflict increases Improves as individuals leave adolescence Insensitive parent leads to aggression between siblings If older sister gets pregnant early younger sister more likely to Baumrinds 1971 parenting behavior classification system eg differences between authoritative and authoritarian parenting Maccoby amp Martin 1983 split the Permissive styles into two Responsiveness Warmth Low High HighMedium AuthoriTARlAN AuthoriTATlVE More rigid place high value on Consider child s perspective include Control obedience and conformity verbal children in decision making give and take not common Low PermissiveIndifferent PermissiveIndulgent Uninvolved few demands and uncaring rejecting CRITICISMS linked to EAUMRID s classification he studied only AngloAmericans and no ethnic minorities In some instances authoritative parent is hard to implement Reciprocal influences May have different strategies with different children depending on behavior and personality Parenting styles often change over time Doesn t take gender into account which can affect which parenting style better more strict with sons Criticism of Authoritarian category Some strict and controlling parenting behaviors benefit adolescents Ethnic minorities adolescents have different interpretations of their parents behavior Strict sometimes means kids feel parent cares Parents can be both controlling in the context of a warm relationship but important for parents to train and socialize them into good behavior The effects maternal employment has on sons and daughters GIRLS positive effects see mom as role models likely to identify with moms higher career aspiration BOYS mixed effect No negative or any effects IF moms making substantial wage have quality childcare and are satisfied with their jobs Mom who work but don t want to lower self image of how good a mom they are How poverty factors affect family relationship financial strain increases mom and dad feelings of inadequacies and depression increases marital conflict harsher parenting adolescent emotional stress Features of collectivistic cultures individualistic cultures Collectivistic values needs of family come first group harmony and unity obedience Latino Asian African American lndividualistic values independence selfassertiveness and personal achievement EuroAmerican Autonomy processes of adolescents growing up from collectivistic cultures Process by which adols develop independence from parents selfreliance responsibility for own decisions Doesn t mean that adol become detached Remain connected Culture ethnic parents may have later age expectations for adolescent autonomy collectivistic children maybe less willing to disagree with parents STUDY by Phinney Adols given scenarios asked if they would selfassert their decision or comply with parents Family Dinner Scenario Koreans Armenians and Mexicans complied more than EuroAm Dating Scenario Korans and Armenians complied more than Mexicans and EuroAm Sex Differences African American girls reported that they were allowed to go out on dates and stay home alone at later ages than boys Latino immigrant parents perceive their daughters to be vulnerable and at higher risk for negative peer influences compared to boys Peers Developmental stages of peer relationships peer interaction friendships Early Childhood age 26 Fantasy and play involve social interaction sharing and helping similarities in age and sex Middle Childhood and Early Ado Mutual best friend levels of generosity and helpfulness increase increase concern about peer acceptance gender by age 1011 sense of loyalty In early adol age 1113 share similar interests Friendships more stable sources of advice Lack of a best friend has risks Gender differences girls use more selfdisclosure and say they have more friends than boys and engage in corumination share negative thoughts with each other Boys engage in more physical Girls friendships more intimate empathy social understanding greater emphasis on emotional closeness n Adol Give their friends space source of advice increased disclosure conflict resolution less stable Factors related to cliquescrowd membership CLIQUES small groups of between 39 people Defined by COMMON ACTIVITES same sex same age same SES same race gang orientation toward school involvement in antisocial activity Group conformity is emphasized Girls more troubled by negative interaction Loosening of cliques in adolescence contribute to social skills CROWDS based on identification of adol who share a similar IMAGE Tend not to be as intimate as cliques Membership is based on mainly reputation and stereotype ln middle school adols often find themselves stuck in a crowd Between 9 h and 12m grade more freedom to change crowds Toward end of high school crowds tend to disinigrate Contributes to adole sense of identity norms and standards selfesteem Determinants of popularity among peers physical attractiveness athletic desired possessions social skills Types of rejected childrenadolescents high rates of aggression hostile attribution bias frequent disruptive behavior in class Controversial rejected children acceptance by some peers rejected by others 1 Overly aggressive more likely to get in fight involved in antisocial activity 2 Withdrawn exceedingly shy timid inhibited 3 AggressiveWithdrawn problems controlling hostility also withdrawn Types of aggression Consequences of peer rejection become lonely depressed Less likely to show a positive attitude victimization of bullying worse effects if feel singled out peer rejection tends to persist Study 5 year olds excluded by peers had shyanxiousdepression in 4 h grade K2quotd graders withdrawal associated with peer rejection and depression and loneliness in 5m grade Victimization of bullying worse effects if feel is the only one GAY Youth more likely to be threatened injured at school skip school Experience high victimization verbal to physical High depression suicide substance abuse run away from home school difficulties Language Development Theoretical perspectives associated with language development in children Behaviorism Skinner modeling and reinforcement praise feedback Nurture Nativism Chomsky language is prewired born with it biologically built in Nature Sociocultural Vygotsg language socialization through interaction with others Nurture InfoProcessing what mechanisms need attention working space limited so some get automatized get better free u Functionalism why are we capable because we NEED it for so many things any helps you learn other things and think Preverbal language skills for example babbling 03 months Cooing Vowel sounds such as 000 and aah 510 months Babbling consonant sounds ma ba da these first sounds universal allows them to practice and exercise muscles can be delayed iftubes put in so nurture plays a role Developmental progression of word production Holophrase one word sentences Telegraphic short grammatically incomplete sentences that include lexical words toddlers EX Pillow dirty 1015 months First words 1524 months 50word vocabulary but understand more Objects bottle actions updown modifiers more gone 24 months Word Spurt Explosion Learn 2535 words a month Learning word meanings Fast mapping can learn what a word means after a single exposure hearing it just once How culture and language structure play a role in vocabulary development American babies nouns 40 of first words predominant often at end of sentence like Korea Cultural objects valued Other cultures maybe please and thank you Segmentation problem how the words are split up where the breakssegments are When a child hears This is a cup how do children know acup isn t one word How solved Infantdirected SpeechMotherese Point at objects high pitched intonation repetition short simple sentences slow speech focus on the hear and now Mapping problem When a child hears This is a cupquot how do children know it s the cup they re talking about the cup part and not what s in it or on it How solved Word Learning Assumptions children have built in rules to help them narrow down and only consider a few options 1 WholeOb39ect assumption words refer to whole objects not its parts Gavagi gt Rabbit Mutual Exclusivity assumption an object has one and only one labelname Different words refer to different things Flimick Spud Knowledge of syntactic rules children rely heavily on word order ex Big bird cookie monster How do children acquire complex syntactic rules in such a short period 0 Role of imitation Problem children speak with errors 2 years parents don t always correct 0 Role of explicit instruction when did the boy say he hurt himself 2 possible answers 0 Feedback 0 Biological explanation CHOMSKY universal grammar children are prewired with knowledge about operating principles that ALL languages follow Evidence that children have underlying knowledge of a system of rules Overregularization Errors children apply rules too much speech is rule governed even if never heard it said before fixed invariant principles try to regularize irregulars of the language similar mistakes Critical period for language acquisition results of Genie study a biologically determined period in which language acquisition must occur Children who have little or no exposure to any language in the early years will have trouble ever acquiring Genie 1970 s found at age 13 good at vocabulary and conveying a message but her sentences were not grammatical Her mom Susan Curtis N Academic Motivation Selfefficacy Theory Bandura belief that one is capable of doing well on academic tasks 0 Influences on selfefficacy Previous performance social models opinions of others feedback 0 Developmental progression selfefficacy levels decline in the transition from elementary school to middle and middle to high school Younger children more confident in their capabilities Attribution Theory 0 Locus of Control Internal attribute failuressuccesses to ABILITIES within themselves I m dumb External attribute failuressuccesses to external factors teacher sucked 0 Stability stabe factors xed attribute to unchangeable factors ability unstable factors changeable attribute to changeable factors luck 0 Controllability believe that ones fate is under personal control uncontrollability belief that failuresuccess occurred by chance nothing can be done to change fate Incremental and Entity views of intelligence ncremental View ability is changeable These people increased interest seek challenge failure is part of improvement process in their eyes Entity View ability is permanent failure low intelligence negative emotion when fail low motivation on task in future defensiveness protect self from feelings of failure 0 Developmental progression incremental quotquot9 entity in the elementary school grades incremental view successful because hard work in adol entity view attribute factors to beyond control trying hard pointless Intrinsic vs Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivated by factors within them to perform a task Declines for girls in science and math by late elementary school Extrinsic motivated by external factors to attain or avoid consequences Deayed gratification can hold out as get older forego small immediate rewards for better in long run do better on SAT scores more socially competent better relationships better coping skills less likely to be brought down by a problem Goal Orientation Theory rning goals desire to acquire more knowledge or master new skills 0 Performance goals desire to demonstrate high ability Performance approach goal desire to receive favorable judgment Performance avoidance goal desire to avoid unfavorable judgment 0 Consequences of being learning or performanceoriented Learning Goalers want to try hard puzzle again because already did easy maintains confidence when things go wrong Performance Goalers gives up more quickly on difficult task wants to do easy puzzle again loses confidence when fails attributes failure to lack of ability when ability praised gtgt performance oriented goal instilled gtgtIQ test lower when hard workstrategy praised gtgt learning oriented goal instilled gtgtIQ test higher 0 Familyenvironmental influences on motivation parents tend to praise ability vs hard work parent s education levels high edu parents able to be more involved in childs edu read at hope trips low edu parents experience challenges family sizestructure parents care about edu but low income parents have less time and energy especially single parents Culture different beliefs about appropriate interaction with teachers language barriers Colectivistic Cultures instill family obligation to do well respect importance can enhance motivation o Teacherclassroom practices influence on motivation Teacher s CONFIDENCE in their abilities predicts persistence in working with students with academic difficulties HIGH EXPECTATIONS for student performance Elem teachers more confident in students abilities Elem teachers better at priming learning goals younger children are learning goal More into middle and high school performance goals more prevalent Sons successes in math were more likely to be attributed to natural talent than daughters vice versa for English Emotional Development 0 4 Stages in Developing Parent Attachment Bowlby s stages 1 PreAttachment Stage birth 2 months a Babies use social signals to elicit care b Don t show preferences for caregivers 2 Attachment in the Making 26 months a Babies recognize and smile selectively at people b Depend on adults for initiate and maintain social exchange 3 ClearCut Attachment 7 mo 12 years old a Show full fledged attachment stranger anxiety baby protests being left alone 0 Findings associated with Ainsworth Strange situation procedure 4 Attachment Types 1 Securely Attached free exploration and happiness at mothers return 2 Avoidantlnsecure little exploration and little emotional response to mother 3 Resistant Insecure or ambivalent little exploration great separation anxiety and ambivalent response to mothers return 4 Disorganizedlnsecure little exploration and confused response to mothers return reaction at separation not as important as reunion 0 Factors affecting the attachment relationship parenting behaviors responsiveness affection flexibility amount of time children spent with their parents Cultural differences Japan really distressed and had to console more anxious resistance babies because in Japan mother rarely leaves Germany infants didn t cry or fuss when moms left because German moms believe babies should learn independence accustomed to separation o Fernald 1993 study responsiveness to vocal emotion 5 month old infants were praised or scolded when the parents engaged in infant directed speech Infants showed more positive affect when approval messages were played 0 Results and implications of the Stillface procedure infants became distressed with a neutral expression and also lack of failure at attempts to illicit reactions from their mothers 0 Results and implications of the visual cliff procedure Emotions in the toddler years social referencing is mom afraid except autistic kids 0 Daytoday emotions in adolescents Beeper Study Girls often report feeling sad in elem less likely to show anger popularity issues body image low self estee dwell more on problems than boys ruminate Boys put up a selfconfident front POD 0 Temperament nature and nurture childs way of respnding to experiences in this world Extraversion negative affectivity bies tend to be shy fearful uncomfortable Effortful control pleasure and new situations beave in socially pleasureable behavior temperament is inherited psychological characteristics twin studies temperament tends to be stable children observ Highly reactive infants smile a lot relaxed tend to be more anxious about the future as adolescents Why youth 39oin gangs Theories 0 Social Structure Theory environment is also responsible for criminal behavior 0 Social Disorganization Theory a disorganized environment leads to crime the breakdown of institutions of control Deviance high risk AREAS not high risk PEOPLE are associated with crime 0 Strain Theory frustration and anger related to not having what others have leads to crime when unable to achieve social and financial success 0 Subculture Theory Lack of opportunity to embrace a variety of subcultures leads to crime to


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