Gy101 week 8 notes
Gy101 week 8 notes GY 101
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
321 Geography I hope you all had a great spring break and are somewhat more ready for classes to resume than I am Reminder Subsidence inversions are when a bunch of air goes down and compresses The compression warms up the air adiabatic heating and the Environmental Lapse Rate is decreased Clouds are classified based on their shapes and where in the atmosphere they form High Clouds The bases are above 6000m 19000 ft and the clouds are made of ice crystals High clouds have the cirro prefix meaning curl referencing the wispiness of these clouds Cirrus clouds are the most common and are the ones that look all wispy They look like that because there s not much water in them and it s really cold 35 C Brr Fall Streaks can appear below clouds when ice crystals fall out of the cloud and Halos can appear around the sun or moon as ice crystals refract light 22 Cirrostratus clouds happen when cirrus clouds thicken and stretch out across the sky Mares tales are horizontal swirls that happen in turbulent conditions Cirrocumuus clouds are the ones way up high and really thin that show up almost like lines across the sky Middle Clouds The bases are between 20006000m about 650019000ft and are mostly liquid drops They have the alto prefix Altostratus clouds are typically thick enough to be able to block out the sunmoon while covering the entire sky They can look like sheets of cloud that cover the sky Altocumuus clouds are patchy but can still cover a lot of the sky Low Clouds Bases are below 2000m 65000ft and they re generally liquid drops Low clouds have the prefix stratus and generally cover big areas while having a shallow vertical extent 051 km in overall height Nimbostratus clouds are very light and happen when altostratus clouds thicken Stratocumuus clouds are low layered clouds with a bit of vertical development The heights of each cloud type will be on the test You need to learn either the metric or standard measurement heights for high middle and low type clouds Cumulonimbus These are known as thunderstorm clouds and have lots of vertical development they can stretch between 2000m6000m 650019000ft Above 6000m they level out due to dropping temperatures These are the most violent clouds and they inherently indicate unstable conditions Cumuliform clouds are ones with vertical development and can have violent updrafts heavy precipitation and big temperature differences inside of them When rising air parcels have areas with weak downdrafts between them fair weather cumulus clouds can form Cumulus Congesfus Cumulus clouds develop on top of each other and there s more organized development as cloud towers begin to appear The cells of air are short lived and don t last long but they re quickly replaced so the towers can grow quickly Unusual clouds These aren t all easily categorized but this is how it works Mammafus they usually indicate some lowlevel turbulence with stack like protrusions from the base of a cloud Lenficular clouds form downwind of mountain ranges in a lensdisc shape Banner clouds are similar to Lenticular clouds only they re anchored to a single mountain peak ON BANNERLENTICULAR CLOUDS Shape is a bit more important than the attached to a peak bit If you can t tell which it is look at the shape Is the cloud a disc If yes label it as lenticular even if it s right above a mountain That s what we did in class Please don t take that as gospel and then get mad at me okay Macreous clouds are stratosphere clouds made of supercooled water and are sometimes called mother of pearl clouds For the record tiny drops of water are more likely to be supercooled than big droplets are Cloud coverage Over 90 of the sky is covered overcast 6090 is covered broken 1060 scattered Less than 10 clear sky Precipitation processes Growth of Cloud Droplets Drag is the force that opposes gravity when something is falling You can think of it as similar to air friction Wave your hand around in the air really quick The pressure you feel on your hand is drag Terminal velocity is when something is falling fast enough that they stop accelerating because there s enough drag to balance gravity You won t stop falling but you ll stop speeding up Smaller things fall slower than big things Because smaller things fall slower than big things a smaller updraft is needed to keep the things in the air Cloud droplets are 1100 the size of raindrops so they have to get a lot bigger before they can overcome the updraft Here s a sentence we had to complete for a clicker quiz lt s helpful on the water droplet while Here s a website that has some good information on the regular cloud types httpwwwsrhnoaaoovietstreamcloudsbasictenhtm 323 GY101 notes taken by Elle Gossman Growth of Cloud Droplets Remember aerosolscondensation nuclei are not water they re salt dust etc Small things fall slower than big things so not all droplets can overcome the updraft to fall to earth When updrafts are stronger droplets have to get bigger before they can reach the terminal velocity to fall Raindrops are about 100x the size of cloud droplets Growth by condensation Most cloud droplets form on condensation nuclei but eventually all of them will have water so the drops will have to grow Warm Clouds are the ones above 0 C throughout and are found in the tropics and in mid latitudes during the warm seasons Warm clouds grow by collisioncoalescence where drops slam into each other and stick together Big collector drops have high terminal velocities and can fall and they fall into other drops picking them up as they go resulting in a snowball effect and they grow Cold Clouds are ones below 0 C while cool clouds have areas that are both above and below 0 C You need both ice and supercooled water in these clouds for them to grow through the Bergeron process The Saturation Vapor Pressure over ice is lower than the one over water so there s a pressure difference Water molecules move to the ice to try to balance the pressure gradient but the air becomes saturated and the water vapor turns into ice lce crystals grow while the water droplets shrink Here s a video we watched in class it does a good job of explaining this and it helps to have a visual for this concept httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvWBvQSvai1s Riming is when liquid water freezes straight onto ice crystals so they grow really quickly Aggregation is when multiple ice crystals are joined together when surface water freezes and the crystals grow big enough to overcome updrafts Distribution and Forms of Precipitation What happens between a cloud and the ground depends on the temperature profile of the area between Snow is precipitation that starts as ice crystals in the cloud and makes it to the ground without melting It forms by Bergeron processes riming and aggregation Snow comes in a lot of shapes and sizes depending on how much moisture is in the cloud and the temperatures in it The northsouth alignment of mountain ranges and the presence of great lakes is related to snowfall distribution in North America Lake Effect is when warm lake water evaporates into cold air and then turns into snow Important factors for the Lake Effect Unstable air Enough water vapor Mechanisms for uplift Convergence or Free convection Here s another video explaining the lake effect httpsweathercomnewsweathervideoepiclakeeffectsnowtimelapse Rain showers are associated with convection and rain clouds where dropletsclouds grow through collisioncoalescence or when ice crystals fall and melt Raindrop shapes start out as spheres but changes to a mushroom shape as frictional drag grows Drops eventually flatten out and split up resulting in a maximum drop size of 5mm and the continuation of the collisioncoalescence process Graupe are ice crystals that go through riming and lose the 6sided shape and can be enormous Here s another video we watched in class to explain yet another process httbswwwvoutubecomwatchvANXFCKYdew Sleef starts out as ice crystals that melt as they fall but refreeze before the drop reaches the ground Freezing rain is similar to sleet but it doesn t completely refreeze before it hits the ground Rain gauges measure rainfall Snowfall is measured by melting the snow and finding the water equivalent Snow to water ratio can vary quite a bit it can be a 101 ratio 41 or 51 ratio Cloud seeding involves injecting nuclei into nonprecipitating clouds to increaseenhance precipitation Pic from httlowwweXIoressCOuknewsnature457OO4NatureswondrousbeautvAMAZING Dhotosofsnowflakesunderthemicroscooe
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