Lecture 9: The First Farmers
Lecture 9: The First Farmers 101
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by JaCene T. on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Tanya Muller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Lecture 9 The First Farmers gt Broadspectrum revolution 15000 before present in the Middle East and 12000 before present in Europe We see climate change begin in areas closer to the equator 0 Exploitation of a wider range of plant and animal resources 0 Led to food production by 10000 before present in the Middle East 0 Food production human control over the reproduction of plants and animals Mesolithic gt Broad spectrum revolution led to very rich and diverse regions for hunting and gathering hunting smaller solitary animals Very rich areas for foraging gt Knowledge comes from Europe because of the rich history of archaeology gt Characteristic tool type microliths small stone small and delicately shaped stone tools gt By 10000 years ago glaciers retreated and human range in Europe extended to British Isles and Scandinavia We developed settling down before domestication People stalked solitary animals and fished gt Meat preservation became increasingly important bow and arrow development rather than spears for hunting water fowl dogs domesticated as retrievers to hunt water fowl As we settled down we learned how to preserve meat mainly due to the colder climate Bow and arrow s become more popular than using a spears Bow and arrows because more useful in hunting animals gt Woodworking with axes chisels and gouges gt Food production reached Western Europe only around 5000 years ago 3000 BCE and northern Europe 500 years later gt After 15000 years ago throughout inhabited world biggame supply diminished and people pursued new resources 0 Also happened at Japanese site of Nittano Transition gt 1200010000 before present 0 Seminomadic hunting and gathering gt 100007500 before present 0 Dry farming without irrigation First domesticated plants are cereal grains wheat and barley and caprine domestication goats and sheep gt 75005500 before present 0 Increasingly specialized food production 0 Domestication of cattle and pigs new crops 0 More productive varieties of wheat and barley new crops added Overview gt By 5500 thousand years ago agriculture extended to Mespotamia alluvial plain of Tigris and Euphrates rivers and metallurgy and wheel were invented habitation of small towns that eventually grow into cities origin of the state gt Neolithic revolution Childe describes origin and impact of food production 0 Neolithic first cultural period in region in which first signs of domestication are present 0 Term coined to refer to new techniques of grinding and polishing stone tools 0 Transition occurs when reliance on domesticated foods reaches more than 50 of 50 of the diet 0 Dependence on cultivation sedentary life and use of ceramic vessels The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East gt Environmental zones high plateau Hilly Flanks piedmont steppe alluvial desert 0 Hilly Flanks subtropical woodland zone that anks Tigris and Euphrates rivers 0 Braidwood abundance of wild grains allowing foragers e g the Natufians to adopt sedentism a sedentary life in villages 0 Natufians collected wild cereals and hunted gazelles from yearround villages gt Around 11000 years ago drier climate zone of abundant wild grains shrank 0 People adopted new subsistence strategy including food production 0 Prior to domestication favored Hilly Flanks zone had densest human population 0 Climate created vertical economy where wild cereals ripened during different seasons at different altitudes low altitudes in spring middle altitudes in summer and high altitudes in fall 0 Food production probably emerged when people living in marginal areas such as the piedmont steppe attempted to duplicate artificially the dense stands of wheat and barley that grew in the Hilly Flanks by transferring wild cereals to wellwatered areas where they started cultivating Era totes Eon Drigriri of State Somer 553Equot Inorooaiogr Specialization in food production MUD550E ErLirljr dry farming and tooririe domogtiootion ll FEDU Semioomodio hunting and gathering og Notofiario 39liZ l j gt Sedentary village life developed before farming and herding in the Middle East because people needed to be able to store the wild grains that they harvested gt In the Middle East as in Peru and Mesoamerica the close juxtaposition of varied environmental zones allowed broadspectrum foragers to use different resources in different seasons vertical economy gt Seasonal migrations and trade linked environmental zones 0 Movement of people animals and products between zones was a precondition for the emergence of food production 0 Mutations genetic recombination and human selection led to new kinds of wheat and barley gt Genetic changes and domestication 0 Domesticated as opposed to wild crops 0 Larger seeds 0 Higher yield per unit of area 0 Loss of natural seed dispersal mechanisms 0 Tougher connective tissue axes holding seedpods to the stem 0 More brittle husks 0 Domesticated as opposed to wild animals 0 Smaller easier to control 0 Changes to defense mechanisms such as horns O Other traits selected by humans e g woolly coats in sheep produced livestock that were better adapted to hot dry alluVial lowlands and from which wool could be obtained for clothing 0 Canines were used as defense We have multiple dog breeds for multiple jobs Chihuahua s for example are so jitter because they are used to huntkill rats gt Food production and the state 0 Gradual transition from foraging to food production As population increases we find ways to produce food for that population 0 Effects of food production 0 Population increase 0 Resulting migrations O Forced people living in other areas to respond e g in the Hilly Flanks people had to begin cultivating in order to intensify production 0 By 7000 before present simple irrigation systems developed tapping into springs 0 By 6000 years ago complex irrigation systems allows to plant crops in dry areas 0 Agriculture became possible in south arid lowlands 0 Around 5500 years ago Mesopotamian state arose a state society with an economy based on irrigation and trade Other Old World Farmers gt Path from foraging to farming followed independently in at least seven world areas independent invention 0 Crops and animals originally domesticated in the Middle East spread to northern Africa including Egypt Europe India and Pakistan Indus River Valley 0 Food production was not independently invented in the Indus River Valley 0 By 9000 years ago people living at Nabta Playa Egypt yearround 0 Cattle first domesticated here perhaps independently by 11000 thousand years ago Around 8000 years ago communities on Europe s Mediterranean shores shifting from foraging to farming using imported species Presence of domesticated goats sheep cattle wheat and barley in Pakistan around same time China 0 Northern China Yellow River 0 Two varieties of millet cultivated by 7500 years ago 0 Dogs pigs and possibly cattle goats and sheep domesticated by 7000 years ago 0 Southern China Yangtze River rice emerges 0 Rice cultivated perhaps as early as 8400 years ago Northern China is too cold to grow rice rice must be under water to grow if it is too cold the water freezes enabling the rice to grow 0 Water buffalo dogs and pigs domesticated by 7000 years ago Production Was Independently Invented Werld Area Mater Deamestieated Plantsfan lmals Earliest Data are Middle East Wheat barley Tllltlllll Sheep gnats settle pigs Andean raglan Squasn petatn nulnea beans quotIU U39UU5UUU Camelltls llama alpaca guinea pigs Sautnern China Rice 35006500 Yangtze River earridar Water buttale dens pigs Mesaamerlea Mtatae be ans sqaaslt Btltltl a rtltl Begs turkeys Martitern China latillet lllellew llt itrer Begs pigs ehlekens F500 SulaSaharan Atriiea Sergeant pearl rnlllet African riee ease Eastern United States Eeeseteat marsh elder sunflawer squash ssan The First American Farmers gt Americas 0 Early Native Americans occupied variety of environments 0 Independently invented food production in three areas eastern US Mesoamerica and the south central Andes 0 States based on agriculture and trade in Mexico and Peru 0 Lack of state development in eastern US until maize spreads 0 Animal domestication less important than in New World than Old World 0 Large game animals extinct or not domesticable O Domesticated New World animals included llamas alpacas guinea pigs ducks turkeys and dogs 0 Three main staples maize corn potatoes and manioc cassava O Other crops beans squash quinoa goosefoot marsh elder and sun ower O The three sisters as we in New Mexico know them maize beans and squash the basis of the Mesoamerican diet gt Tropical Origins of New World Domestication 0 Farming began in lowlands of South America not highlands of Mexico and Peru 0 Began around 10000 years ago 0 Domesticated squash seeds found in Peru dated to 10000 years ago eVidence shows they were transported there thus domesticated even earlier 0 Maize domestication lowlands of Mexico 0 Wild ancestor is teosinte 0 Selected for increases in number of kernels per cob cob size and number of cobs per stalk tough axes and soft husks 0 Spread rapidly gt The Mexican highlands 0 Between 10000 and 4000 years ago foragers in the Valley of Oaxaca had a broadspectrum economy O Dispersed to hunt during the fall and Winter but gathered together in late spring and summer to harvest Wild cactus fruits and other seasonally available plants including mesquite O Eventually began planting maize and by 4000 BR maize had replaced the other Wild plants people were harvesting 0 Simple irrigation permitted permanent villages based on maize farming by 3500 BF 0 Spread of maize farming resulted in further genetic changes higher yields higher human populations and more intensive farming Explaining the Neolithic gt Development of full edged Neolithic economy required settling down 0 Required several species of plants and animals minimal set of nutritious domesticates 0 Middle East also had Mediterranean climate With closely packed environmental zones favorable to origin and spread of Neolithic economy 0 Mesoamerica required genetic changes to shift from teosinte to maize Teosinte was not as productive as Wheat and barley coupled With lack of large domesticable animals leads to more gradual emergence of food production O Neolithic economy and sedentism did not develop in east southeast and southwest of US until maize diffused in from Mesoamerica gt Geography and the Spread of Food Production 0 Most crops in Eurasia domesticated once and spread rapidly in eastwest direction 0 Could more easily spread eastwest than northsouth because of 0 Common day lengths 0 Similar climates 0 Major axes of Africa and North and South America are northsouth Which slows diffusion due to major climate shifts 0 Environmental barriers kept Neolithic societies more separate in the Americas the Middle East and Africa Major Axes of the Continents tsunw 333 12m 15m raw artcm GEEANK r A rmmm GEEAN 3TH F CJ39HC PA CIFJ39C GE EA N D EEA N W T3 IND m N 4quot I 4 cm N k tquot 39V39Trc quotia of Ca 39 nimrnl 313 p 1 am I 1 SUD lil mii I Li l LEDEl 34m km In I WWW WWW E39EFW 39rniw 39E39J W 0 33le BITE SITE 39IEZEIIF iE 1EU E 18W Cost and Benefits of Food Production 2 Discoveries and inventions 39 Spinning and weaving pottery bricks masonary work smelting and metal work trade and commerce by land and sea artistic endeavors innovations in math and science gt Costs Higher work effort More hours per day more days per week more weeks per year 39 Less nutrition Reliance on a smaller diversity of resources leads to nutritional inadequacies particularly with protein and key micronutrientsagriculture diets are typically carbohydrate heavy 39Larger family size Leads to more hands to work but more child care duties as well economic division of labor grows more complex 39 Decline in public health Increase in communicable diseases protein deficiency and dental cares 39 Social inequality environmental degradation Anthropology Today gt Global climate change threatens Archaeology 0 GCC has resulted in weather patterns that are less predictable and more extreme threatening archaeological sites in diverse locations 0 In the Alps glaciers have melted that have both uncovered new sites and rotted organic remains in existing sites 0 In coastal Peru El Ni o events have ooded desert sites 0 In Greenland violent wave action is destroying coastal sites 0 In the Eurasian steppes tombs of Scythian nomads are in danger of thawing and rotting away as the permafrost thaws O In California s Channel Islands coaster winds waves storm surges and rising sea levels are wiping out sites 0 In the Sahara Desert rising temperatures have killed vegetation and spreading Saharan sands are eroding sites Summary gt Be able to define the term Neolithic and consider how changes in human subsistence techniques first arose at different times in different world regions gt Know the significance for plant domestication of the distinct environmental zones in the Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East gt Know the genetic changes that took place in the plants and animals that were first domesticated gt Know the seven world regions where domestication independently occurred Identify the main differences in the emergence of farming in New World and Old World regions Be able to identify the species involved as well as when and where they were first domesticated gt Be familiar with the explanations Kottak presents for why the Neolithic economy was fully established in some regions more rapidly than others gt Consider how food production contributed to the emergence of the socialpolitical organization of the state