10/22 Chapter 14 Notes
10/22 Chapter 14 Notes BMS 208-03
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 14 10222015 Structural Organization of the Nervous System Central Nervous System CNS 0 Brain neurons Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS o Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves Ganglia peripheral clusters of neurons dorsal root ganglia Functional Organization of the Nervous System Direction of Impulse TransferTransportation Sensory Afferent Division transmits information from periphery to the CNS contains receptors Somatic Sensory Receives sensory information from skin fascia joints skeletal muscles and special senses Visceral Sensory Receives sensory information from viscera Ex headaches Motor efferent Division transmits info from CNS to the rest of the body sends motor info to effectors exiting CNS Somatic Motor Voluntary nervous system innervates skeletal muscle 0 Autonomic Motor Involuntary nervous system innervates cardiac muscle smooth muscle glands Cells of the Nervous Sm 0 Anatomy of a Multipolar Neuron 0 Cell Body Soma o Axon takes info away to the some other neuron motor response TelodendriaAxon Terminals axon has several branches that have a knobby structure at the end Terminal 0 Dendrites short processes sensory partresponse of the neuron bring info in lots of dendrites means the neuron is multipolar all motor neurons are multipolar Structural Classi cation of Neurons O O Unipolar neuron one process leaving the cell body the general senses are unipolar touch pressure pain temperature visceral sensory Bipolar neuron 2 processes leaving the cell body special senses represented by bipolar neurons all sensory division Sight smell hearing taste equilibrium Multipolar Neuron all motor neurons Nervous stimulation depends on electrical charge the entire movement relies on the electrical difference Functional Classi cation of Neurons O O O O Somatic referring to the outer regions of the body skin muscles ligaments tendons Visceral referring to the organs on the inside of the body example lungs heart stomach blood vessels Posterior root ganglion clusters of sensory unipolar glands Sensory conducts nerve impulses from body to CNS most unipolar few bipolar Anterior motor response Fig 145 Sensory Neuron conducts nerve impulses from body to CNS most unipolar few bipolar gt lnterneuron found only in CNS helps wcommunication between sensory amp motor neurons multipolar gt Motor Neuron conducts nerve impulses from CNS to muscles or glands multipolar Afferent neurons transmit nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS Efferent Neurons transmit impulses from CNS to muscles or glands Neuroglial Glial Cells of CNS Those that belong in Central Nervous System a Astrocyte responsible for formation of the brain blood barrier barrier through which very few microorganisms and drugs get through a Microglia removes cellular waste matter a Ependymal Cells look like columnar epithelium function is to produce cerebrospinal uid In the brain speci cally a Oligodendrocyte Very fatty cells that help with insulation by producing myelin sheaths on myelinated axons Those that belong in Peripheral Nervous System n Neurolemmocytes Schwann Cells typical very speci c cell of the peripheral make myelin sheaths in the PNS n Glial cells Satellite cells very speci c to the ganglia of the PNS a Node of RanvierNeurofibril Node gap in myelin sheath The Synapse One neuron wants to send information to another neuron across a synapse must be chemical if it goes through another neuron it is electrical o The Presynaptic neuron the cell that brought the information o The Postsynaptic neuron the cell that will receive the information through binding of the chemical 0 Fig 1414 Neurons don t touch each other there is a gap they only communicate through chemicals
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