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Experimental Techniques in Mechanics and Materials

by: Dorian Simonis

Experimental Techniques in Mechanics and Materials EMA 3012C

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Materials Engineering > EMA 3012C > Experimental Techniques in Mechanics and Materials
Dorian Simonis
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.71

Ramesh Bhavsar

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Ramesh Bhavsar
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorian Simonis on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EMA 3012C at University of Central Florida taught by Ramesh Bhavsar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see /class/227453/ema-3012c-university-of-central-florida in Materials Engineering at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
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not be excessive an fracture should not occur Therefore the material characteristics should be known Factors to be considered are i nature of the applied load ii duration of application and iii environmental conditions Since mechanical properties are of concem to producers and consumers of materials research or anizations government agencies etc there 5 ou consistency in the manner in which the tests are conducted American Sooiety for Testing and Materials establishes and publishes the standards Mechanical properties of interest are strength hardness ductility toughness etc THE TENSION TEST A tension test can be used to obtain several mechanical properties of materials 5 deformed usually to fracture with a gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxiaily along the long axis of the specimen The specimen is mounted by its ends into the holding grips of the testing apparatus The tensile testing machine is designed to elongate the specimen at a constant rate and to continuously and simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load and resulting elongations A stress strain test usually takes several minutes to perform and is destructive YIELDING amp YIELD STRENGTH Since most metal structures are designed to ensure that only elastic deformation will result when a stress is applied it is desirable to know when yielding occurs The point of yielding is determined as the initial departure from linearity of the stress strain curve sometimes called proportional limit This point may not be determined precisely 02 Yield strength UV or ca2 The units of yield strength are MPa or psi The magnitude of yield strength is a measure of its resistance to plastic defamation Ranges be een 35 MPa for Al to 1400 MPa for highstrength steels StressStrain Testing 0 Typical tensile test Typical tensile machine specimen Load cell l I y speCImen Adapted from Fi 2 extensometer Calister 7e m 2 390 M on gt 39miao 2 hi m gauge 390 g length 1 a a Adapted from Fig 63 Callisler 7e Fig 63 is taken from HW Hayden WG Mo alt and J Wullf The Structure and Properties of Materials Vol III Mechanical Behavior p 2 John Wiley and Sons 120 16 01 9 New York 1965 engineering In a Metals occurs when noticeable necking starts TS stress Tensile Strength TS Maximum stress on engineering stressstrain curve M Adapted from Fig 611 Callisler 7e F fracture or ultimate strength Necktie Neck acts as stress concentrator Sect IOiml CW 7Mg L ntli engineering strain l9 zlzcwasmg r nfld39 wrrhm it may n cuznfllu Suits 1 lualdrbrjthmcl 342ch I oh Sgtmine Polymers occurs when polymer backbone chains are aligned and about to break 011209 26 DUCTILE FRACTURE Fracture is preceded by only a moderate amount of ck39n ne I g The stages of ductile fracture are Small cavities or microvoids form in the interior of the cross As defamation continues these microvoids enlarge come together and coalesce to form an elliptical crack TL t axis by the microvoid coalescence process I Finally fracture ensues by the rapid propagation of a crack aroun outer penmeter of the neck by shear deformation at an39 angle of about 45 with the tensile axis Cup and cone fracture DUCTILE FRACTURE Figure 919 curch obtains dcfmmg So rFected or neckan stress strain n39 1 u sumc maleri iha from h same lesl lLALGtIl MCILU no LCHWOHH one vagivn 925 ommcrHon 39m ihcm ihz 01114quot ls cw vamp q smq MOVE wnrt mmn m han bsg39mx 1 0 avm in the sFaoimen aw 3mm POlh t39 Thig I known as szni5 A Iowa 5412 u LAHieh 0 con mLe pMumcdlj cleafafm H W SchHYlenlm hls yeg an wy is Known u 39s chn n gt k IOCahzodmn 0V CULtihlbdcdion Wa Hm 3 00 WMWM a m 192 pawn of necwm lh unmade ILL i5 bauuise of hechlng iha ILHULH v quot Shanth s lax ehqh 4kc imnrllc menyhflh wmedy Mime ma 52 ylmd 5Mn9 r n And JamI16 mang m and hCUTvL39V SherlgHw mm the f h39l 39f 2on55cu wn14u 0L Memqm of dun1W3 hm Hw onaclVCk nigger mu H L Vanilla CDDIFOTK I of HLquot FONTS w y umfovnn Llangcq39kon HEW WHO S E39de necwmj 1m I x I V 0 Q lamtnzui lohgot n 560 autos c uf mo meih 3 Th 0 a z onc yaw w ransmv39a i0 4 steL39xmm sl39uz ID I m franc m LingH1 l39DMmc1ltY 1159 it rfwumen 7J3 H 5 cmwmmj in szcyEy hlt fumed 3x192 lang l ear I w Truman when 5 1 vapa mi Resilience Ur i m lhl x 7 l All Lrleizj Sigh4 em lfqlw UJH OLU mp7 cmmqg ll 5 v l a1 lull vliluh lS u leuurl unqu y Maud Ability of a material to store energy Energy stored best in elastic region L 17 39 lh lt Ty ll 8 1 Ur joy ode g I39 If we assume a linear 5 stress strain curve this simplifies to U E 039 8 I r l P 0002 8y Strain 2 y y Adapted from Fig 615 Canister 7e 011209 30 gs igure 32 FAo Stress c MeEE GU Icyy5a1 0 A0 F L f Slope Eos i L 02 offset Strain e 8LL UCF MMAE Stressstrain deformation curve for a metal The 3tressstmin Curve for a metal showing the modulus E the 02 percent yield strenth m and the ultimate strength 7 EMA3124 Design and Selection of Materials g Lecture 5 Engineering Materials and Properties Ch3 UCF MMAE Strength yield UTS fracture MPa UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength 6 MPa Nominal stress at which a round bar of the material loaded in tension separates For brittle materials UTS failure strength in tension For ductile materials UTS gt Strength of For metals of 02 offset yield strength cry a 5 A0 Mit l or n Oy f quot wSlope 595 902 v httpmmaececsucfedu 9 FIE UCF MMAE Young s Modulus and the Strength of Perfect Solids TENSILE BR39TTLE WELD STRENGTH I FRACTURE STRENGTH BREAKING r PLASTIC STRENGTH STRESS MD gt b The elastic modulus is a measure of the stiffness of materials and the theoretical strength of that material TENSILE STRENGTH BREAKING STRENGTH e s C httpmmaececsucfedu lo UCF MMAE Hooke 3 law All solids respond to small stresses in a linear way proportional to the stress applied This is known as Hooke s law xe5ej 039Yg is where Yis Young s modulus and a is the strain experienced by the material and defined as L0 ductilwy where L is the length under the applied stress and L0 is the original length L L0 Ao A 8 T A measuve of httpmmaececsucfedu UCF MMAE Theoretical strength of solids Experience has shown that the actual strengths of ceramics are much lower and are closer tom to The reason is that the real materials contains inevitablemmm W WS they arm mm 15 a 211 I Wale httpmmaececsucfedu UCF MNIAE Stressstrain deformation curve for a polymer X Brittle T ltlt Tg i 7fyij r 1 FAo Limited plasticity T 08 T9 A0 39 H oy Cold drawing T Tg Stress o Viscous flow T gtgt Tg strain Strain a ESLL r 4 Figure 33 SU39essrstrain curves for a polymer bciow at and above its giass uansttion ei npei wire Ty EMA3124 Design and Selection of Materials UCF MMAE For ceramics strength means fracture strength in tension oft In compression it means crushing strength of Compressive strength is 10 15 times higher than the tensile strength quot Eo Qaramics Compression httpmmaececsucfedu Ductility Plastic tensile strain at failure smaller EL Engineering tensile stress 6 Adapted from Fig 613 Callisrer 7e 3 Engineering tensile strain a Another ductility measure EL L L L x 100 A LO 2 Af Lf RAMLX 100 0 011209 28 Toughness Energy to break a unit volume of material Approximate by the area under the stressstrain curve Engineering small toughness ceramics tenSlle large toughness metals stress 6 Adapted from Fig 613 Callisrer 7e v quot x l 7 l Engineering tensile strain a Brittle fracture elastic energy Ductile fracture elastic plastic energy 011209 29


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