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Lecture 14 &15

by: Natasha

Lecture 14 &15 Biol 202

GPA 3.9
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Schoenfuss, Heiko

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About this Document

These are the notes from class. Make sure you look at his slides also and use the book for good pictures of things.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Schoenfuss, Heiko
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natasha on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Biol 202 10202015 The Muscular System Characteristics of Muscle Contractions All muscles consist of sarcomeres Each muscle and contraction is different 0 The length of sarcomere at the time of contraction can differ o The speed of sarcomere contraction can differ o The sarcomere arrangement can differ o The arrangement of sarcomeres across the entire muscle can differ Any contractile motion is because sarcomeres are contracting Skeletal muscles contract when you speak swallow food lift something move around and stand still The length of sarcomere at the time of contraction can differ o The normal working range for a sarcomere is 1 micrometer I EL 2 z I D Tension percent of maximum 6i a Normal 40 lrerlge ED V f 39 l 12 u lT39l lll tim 21mm 22um 126um 36mm Decreased length Increased length r Optimal m resting lengthm i a a maximum amount of possible over lap b running our of over lap room c strongest tension 100 d more overlap e weak pull because they are barely overlapping The speed of sarcomere contraction can differ The slower the force the more you can generate Sprinter high velocity of contraction and a low force Power liter needs a to have power over a long period of time The sarcomere arrangement can differ Parallel help with force think of horse power Series lined up end to end All or nothing response The number of sarcomeres arranged in a line determine the degree of shortening Wide receiver in football is tall so he can move someone back He has more sarcomeres in his muscles than a short football player The arrangement of sarcomeres across the entire muscle can differ 0 ow Figure Tag Arrangement of muscle bers in muscles of different shape A Straplilte m ECiE B spindlewslmpad muscle 3 fanshaped muscle D pennate muscle bipennate muscle mu ltipemate muscle segmented muscle and mdmmm from Byte W 0 Small and j 39lli msing Textbook of Veterinary anatomy Phiiade hia Smmalers Company I981 J straplike for bigger so they contract fast less sarcomeres at the ends Muscles gets a shorter surface are powerful pulls muscle lots of surface area available determined by length E F pennate run in an angle not a straight line More sarcomeres can t think of a parking lot parking parallel vs parking at an angle segmented Red versus White Muscle Fibers Long distance 0 Lots of red muscle bers 0 Slow 0 Need lots of blood oxygen and glucose 0 Middle distance 0 Mix of red and white muscle bers Sprinter 0 Fast 120 sec 0 White muscle bersless blood vessels Muscle Anatomy amp Physiology can Differ Among Human Populations Xhosa world class runners for long distance 37 min for a 10K 0 Compared Xhosa to Caucasian runners of the same ability 0 During work outs the athletes were monitored and compared 0 A muscle biopsy was taken Xhosa had more enzymes to break down lactic acid than Caucasians had Lactic acid can lead to fatigue so Xhosa are better off genetically to be long distance runners 1 02 22 0 1 5 Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt 0 A muscle cannot contract When it is fatigued 0 A common reason for muscle fatigue is oxygen debt 0 Oxygen is needed to get rid of accumulate lactic acid 0 Increasing acidity and lack of ATP make muscles contract less Types of Muscle Contraction 0 Isotonic contractions O Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during the contractions O The muscles shortens 0 Lifting a dumb bell the weight does not change 0 Isometric contractions 0 Tension in the muscles increases 0 The muscle is unable to shorten 0 Filling a bucket With water slowly increases the tension in your muscle as the bucket gets heavier Muscle Tone 0 Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle 0 Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone 0 The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control Effects of Exercise on Muscle 0 Increased muscle use results in 0 Increase in muscle size 0 Increase in muscle strength 0 Increase in efficiency O Muscles become more fatigue resistant Each muscle has at least two attachment sites 0 Origin attachment to an immoveable bone axial lnsertion attachment to a moveable bone appendicular Some muscles end at a tendon and then the tendon attaches to the bone Types of Muscles 0 Prime mover a muscle with the major responsibility biceps Antagonist muscle that opposes or reverses the prime mover triceps Synergist muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation o Fixator a muscle that stabilizes the origin of a prime mover it holds us in a particular position Turtle We think either the prime mover or the antagonist work That they cannot work at the same time Well when you stand all muscles are contracted in your legs to keep you standing You need more stability around your vulnerable knee Naming the Skeletal Muscles Direction of the muscle bers 0 Rectus straight stand erect you stand straight Relative size of the muscle 0 Maximus largest maximum 0 Location of the muscle 0 Named after bones temporalis 0 Number of origins o Triceps three heads tri means three tricycle Location of the muscles origin and insertion o Sterno on the sternum Shape of the muscle 0 Deltoid triangular Actions of the muscle 0 Flexor and extensor exes or extends a bone Anterior Muscles Pectoralis major insertion humerus Pectoralis minor Shoulder multipennate isometric xator muscle Deltoid muscle maintain position of your shoulder Posterior Muscles Lumbar vertebral column connective tissue because there is no space for muscle attachment Facial Musculature Circular muscles 0 Orbicularis oculi close your eyes 0 Orbicularis oris mouth Levator labii superioris upper lip Masseter biting force Zygomaticus major and minor smiling Depressor anguli oris pulling down angle mouth Smiling what muscles contract 0 Zygomatic major and minor Labator labii superioris Depressor labii inferioris Depressor anguli oris Orbicularis oris Corrugated supercilii OOOOO Neck Musculature Muscles are long Straplike Not an issue of force but of quick movement want them long Nervous for a class speech drop your shoulders to open up the larynx Trunk Muscles External oblique angle down Internal oblique angle up Transversus abdominus across abdomen Rectus abdominus straight up and down 8 pack because connective tissue


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