One week of bioee notes
One week of bioee notes BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology
Popular in Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Siege on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Blastula bilaterians diploblastic 2 cell layers radial triploblastic 3 cell layers bilateral gastrulation —> protostomes vs deuterstomes Jelly Blubber diploblastic radio symmetrical Animals and Choanoﬂagellates - ﬂagellum at posterior end of cell - Cahderins (adhesive proteins) - tyrosine kiases (communication) - collar cells also found in basal animals, never in other protists, plants or fungi fungi posses specialized cells Sponges multicellular, composed of an aggregation of specialized cells body with pores, atria, and an osculum that serve for passage of water aquatic no symmetry no organs, true tissue, or nervous system spicule skeleton made from CaCO3, protein spongin or silica Eumetazoans true tissue symmetrical body plan gastrodermis (endoderm) Epidermis (ectoderm) Diploblasts Comb Jellies ciliated ctenes- cilia bearing plates complete digestive tract simple life cycle Cnidarians jellies, anemones, corals aquatic polyp stage and medusa stage able to reverse back to polyp stage—> immortal jelly incomplete gut synapomorphy: cnidocytes (explosive s;nging/adhesive cells) use a muscular bell that surrounds the blind gastrovascular cavity to move trade oﬀs intercal gastr Tradeoﬀ take home polyps: promote survival and maintenance of local populations bc they can reproduce without a mate but they limit the ability to disperse Medusae: may enhance dispersal probability and population Animals - Lophotrochozoans lophophore: ring of ciliated tentacles around the mouth use to ﬁlter food particles out from the water trochophore: band of cilia used for movement in larvae ancestral features lost in many lineages bryozoans, brachiopod, pharonoid Bilateral Protostomes Flatworms bilateral triploblasts aceolomate no specialized circulatory/respiratory organs hermaphroditic parasitic ﬂatworm no central body cavity — assimilate bilateral symmetry one opening for mouth and anus depends entirely on host so devotes most energy to reproduction hermaphroditic free-living ﬂatworm (planaria) no internal body cavity nervous tissue clusters eye spots lacks circulatory system mouth on the under belly also used for waste tapeworms no digestive system head with hooks and suckers body composed of proglottids parasitic Annelids earthworm ﬂuid ﬁlled coelom allows for increase in size and activity in organism rigidity and movement segmented animals, each separated by a septum closed circulatory system transport nutrients, blood cells and gases around the body blood is enclosed at all times within vessels (closed system) digestive tube with 2 openings, mouth and anus Setae: bristles used for locomotion hermaphroditic clitellum: used for the transfer of sperm chitinous setae coelomates Mollusks foot: large muscle used for locomotion bivalves use it for digging instead visceral mass housing important organs open circulatory system: tissue is bathed in ﬂuid called hemolymph cephalopods have closed mantle: cloaks visceral mass mostly free living hermaphroditic and separate sexes gastropods adaptations to avoid fouling incurrent and excurrent siphon and left gill variation in shell shape nudibranchs: sea slugs who go through torsion and detorsion Bivalves two shells: include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops two siphons Cephalopods agile predators squids and octopuses siphon, tentacles, vertebrate like eyes intelligence Arthropods segmented bodies some fused together to form more specialized segments like with ants jointed foot synapomorphy: jointed appendages antennae: sensing mouthparts: tasting claws: grabbing food walking legs Abdominal appendages – swim, holding eggs, mating Reduced coelom/open circulatory system Hemocoel/hemolymph Developed ventral nervous system brain, ventral nerve cord, segmental ganglia Exoskeleton of chitin secreted by the underlying epidermis Costs: non expandable molting of cuticle required for growth heavy with increasing size vulnerable after molting Beneﬁts structural suport water loss protection Ecdysis (molting): the shedding of an old cuticle Insects coleoptera Lepidoptera diptera Hymenoptera 3-part body: head, thorax, abdomen Antennae Reduced number of walking lets to 6 3 pairs of legs acached to thorax wings Tracheae extend from spiracles Metamorphosis Early development starts with an egg and post- embryonic development involves dramatic changes in form. Each stage between molts is called an instar. Complete metamorphosis 88% of insects Growth stage (larva) Diﬀerentiation (pupa) Adult Incomplete metamorphosis No pupa stage good bc you can have a specialized niche for each body form giant insects? lower oxygen levels the larger and animal grows the greater the distance required for oxygen to be transported to the internal tissue