Language Development LIN 3716
University of Central Florida
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Module 10 Additionally we will also see that there are several notable achievements made in language content form and use in the schoolage years and beyond Specific achievements in language content include lexical development understanding of multiple meanings understanding of lexical and sentential ambiguity and acquisition of a literate language style AwN k Specific achievements in language form include 1 the continued development of complex syntax 2 the ongoing development of morphological forms and 3 further development in phonological forms Module 10 Notes Major Achievements in Language Content and Form in the SchoolAge years and Beyond Major Language Development Milestones in the SchoolAge Years and Beyond During these years language development is more subtle than it is in early childhood Two processes that differentiate schoolage children from their younger counterparts are the shifting sources of language input and the acquisition of metalinguistic competence o Shifting Source of Language Input Before schoolage years children s sole source of language input is aural Once children learn to read language input shifts to written text as well When children learn to read they progress through a predictable series of developmental stages The prereading stage spans from birth until the beginning of formal education during this stage children develop oral language print awareness and phonological awareness Afterthe prereading stage children progress through five stages that build on this early foundation lnitial reading or decoding stage Kindergarten through first grade 57 years old Children begin to decode words by associating letters with corresponding sounds in spoken words Within this stage there are three phases 1 substitution with words that are semantically and syntactically probable 2 substitution with words that have a graphic resemblance to the original print word and 3 substitution with words that graphically resemble the original text and are semantically acceptable 0 Confirmation fluency and ungluing from print Second to third grade 78 years old Children become proficient in high frequency words and gain fluency and speed in reading Transition from learning to read to reading to learn Reading to learn the new a first step Grade 4 to 8 or 9 914 years Children read to learn new information This stage helps expand children s vocabularies build background and world knowledge and develop strategic reading habits Multiple viewpoints High School 1418 years Children learn to handle increasingly difficult concepts and can consider multiple viewpoints Construction and reconstruction College 18 years onward In this stage readers learn to make judgments about what to read how much to read and in what level of detail to achieve comprehension Acquisition of Metalinguistic competence Metalinguistic competence is the ability to think about and analyze language as an object of attention It increases significantly in the schoolage years particularly pho nolo gical awareness and figurative language Phonological Awareness During the schoolage years developing abilities in phonological awareness include awareness of the smallest units of sound phonemes and include blending sounds segmenting sounds from words and manipulating sounds This is termed phonemic awareness Fig urative Language Figurative language is language that people use in nonliteral and often abstract ways Using figurative language is a metalingusitic ability because children must recognize that language is an arbitrary code Figurative language includes metaphors similes hyperboles idio ms irony and proverbs Metaphors a type of figurative language that conveys similarity through an expression that refers to something it does not demote literally Similes are similar to metaphors expect that they make comparison explicit by using the wordslike or as Children s ability to understand similes and metaphors is related to their performance on measures of general cognition language and academic achievement Hyperboles particular form of figurative language that uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect Research suggests that intonation patterns may help children comprehend hyperboles or they may make use the discrepancy between the literal and intended meanings of an utterance to determine the speaker s intent Idioms expressions that contain both literal and figurative meaning Opaque idioms demonstrate little relationship between literal interpretation and figurative interpretation Transparent idioms are and extension of the literal meaning Opaque and less frequently used idioms are most difficult to understand Irony involves incongruity between what the speaker says and what actually happens Research suggests that that people use both acoustic cures and contextual information to infer ironic intent in other persons spontaneous speech Proverbs are statements that express the conventional values beliefs and wisdom of a society The presence of a supportive linguistic environment can facilitate adolescents understanding of proverbs Major Achievements in Language Content and Form in the School Age Years and Beyond Language Content 0 Schoolage children make gains in language content as a result of reading text which provides students with access to words and concepts not typically the topic of everyday conversations Four areas of content development are lexical development understanding of multiple meanings understanding of lexical and sentential ambiguity and development of literate language Lexical Development Children learn new words in three ways through direct instruction contextual abstraction and morphological analysis Direct Instruction learning the meaning of a word directly from a more knowledgeable source This may be another person or a dictionary Contextual Abstraction involves using contextual cues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words Morphological Analysis analyzing the lexical inflectional and derivational morphemes of unfamiliar words to infer their meanings Understanding of Multiple Meanings Being able to supply multiple meanings for words requires lexical knowledge and metalinguistic knowledge both of which are necessary to achieve full competence of literate language Understanding of Lexical and Sentential Ambiguity Lexical ambiguity occurs for words or phrases with multiple meanings and at the level of the word may take one of three forms Homophones words that sound alike and may be spelled alike or may be spelled differently Homographs words that are spelled the same and may sound alike or may sound different from each other Homonyms words that are alike in spelling and pronunciation but differ in meaning They are a specific type of homophone Sentential ambiguity involves ambiguity within different components of sentences and includes lexical ambiguity along with phonological ambiguity varying pronunciations of a word surfacestructure ambiguity varying stress and intonation and deepstructure ambiguity a noun serves as an agent in one interpretation and as an object in another Development of Literate Language Literate language is the term used to describe language that is highly decontextualized This child must rely on language itself to make meaning Discourse development moves along a continuum reflecting oral language on one end and literate language on the other At the oral end of the spectrum children are learning to talk and at the literate end they are talking to learn Four specific literate language features that children learn to use are Elaborated noun phrases a group of words consisting of a noun and one or more modifiers procidingaddtiotional information about the noun Adverbs a syntactic form that modifies verbs and enhances explicitness of action and event descriptions Conjunctions words that organize information and clarify relationships among elements and for or yet but nor and so Mental and linguistic verbs refer to various acts of thinking and speaking respectively Language Form 0 Three notable areas of schoolage development in language form are complex syntax development morphological development and phonological development Module 11 Complex Syntax Development Developmentally advanced grammatical structures that mark literate language style and include nounphrase postmodification with past participles complex verb phrase using the perfective aspect adverbial conjunctions and passive voice construction These developments are more visible in students writing particularly persuasive writing Morphological Development Major morphological developments in schoolage years include the use of derivational prefixes and derivational suffixes Derivational prefixes are added to the beginning of words to change their meaning and include un dis non and ir Derivational suffixes are added to the end of words to changes their form class meaning or both They include hood ment er y and ly Phonological Development Schoolage children make progress in morphophonemic development One type involves the use of sound modifications when certain morphemes are joined For example the plural ending iz in watches and matches A second type involves vowel shifting which takes place when the form class of a word is changed by adding a derivational suffix For example al to in decide to decision A third type is the use of stress and emphasis to distinguish phrases form compound words and to distinguish nouns from verbs Module 11 Notes Achievements in Language Use in the SchoolAge Years and Beyond Language Use Three important achievements in language use during the schoolage years are functional flexibility conversational abilities and narrative development 0 Functional Flexibility Refers to the ability to use language for a variety of communicative purposes Language flexibility is important in the classroom because students must be able to use language to compare and contrast to persuade to hypothesize to explain to classify and to predict in the context of their classroom activities Students who cannot use language flexibly are more likely to have difficulties academically and socially o Conversational Abilities During the schoolage years the following conversational abilities improve Staying on topic longer Having extended dialogues with other people that last for several conversational turns Making a larger number of relevant and factual comments Shifting smoothly form one topic to another Adjusting the content and style of their speech to the listener s thoughts and feelings Children also become better at using indirect requests and become better at detecting and repairing conversational breakdowns o Narrative Development Narration is used in both the classroom and social settings and is more complex than conversation Younger children 56 years can produce at least 4 types of narrative Recount telling a story about a personal experience or retelling a story that has been read Accounts spontaneous personal narrative the adult has not shared the experience and cannot prompt the child or supply missing information Event Casts describe a current even or situation as it is happening Fictionalized stories are made up and have a main character who must overcome a challenge Elements of more mature narrative include being able to move fonNard and backward in time and including more than one episode in a narrative Story grammar refers to the components of a narrative as well as the rules that govern how these components are organized Expressive elaboration is the combination of narrative elements in an expressive or artful manner of storytelling These features add to story grammar contained in a narrative to enhance its overall quality There are three main categories Appendages cues to the listener that a story is being told or has ended Orientations provide more detail to the setting and characters Evaluations ways in which the narrator can convey narrator character perspectives The presence of these categories increases with age Module 6 With respect to language form there are major achievements in phonology including acquiring new phonemes phonological processes and phonological perception Additionally grammatical morphemes begin to develop and toddlers begin to transition from using oneword utterances to twoword utterances There is also discussion of some of the new discourse functions and conversational skills that become available to toddlers In the third section of the reading intraindividual and interindividual differences in language achievements are explained and we see how they continue throughout toddlerhood Individual toddlers vary in their language acquisition rate and in their expressive and receptive language development Three major factors that influence differences in language development among a group of toddlers are gender birth order and familial socioeconomic status In the final section methods that researchers and clinicians adopt to measure language development in toddlerhood are described Six specific paradigms researchers use to measure language development naturalistic observation elicited imitation tasks elicited production tasks the picture selection task the act out task and truth value judgment tasks and three ways clinicians measure it assessments evaluations and informal screens are explained Notes Module 6 Major Language Development Milestones in Toddlerhood First Words 0 Babies produce their first word around 12 months 0 For each word a baby learns they create an entry in their Lexicon or mental dictionary 0 True words must be produced with a clear purpose have recognizable pronunciation close to the adult form and be used consistently and extent beyond the original context Gestures o Gestures play an important role in language development in the second and third years of life Referential Gestures Indicate a precise referent and have stable meaning across different contexts Their use signals an impending transition from prelinguistic to linguistic communication Mirror Neurons and Gestures Mirror neurons which are a type of visuomotor neurons activate when people perform action and when they observe other people perform actions Some researchers suggest that mirror neurons are responsible for the evolution of gestures and language in humans handarm gestures and speech may share a common neural substrate Major Achievements in Language Content Form and Use in Toddlerhood Language Content 0 Rec eptive and Expressive Lexicons Between 18 and 24 months or around the time they can produce 50 words toddlers word learning enters an explosive period during which they may learn up to 79 new words a day Howeverthe use of these words may be overextended underextended or overlap ln overextension children use words in an overly general manner They may make categorical overextensions analogical overextensions or relational overextensions Toddlers overgeneralize about one third of all new words Underextensions are more common than overextensions and is the process whereby toddlers use words to refer to only a subset of possible referents ln overlapping toddlers overextend a word in certain circumstances and underextend the same word in other circumstances Acquisition of New Words The Quinean conundrum In order for a toddlerto learn a new word he or she must segment the word from O O 0 cont inuous speech find objects events actions and concepts in the word and map the word to its corresponding object event action or concept The uncertainty of mapping a word to its referent in the face of seemingly endless interpretations is call the Quinean conundrum Lexical Principles Framework for Acquiring New Words First Tier Principles Reference words symbolize objects actions events and concepts Extendibility the notion that words label categories of objects and not just the original exemplar Object Scope words map to whole objects Second Tier Principles Conventionality states that in order for children to communicate successfully they must adopt the terms that people in their language community understand Categorical Scope builds on the tier one principle of extendibility by limiting the basis for extendibility to words that are taxonomically similar Novel namenameless category N3C helps children select a nameless object as the recipient of a novel label N3C res on the principle of mutual exclusivity which states that object have only one label SocialPragmatic Framework for Acquiring New Words 0 Children can overcome the Quinean conundrum by interacting with experienced language users 0 Socialpragmatic theorists say that adult interactions with children offer many social cues to the meanings of words which makes lexical principles unnecessary Fast Mapping o Refers to toddlers ability to pick up words after only a few incidental exposures or even a single exposure children are able to form a lexical representation of the word Thematic Roles Toddlers Acquire o Thematic role is the part a word plays in an event an agent performs the action the theme is the entity undergoing the action the source is the starting point for movement and a goal is the ending point for movement and location is the place where an action occurs 0 Understanding how thematic roles correspond to syntactic elements helps toddlers narrow down the possible interpretations of new words they hear Language Form 0 Achievements in Phonology As toddlers begin to acquire and refine their repertoire of speech sounds or phonemes adults witness their phonological processes rulegoverned errors children make when pronouncing certain words Norms for Phonemic Attainment The ages by which children can produce consonantal phonemes in English vary widely among research reports As toddlers begin to gain more control over their articulators their phonology begins to develop and they begin to use phonological processes Children typically suppress most phonological processes by age 3 years and some persist until 5 years Phonological Perception There are two major positions with respect to how toddlers process speech One states that toddlers use global holistic word recognition strategies and the other states that toddlers can use partial phonetic information to recognize spoken words 0 Achievements in Morphology Grammatical Morphemes Grammatical morphemes are inflection added to words to indicate aspect of grammar Grammatical morphemes begin to appear in children s speech between 18 and 24 months the first grammatical morpheme children produce is the present progressive ing Combination of Words to Make Longer Utterances Roger Brown created Brown s Stages of Language Development which characterize children s language achievements according to their ability to produce utterances of varying syntactic complexity One measure of complexity is mean length of utterance MLU o Sentence Form Toddlers begin to use more adultlike forms for a variety of sentences including yesno questions wh questions commands and negatives Language Use 0 Discourse Functions Toddlers can use a variety of language functions which include instrumental regulatory personalinteractional heuristic imaginative and informative functions 0 Conversational Skills Toddlers may demonstrate some skill in starting a conversation but cannot usually sustain it for more than one or two turns Toddlers have a difficult time keeping their audience s needs in mind Factors In uencing toddlers Individual Achievements in Language lntraindividual Differences o Toddlers receptive lexicons grow quicker than their expressive lexicons o This disparity continues throughout the preschool and schoolage years and even into adulthood lnterindividual Differences 0 Effects of Gender Boys comprehend and produce fewer words than girls do Differences in maturation rates particularly neurological development may contribute to these differences Also parents may interact differently with boys than with girls 0 Effects of Birth Order Firstborn children are more likely to have larger vocabularies in their second year and reach the 50 word mark sooner than later born counterparts May be because first born children receive more one on one attention than children who are not firstborn Effects of Socioeconomic Status Toddlers from lower SES have shorter MLUs and use fewer words than toddlers form higher SES backgrounds Measuring Language Development in Toddlerhood Researchers 0 Production Tasks Children are asked to produce or say target words under investigation Some production tasks are unstructured or semistructured such as naturalistic observation and other production tasks are structured and systematic such as elicited imitation and elicited productions tasks 0 Comprehension Tasks Reveal toddlers language abilities by asking them to either match or point to pictures of target words or phrases or act out phrases they hear an experimenter say 0 Judgment Tasks Children are asked to decide whether certain language constructions are appropriate so that their level of grammatical competence can be assessed In truth value judgment tasks children are asked to judge certain language constructions to be correct or incorrect Clinicians 0 Evaluation and Assessment tools Evaluation refers to a method used to determine a child s initial and continuing eligibility for services under IDEA Evaluations are usually structured and standardized and are limited in duration Assessment descries ongoing procedures used to identify a child s needs family concerns and resources Assessments are generally less formal than evaluations and involve a variety of methods The most important consideration for evaluation and assessment tools is ecological validity This is the extent to which the data resulting from these tools can be extended to multiple contexts o lnformal Language Screens Typically checklists of common early language milestones that allow clinicians and parents to determine whether children exhibit each behavior in question Module 7 The preschool child is a very busy learner In addition to activities such as drawing coloring constructing destructing and creative play among others there is more language to acquire An important advancement these children are making as Pence and Justice point out involves that ofemergent literacy which marks their transition to comprehending and expressing language in multiple modalities Oral and writtenquot pg 221 first edition As will be seen in this module s reading developments in metalinguistic ability and decontextualized language skills serve as precursors to the early building blocks of literacy Chapter 7 of the course text begins with a discussion of the major language milestones preschoolers achieve including the use of decontextualized language and important emergent literacy skills such as alphabet knowledge print knowledge and phonological awareness Preschoolers achievements in language content are then addressed which include fast mapping as a means of acquiring new words using knowledge of syntax and semantics to acquire new words acquiring new words through shared storybook reading and acquiring new and more complex language content including deictic terms and relational terms Preschoolers achievements in language form include grammatical and derivational morphology and new sentence forms Preschoolers also add to their speech sounds repertoires and begin to demonstrate suppression of several phonological processes that began in toddlerhood more aptly put they shed early phonological processes Preschoolers achievements in language use include new discourse functions improved conversational skills and narrative skills Notes module 7 Major Language Development Milestones in Preschool Decontextualized Language 0 During the preschool years children begin to use decontextualized language in their conversations in addition to the contextualized language they used in infancy and toddlerhood o Contextualized language is grounded in the here and now and relies on the background knowledge that a speaker and listener share 0 In decontextualized language children discuss people places objects events that are not immediately present Decontextualized language relies heavily on the language itself in the construction of meaning 0 The ability to use decontextualized language is fundament to academic success because nearly all the learning that occurs in schools focuses on events and concepts beyond the classroom walls Emergent Literacy o Emergent literacy refers to the earliest period of learning about reading and writing Emerging knowledge about print and sounds forms an important foundation for reading instruction that begins in school 0 Emergent literacy achievements depend largely on metalinguistic ability or the ability to view language as an object of attention 0 There are three important achievements in emergent literacy for preschoolers Alphabet knowledge children s knowledge about the letters of the alphabet Print awareness children s understanding of the forms and functions of written language Phonological awareness children s sensitivity to the sound units that make up speech phonemes syllables words Major Achievements in Language Content Form and Use in the Preschool Period Language Content 0 Preschoolers continue to acquire new words at a fast pace 860 words per year or about 2 new words per day Preschoolers use fast mapping to add words to their lexicon use their knowledge of syntax and semantics to inferthe meanings of new words and learn new words through shared storybook reading 0 Fast Mapping 0 Children are able to acquire new words in as little as a single exposure 0 After this fast mapping occurs children engage in slow mapping during which they gradually refine representations with multiple exposures to the word in varying contexts Knowledge of Semantics and Syntax When preschoolers learn new words they rely on their knowledge of semantics and syntax to incorporate the new word into their vocabulary Preschoolers use knowledge about animacy of objects when inferring the meaning of new words Preschoolers also use the syntactic cues that signal the form class of a novel word to narrow the possibilities for the referent of the word 0 O 0 Shared Storybook Reading 0 Language in storybook reading activities contains a more diverse array of syntax and vocabulary and typically has a higher level of abstraction than that in other language contexts 0 Techniques parents use in storybook reading situations to attract and maintain the child s attention are also effective teaching tools Deictic Terms 0 Deictic terms are words that whose use and interpretation depend on the location of the speaker and listener within a particular setting ex here this there that 0 To use deictic terms correctly preschoolers must be able to adopt their conversational partner s perspective 0 Generally children master the contrast between deictic terms by the time they enter school Relational Terms 0 lnterrogatives preschoolers become increasingly adept at answering and asking questions 0 They understand and use what where whose and which questions before when how and why questions 0 Temporal terms describe the order of events ex before after while during 0 Preschoolers also learn to understand opposites locational prepositions under next to behind and kinship terms Language Form 0 Preschoolers make advances in grammatical and derivational morphology sentence forms and speech production abilities Grammatical and Derivational Morphology Grammatical morphemes are the units of meaning added to a word to provide additional grammatical precision the plural s verb inflection for present progressive Derivational morphemes are the prefixex and suffixes added to a word to change its meaning and sometimes its part of speech Children acquire grammatical and derivational morphemes in about the same order Six factors influence this order frequency of occurrence in utterancefinal position syllabicity single relation between morpheme and meaning consistency in use allomorphic variation and clear semantic function Verb morphology is a significant area of development in preschool years Sentence Forms Preschoolers move from simple declarative subjectverbobject constructions and subjectverbcomplement constructions to more elaborate patterns including subjectverbobjectadverb subjectverb complementadverb and subjectauxiliaryverbadverb Achievements in Speech Productions By the end of preschool years children have mastered nearly all of the phonemes of their native language Some later developing phonemes include r l s z sh ch and th Phonological processes continue to diminish Four year olds may continue to exhibit weak syllable deletion and cluster reduction but these usually disappear by five Two patterns that may persist past five are liquid gliding and stopping Receptive phonology also continues to develop which becomes important to early reading development Language Use 0 Discourse Function Preschoolers begin to use language for interpretive logical participatory and organizing functions Conversation Skills Preschoolers improve their conversation skills by learning how to take turns in a conversation Most preschoolers can maintain a conversation for two or more turns especially when they select to topic Narrative skills Preschoolers narratives serve as a showcase for their achievements in syntax semantics morphology phonology and pragmatics The two types of narratives include personal and fictional narratives Although narrative skills begin around 2 most children cannot produce a true narrative with a problem and a solution until around 4 years of age Narratives are a good predictor of later school outcomes Module 8 Notes Preschool Language Development and Emergent Literacy Continued Factors that In uence Preschoolers Individual Achievements in Language Language development varies both individually and among any given group of preschool children Children acquire competence in different domains syntax semantics morphology phonology and pragmatics at slightly different times and will be strong in some areas and weak in others ln preschool patterns of language and literacy will vary and influences such as socioeconomic status and gender will continue to effect language development Intraindividual Differences Variation in Receptive and Expressive Differences o Preschoolers understand more language than they produce this disparity continues through the preschool period and beyond Variation in Language Profiles 0 A preschooler will exhibit one of many language profiles simultaneous patterns of language in multiple domains 0 Within their profile the child will have strengths and weaknesses in different areas Variation in Early Literacy Profiles 0 Literacy profiles are simultaneous patterns of literacy including competencies such as narrative discourse and metasemantics 0 Knowing preschoolers ability with regard to early literacy abilities can help educators tailor early literacy instruction to the child s individual needs Interind ividual Differences Variation in Language Profiles 0 When a group of preschoolers are compared they will exhibit a variety of language profiles Variation in Early Literacy Profiles 0 Groups of preschoolers differ in terms of their early literacy abilities which can be illustrated in terms of profiles Effects of Socioeconomic Status The quality of preschool program a parent can afford may have an effect language development 0 Research suggests that the quality of teacherchild interactions in the classroom and the quality of teacher language can positively affect children s language growth in preschool and teachers can be trained to incorporate high quality interaction Research also suggests that children in heterogeneous classrooms low and High SES experience more language interactions fewer negative interactions and fewer physical interactions than children in homogeneous low SES only classrooms Effects of Gender 0 Several issues account for gender differences in language development including maturation rate neurological development interests opportunities to learn because of gender stereotypes and boys and girls role models for their language 0 O Researcher and Clinician Measurement of Language Development in Preschool Period Researchers Language Sample Analysis 0 0 Researchers can analyze children s language form content and use in many ways Common measures of semantics include Total Number of Words TNW Number of Different Words NDW and TypeToken Ratio TTR or NDWTNW Common measures of syntax include Mean Length of Utterance MLU and developmental sentence scoring Pragmatic abilities can be assessed by coding language samples for communicative functions such as requesting commenting responding to questions Researchers can also code for communication acts such as repair strategies interruptions and false starts Language samples must be reliable and valid Reliable language samples are similar across multiple recording contexts forthe same child Valid language samples accurately represent the quantity and quality of language a child can produce Grammaticality Judgment Tasks O O O Grammaticality Judgment tasks are metalinguistic in the sense that they require children to think about language and make judgments about the appropriateness of specific forms or interpret sentences Two types of grammaticality judgments are used wellformedness judgments and judgments about interpretation To make wellformedness judgments the child must decide whether a sentence is syntactically acceptable To make a judgment about interpretation the child must interpret one or more parts of a sentence for example they might have to determine reference Clinicians Formal Assessment of EnglishSpeaking Children 0 Preschool Language ScaleFourth Edition PLS4 a norm referenced measure of vocabulary grammar morphology and language reasoning that contains two scales There is an auditory comprehension scale and expressive communication scale Test of Language DevelopmentPrimary Third Edition TOLDP3 contains nine subtests that measure different oral language components The subsets are Picture Vocabulary Relational Vocabulary Oral Vocabulary Grammatic Understanding Sentence Imitation Grammatic Completion Word Articulation Phoneme Analysis and Word Discrimination Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Third Edition PPVTlll norm referenced measure of receptive vocabulary Clinical Evaluation of Language FundamentalsPreschool Second Edition CELF Preschool2 norm referenced assessment of language abilities for children form ages 3 to 6 years It contains eight subsets Sentence Structure Word Structure Expressive Vocabulary Concepts amp Following Directions Recalling Sentences Basic Concepts Word Classesreceptive and Word Classestotal o Phonological Awareness Literacy ScreeningPreK PALSPreK is a screening instrument that early childhood educators can use to identify children s strengths and weaknesses in early literacy to plan instruction It measures children s knowledge of phonological awareness and print knowledge 0 Test of Early Reading AbilityThird Edition TERA3 norm referenced measure of children s mastery of early developing reading skills Three subtests include Alphabet Knowledge Conventions print conventions and Meaning ability to construct meaning from print Formal Assessment of Bilingual Children 0 In most cases norm referenced measures developed for Englishspeaking children may fail to paint an accurate picture of bilingual children s competencies 0 These children s language ability can be assessed with structured interviews with parents caregivers and teachers