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Fundamentals of Information Technology

by: Jenifer Moen

Fundamentals of Information Technology CIS 3003

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Computer Information Systems > CIS 3003 > Fundamentals of Information Technology
Jenifer Moen
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.73


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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenifer Moen on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 3003 at University of Central Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/227532/cis-3003-university-of-central-florida in Computer Information Systems at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
PHPMySQL Michael Powell Basic PHP Echo Statement ltphp echo Hello World gt Variable and Echo ltphp Var Hello World echo Var gt Include ltphp includemenuphp gt MySQL Things You Need 0 Database User Name Do not use root Password 0 Tables in the Database RecordsRows FieldsColumns Databases 0 1 Database can be assigned to a Whole site 0 If sections of a website do not need to interact they can run just ne with separate databases 0 Separate databasestables for each user is better for security Tables 0 Normally Required Table for Users If the site has tracking or is interactive you will need a users table Table for IPsLogging Can keep you from having to look at server logs if security becomes an issue 0 Optional Submissions Comments or content can be stored Web Pages Pages can be stored and called on When a user accesses a certain link Columns 0 Think of everything you might need in the future not what is just required now This can save you time from having to Change coding later 0 Do not overlap elds I will not go into depth about this but you should not have multiple elds in different tables storing the same information You can call the information through a unique identi er PHP 0 When writing the pages decide What will be duplicated on multiple pages and put that information into a le that can be included 0 If you believe the information is going to Change often then pulling it from a database is normally a better solution 0 Do not use PHP if it isn39t needed If you are doing a simple web page keep it HTML HTML Forms 0 Text input is the most common 0 Decide if you want a list or set of options for the Visitors or if you trust them with What they are putting in 0 Make sure items that are required are marked required and return an appropriate error if not completed HTML Form Example Basic Form Example ltform METHODquotPOSTquot aotionquotprooessquotgt ltinput typequottextquotgt ltinput typequotsubmitquot valuequotSubmitquotgt ltformgt process would actually be prooessphp This page would handle the input from this form MySQL Database Connection 0 The following commands show you how to connect and to generate an error if the connection fails They also show how to select a database Once you are done you can then close the connection to the database MySQL Connect Connecti0n mysqlconnectquotlocalhostquotquotuserquotquotpasswordquot if Connecti0n die39C0uld not connect 39 mysqlerr0r MySQL Database Selection 0 You need to select a database before you can gather data from it or modify the data it has mysqlseleotdbquotdatabasequot Conneotion MySQL Close Connection 0 This command is not necessary in all situations but if you want to close a connection this command Will do that mysqlcloseconnection MySQL Insertion First make sure anything being inserted has been escaped so no commands are issued to the database 0 Second make sure you put limitations on the database about What can be stored so invalid information can not be inserted MySQL Escape 0 The escape string adds a leading to any symbols used in MySQL commands this prevents malicious code from being executed through HTML forms Example Var mysqlrealescapestringVar MySQL Insert 0 You can enter similar commands to What PHPMyAdmin generates into mysqlquery to get the same results 0 When inserting variables make sure you have the same number of variables as there are columns in the database Example mysqlqueryquotlNSERT INTO table VALUESCEBvarl39 39Var239 39Var339quot MySQL Insert 0 If you have problems With your Insert command echo What is being executed You can copy and paste the command into PHPMyAdmin and it will give you an explanation of the possible problem 0 If PHPMyAdmin does not return an error then it is probably another part of your code MySQL Delete 0 The delete command can potentially Wipe everything from your table if it is not used properly Make sure your WHERE statement is correct mysqlqueryquotDELETE FROM table WHERE table VARl 39Varlquot39 MySQL Update 0 If you are Changing a lot of variables or if the number of variables that can Change is dynamic I normally delete the entry and add it back with all the new information Example mysqlqueryquotUPDATE table SET Columnl 39Var39 WHERE Column2 39Var2quot39 MySQL Select 0 After you have a connection to the database you can select what information you want from the database with the following command 0 The following command stores the select statement results to the result variable result mysqlqueryquotSELECT FROM tablequot MySQL Select 0 You can cycle through all returned entries using a While loop 0 The below code displays the result from 1 column then makes a line break Whilerow mysqlfetcharrayresult echo row39Column239 echo ltbrgt Checks 0 Often it is good to have a check in place to make sure if nothing is being returned the user knows that and doesn39t assume there was an error 0 The below code echoes a message if nothing is returned if mysqlnumrowsresult O Action code else echo Sorry no results were returned ReferencesResources httpW3schoolsComphpdefaultasp httpWWWphpnetmanualen Why Learn Unix or its variations Many Unix systems Solaris on Sun workstations IRIX on SGI workstations AIX on IBM servers various versions of Linux on PCs FreeBSD OpenBSDl Unix provided the basis since 1970s for many operating system concepts and features multitasking shell and scripting hierarchical file systems Apple Computer s Mac OS X is Unixbased see a and a br1ef tutorial advanced Unix how to sl v365 by Barry J Grundy Layered Structure of the UnixLinux Operating System Applications GUI web browser Application User word processor ftp etc Interface AUI Shells sh bash csh tcsh etc Application Language libraries C Java programmer s Ada FORTRAN Interface APU Svstem calls open close fork Unix kernel Operating File system process manager System memory manager CPU scheduler Device drivers Hardware CPU RAM BIOS hard disk CDROM monitor Unix le systems The Unix operating system started out as a le system All system entities are considered as les including regular les text or b1nary d1rectories devices links pipes and sockets A typical le system tree looks as follows root bin boot deV etc home lib lostfound mnt opt proc root sbin tmp usr var bin binary executable images of commands such as cat chmod cp kill 1s mkdir mV ps pwd rm rmdir su Vi boot image of kernel to boot the system deV devices special les including character special and block special etc con guration information home user home directories lib language libraries for C C Java Ada FORTRAN lostfound les not connected to other directory which are found using the tool fsck le system checkl mnt mount oints for other le systems such CDROM oppy us1ng t e mount command opt addon packages proc process task information root information about the root administrator account sbin system administration tools such as init shutdown tmp temporary les used by several commands e g editorl usr contains subdirectories bin doc include lib local man src tmp shared by all users var variable data such as incoming mail HOW are les represented and saved on disk inumber file name Contents of 1076 syllabustxt directory courses 2085 lab1c 20345 1ab2iava file type number of links file mode user ID group ID creation time modification time me disk address disk drive inOde table inode for le 1ab1c Common Unix shells and commands shells with increasing functionality sh Bourne shell 9 bash Bourne again shell used in Linux ksh Korn shell 9 zsh csh C shell 9 tcsh TC she11l Filerelated commands ls list contents of directory similar to dir in DOS options include 1 for long format a to show all les R to show les in the entire directory tree t to show last modified file first cat concatenate and display f11e e g cat 1ab1cl rm remove file my move or rename f11e mkdir create directory rmdir delete directory f11e cd change directory pwd show current or working directory chmod change protection mode chown change owner Processrelated commands ps report process status W or who display information about loggedin user kill terminate process top display and update top CPU users fg bring background process to foreground editors Vi pico emacs special symbols understood by the shell lt input redirection e g aout lt datatxt gt output redirection gtgt append amp run in the background e g aoutamp pipe Wildcard characters such as matches all matches any Unix File Security passwordbased protection Users are identi ed at login by the user s login name and password file accesses are then based on the associated user id encryptionbased protection use crypt or des data encryption standard to encrypt les accesspermission based Each user has an associated UID user ID and GID group ID the le permission bits prescribe the access rights to 3 kinds of users the owner users in the same group and others the owner of the le can change the le s permission bits using the chmod command Long listing of files and file permissions Consider the output of the ls lt command ls lt drwxrxrX 2 lang faculty 512 Jan 15 1346 sp2002 rwrr llang faculty 26624 Jan 5 2001 syllalgfa00doc rwrr llang faculty 741 Dec 14 2000 scorefa00out T Link I i count group Size in bytes File last modi cation F11e type and d d permlSSlon b1ts ate an tlme Note that the file permission bits consists of 10 characters the first indicates file type d for directory for ordinary b or c for devices 1 for symbolic link the next 9 characters are combinations of r W X and s in 3 groups File access permissions r read access W write access X execute access or search for directory les s setuserid turn on so that when executed the effective user id is temporarily changed to that of the owner s Thus the permission erXrXrX means rWX rights for the owner r read and X access search rights for the group and for others similarly the permission rwrr means r read and w write rights of the owner r read right for group and others Note that the X permission means access or search for directory files that is the right to change directory cd to there to access any le located in that directory etc The administrator of a UniX system has a user name root who has access rights to all les How to use the chmod command use the letters u user g group 0 others a all for the who use to add to remove and to set for privileges or use octal base 8 numbers for combinations of the rwx rights r 4 W 2 and X 1 Examples of chmod commands chmod 700 set rWX rights to user none to group or others chmod 644 labl c set rW rights to user read only to group and to others chmod urWX courses set rWX rights to user and keep the same rights for the group and for others chmod goW lablc remove the write access from group and from others but everything else remains the same Advanced File Processing strings nd ascii strings in any le use n length to specify minimum string length default 4l le determine le type directory text executable graphics etc check the le etcmagic for the types of les grep or egrep search le for string pattern egrep allows full regular expressions to specify patterns eg patllpat2 l nd nd les with the speci ed conditions e g name access time with the speci ed directory tree whereis locate binary source manual les for a command which locate command output its full pathnamel gzip gunzip compress uncompress lesl tar create tape archives add or extract les from a tar le dd convert and copy le disk dump with speci ed block size skipped blocks and type of conversion more less browse or page through a le less is more ef cient and supports editor vitype commandsl vi the ubiquitous visual keybased editor Start vi search delete Command mode 1 I insert a A append move 0 olpen r R replace c c ange nd string SEEM D towards end of le gm6 ESC backward 11 find neXt CTRL39F OF 13 le mode Insert mode next previous page W move to next word wq Enter save amp exit X delete character q Enter exit Wo saving dw delete word dd q Enter exit delete line 11 ShiftG v move to line 11 Shift Exit vi G move to end of le Evidence of a Compromised File System Stolen passwords download the password le etcpasswd and crack passwords this problem is minimized when a password shadow f11e etcshadow is used which contains the encrypted passwords and is not accessible except by the root use a network sniffer that intercepts user namepassword if they are in clear text form gain root access by exploiting software bugs there are many such hacker tools1 0 A Is 1 et paSSWd Flelds separated by z of passwd flle entrles rrr 1 root 4641701 Jan 18 1155 passwd 1s 1 etcshad0w Login 1131116 r 1 root 2307046 Jan 22 0617 shadow encrypted password x if shadow file used less etcpasswd UID r00tx01SuperUserbinksh GID daemonx11 binx22usrbin Name of ce phone etc sysx33 H m h admx44AdminVaradm 0 e d coaxy 1px718Line Printer Adminusrsp001lp 10g111 Shell s1angx856380Sheaud0ng Langucf0pegasussslangbincsh less etc shadow Cannot open etcshad0w Suspicious commands in the history le the history file saves the most recently used commands of the user e g in le bashhistory under the home directory Suspicious events in log les there are various system log les recording events such as loginlogout root access via su or sudo ftp and tcp connections and a general system event logger located under varadm or varlog but have different names on different Unix systems on Red Hat Linux all log les are under varlog and are clearly named Useful information can be found in system con guration les located under etc Which shows scheduled processes location of syslog le password les etc Running processes tasks are represented as les under d1rectory proc Where evidence of rogue processes can be found Unix Processes An operating system runs many applications such as a shell command interpreter commands submitted to the shell including a user program an executable file a GUI applications started from the GUI etc each of these running applications constitutes a process or task Thus a process is a program in execution including the code data areas static and dynamic its status and associated resources Programs are les so they are protected by the file s permission bits rwx the UIDGID and effective UIDGID of the user executing the program stay with it making system calls to request operating system services eg openclose les fork another process create socket for network connections Process states and transitions Syscall intemipt fork Initialization Processrelated commands ps report process status ps shows own processes ps aux shows detailed information of all processes see below ps aux l more USER PID CPU MEM SZ RSS TT S START TIME COMMAND root 597 04 04 4496 2664 S Dec 30 3144 usrsbinnsrnsr root 3 04 00 0 0 S Dec 30 45007 fs ush someone 18420 03 04 4712 2872 pts46 S 103826 000 pine root 509 02 04 4976 2888 S Dec 30 21835 usrsbinnsrnsrd root 919 02 08 50984 5344 pts2 S Jan 13 5520 nwadmin root 253 01 07 7112 4544 S Dec 30 41326 usrlibautofsau lang 26671 01 01 1232 816 pts3 S 024632 002 csh root 19144 01 02 1296 1112 pts3 0 105120 000 ps auxroot 910 00 00 288 8 pts2 T Jan 13 000 sh daemon 19993 00 00 0 0 Z 000 ltdefunctgt RSS resident set size physical memory in Kbytes TT the terminal to which the process is attached S process status 0 running S sleeping R runnable on a ready queue Z zombie T stoppedl top display and update top cpu processes see example below top last pid 21646 load averages 076 036 030 113055 230 processes 221 sleeping 7 stopped 2 0n cpu CPU states 366 idle 337 user 58 kernel 238 iowait 00 swap Memory 768M real 26M free 946M swap in use 723M swap free PID 21606 someone 597 root 2 163 8 lang 253 root 598 root 509 root USERNAME THR PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE TIME CPU COMMAND 1 0 0 28M 21M cpu14 101 2806 netscape 1 28 10 4496K 2512K sleep 3215 070 nsrindeXd l 58 0 2280K 2096K cpu10 004 063 top 7 10 0 7112K 4536K sleep 41350 025 automountd 2 59 15 4232K 2512K sleep 13933 022 nsrrnmd l 58 0 4976K 2784K sleep 21849 020 nsrd kill terminate a process see example below ps PID TT 21637 pts3 26671 pts3 26692 pts3 S S S T kill 9 21637 2 Killed TIME COMMAND 000 002 008 a0ut csh elm a out bg put the currently stopped process by CTRLZ in the background running jobs show the running or stopped jobs jobs 1 Stopped signal elm 2 Running aout fg bring a background job into foreground running jobs 1 Stopped signal elm 2 Running aout fg 2 a0ut Note Information about processes is useful When performing forens1c work on llve systems eg locat1ng processes W1th strange names altered system processes trOJan horses The proc le system All processes are represented as les located under directory proc with each process in a separate sub directory named by the process id For example ps aux l we 227 2672 16655 that is there are 227 processes in the system ls proc l we 224 224 1212 there are 224 les in directory pr0c1 ps PID TT S TIME COMMAND 25581pts3 S 000 aout 26671 pts3 S 003 csh 26692 pts3 T 008 elm ls ld proc25581 drxxx 5 lang 736 Jan 22 1236 25581 the long listing ofthe directory pr0c25581 ls l proc25581 total 854 860160 Jan 221236 as 152 Jan 221236 auxv 60 Jan 221236 cred 0 Jan 22 1236 ctl 0 Jan 22 1236 cwd gt 416 Jan 22 1236 fd rrr 1 lang 120 Jan 22 1236 lpsinfo r 1 lang 912 Jan 22 1236 lstatus continued next slide rrr 1 lang drXrXrX 3 lang r 1 lang drX 2 lang r 1 lang rrr 1 lang r 1 lang lrX 1 lang r 1 lang r 1 lang rrr 1 lang r 1 lang r 1 lang 536 48 960 288 1136 336 960 0 1440 1232 256 0 1520 Jan 22 1236 lusage Jan 22 1236 lwp Jan 22 1236 map Jan 22 1236 object Jan 22 1236 pagedata Jan 22 1236 psinfo Jan 22 1236 rma Jan 22 1236 root gt Jan 22 1236 sigact Jan 22 1236 status Jan 22 1236 usage Jan 22 1236 watch Jan 22 1236 xmap Descriptions of the contents of some of these subdirectories are status process state including PID size location pcinfo information used by the ps command as process Virtual address space fd a subdirectory containing one entry for each open le Note On a Sun OS system Solaris there are proc utility tools under usrprocbin that extract and return process information presumably held at the proc directory tutorial advanced Unix howto s Barry J Grundy EnCase exam screenshot showing a le s name in MFT master le table of the NTFS le system 9 E 52 Forensic Ftle Edit View Toni He p DNew ifOpsn HSave 3mm cgnddoevice LSBarch vh E lacases x gElTabte JRepuvt erv gwimelm Qmsk Qgcude Hame remnas m uulfmarh 4 s Name Hm Rexlguurt 2 71 Caglgew 1 IE Home WFUE Extents a Permlssmns n m 54 SAM i 7 V V 7 L 7 aoncuments and Settmgs duwn oads Dvivers 7 7 aHDmeoDUbkun hphlz Inetpu liln alnzan Maxtan 7 imaacxazz MSOCath lt gt E Lock gnnnma t gensmpts Til lters Condltlans Que es 40 us Is an 01 39 gl gEnEIpt 39 i 3 a 3 on no an on mi39u ig 0 44 00 4 DD DD DU DU 00 23 15 31 File name in Unicode DD u 04 no D 39 D1313Ul72 DU 00 00 40 DU 00 DD DU 00 00 00 DU 00 Ell DU 00 0131301350 00 DD 00 00 0D 00 00 01 EU 0D 00 00 0E 31 10 ED DIELEDZLSJFF FF PP PF 32 75 47 11 PP PP FF F17 82 79 47 ll 00 39 an m m an on m an an m an no on an M an m Desgnd 013130260400 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 DD 00 00 0 3130292400 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 D0 00 00 00 00 00 CID 00 00 m aEiEKWMFT PS 6317100 L5 6317100 CL 739637 50 362 F0 13130090 LE 50 Number system decimal system eg 123 1 102 2 101 3 100 inary system eg 1101 123 1quot 22 021 120 13 in decimal hexadecimal system a base16 system as an abbreviation for binary system by grouping 4 bits into a heX digit 0 9 A F eg 4C2E 4163 12162 2161 14160 19502 in decimal converted using Windows calculator pad Edit View Help 422E l i Hex 0 Dec O Oct C39 Bin 3 Elwold Dword CI Wald Byte Enter hex value 1 Check 3quot DH f I QBDLEJ decimal quot EDIE Example An IDE hard disk of size 60 GB ie 60 billion bytes which has a single partition of size 572079 MB Megabytes Why is the difference in size Answer 1 KB 1024 bytes 210 bytes 1 MB 220 bytes 1048576 bytes Thus 572079 1048576 599868309504 z 60 billion bytes Representing negative numbers Two common ways of representing negative numbers are sigamp magnitude representation and two scomplement notation Note Computers generally use two scomplement notation Signmagnitude sets the first bit to 1 if it is a negative number the first bit then is not part of the quantity Two s Complement inverts all of the bits and then adds one An example of binary arithmetic 00001101 13 in decimal 1000 1101 13 in signedmagnitude notation 1111 0010 invert 0 s and 1 s for 13 1111 0011 239s complement representation of 13 note that 13 13 in both representations Subtraction works by adding the two39s complement of a number and ignore carry out of the most significant place 25 00011001 13 1111 0011 12 0000 1100 ignored Organization of MultipleByte NonNegative Numbers Numbers larger than 255 require more than 1 byte to represent Common sizes are lbyte 2bytes 16bit 4bytes 32bit and 8bytes 64bit Consider the number 954 954 0000 0011 1000 1010 using 16 bits 0X03BA in hexadecimal with the high more significant byte 03 and low byte BA gt in Big Endian notation 03 BA high byte 03 first then BA as in Motorola processors Sun Solaris and IBM mainframe computers gt in Little Endian BA 03 low byte first in the lower address as in Intel processors


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