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Biology II

by: Dr. Phoebe Bauch

Biology II BSC 2011C

Dr. Phoebe Bauch
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.65

Hojun Song

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Hojun Song
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Phoebe Bauch on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011C at University of Central Florida taught by Hojun Song in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/227546/bsc-2011c-university-of-central-florida in Biology at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Viruses are the simplest biological system They cause disease across all domains They re not placed in any domain They don t have a cell Not cellular life Viruses are genes in a protein coat Lack metabolicreplication machinery Viruses were rst isolated from atobacco plants Was dif cult as it could not be seen by microscopes at the time Discove Sap extracted and rubbed on an uninfected plant Became infected Thus disease caused by a biological agent In sap Bacteria Another scientist filtered the sap Theorized it would remove bacteria and the plant would remain healthy Thus it s a bacterial toxin Continually filters but still sees an infection Thus not a toxin Tiny replicating agent small bacteria Another scientist ltered cultured infected 9 no infection Thus not bacteria Needed a host to replicate Viral Structure helical 7 capsid and capsomer 2 icosahedral 7 capsomeres form a ball may have glycoproteins 3 enveloped 7 envelope developed from host membrane can be helical or icosahedral 4 complex 7 T4 shape all bacteriophages Capsomer forms the capsid that forms the shell Viruses are classi ed according to genetic material and outer covering DNA or RNA DNA can be single or doublestranded Nonenveloped could be linear or circular RNA s doublestranded is always nonenveloped Other than that same as DNA above Life Cycle DNA Viruses enter the cell 2 Host cell replicates viral genome 3 Viral genes transcribed 4 Viral proteinsgenes selfassemble With RNA viruses it grabs the host membrane on the way out Transcripatase reverse transcribes viral RNA into DNA Integrase randomly inserts new DNA into the cell genome Bacteriophage Life Cycle Either lytic or lysogenic Lytic replicate in a cell burst out insert genetic material in a new cell selfassemble start over Lysogenic like a retrovirus the viral genome is incorporated avirulent for many Cell cycles then lyses Viroids and prions are smaller than viruses A viroid is a small circular singlestranded RNA No protein coat No proteins made Interferes with gene transcription Delta viruses are viral parasites hepD Can infect viruses Prions are misfolded proteins No nucleic acid Causes degenerative neural disease Resistant to heat and sterilization Long incubation 10 years A prion converts normal proteins by physical contact 7 how it replicates zombies Forms plaques in the brain Mad Cow disease is a prion The rst cells on Earth didn t rely on the sun Chemosynthetic Methane and sulfur The stromatolites metabolic waste was 02 Precipitated iron oxides Seeped into the atmosphere Poisons anaerobic prokaryotes Aerobic metabolism proliferates Superior 2X better Opens new ecological niche Heterotrophs consumer Cells without organelles 9 cells with organisms Evolution of eukaryotic life Endosymbiotic Model Small prokaryotes enter host as prey or parasites Forms a symbiotic relationship The host and endosymbionts become a single organism ll I Some cells develop specialized functions Slime molds aggregate only when conditions are bad Multicellularity evolved independently several times Plants animals and funi all did it separately Hox genes 7 determine basic structure of an organism Diversifying selection new predatorprey Burgess Shale in western Ontario Periodic mudslide Fossilized organisms Evidence of creatures from the Cambrian eriod v m hropodsm11111eds la oh es t it 1 Archaeon era prokaryotes Proterzoic era eukaryotes Devonian era tetrapods Mesozoic era age of the dinosaurs Cenozoic era age of the mammals 251 MYA Pangea 135 MYA Pangea split into Laurasia north and Gondwana south 655 MYA presentday continents Don t need to know crestal plates Subduction zone one oor moving under another Sea oor spreading two plates moving apart 5 major mass extinctions We re living in the 6 5 meteor hit around the Yucatan Peninsula Changed Earth s climate Or an epidemic Or both Scienti c method Observe 2 Hypothesize 3 Te st 4 Evaluate Laws are incorporated within theoryies A theory cannot become a law If you cannot test your hypothesis then it is not a hypothesis Problem organic molecules formed by organic life Solution abiotic synthesis The reducing atmosphere facilitated the formation of organic atmospheres Plus deep sea vents and extraterrestrial origins OparinHeldane Hypothesis reducing atmosphere 9 organic molecules Miller and Urey tested it an dproved it But the reducing atmosphere being present was questionable Deep sea vents would make this okay ithey are reducing Life would rely on sulfur not the sun Light spectra suggests that 1015 of the galactic dust is amino acids John Bemal proposed evolution to first cells 1 Abiotic synthesis 2 Single molecules join to form polymers 3 Self replication 4 packed into rotobionts Problem with number 3 DNA needs enzymes to r plicate RNA can selfreplicate selfspice catalyze Was the first genetic material not DNA Problem with 4 cell membranes associated with organic molecules derived only from other organic cells Coacervates selfreplicate and metabolize Liposomes clay catalyzes the formation as well as RNA complexes in the liposome Chuck Misslar suggested we should routinely see spontaneous life There are the wrong conditions for this to happen No reducin atmos here too much competition Stromatolites are photosynthetic bacteria cyanobacteria and sediment A new breeding population is something that is relegated to an isolated area Reduced ne ow reduced mi ation Barriers to gene ow will eventually evolve Biological barriers Prezygotic barriers 7 impede fertilization Postzygotic barriers 7 prevents successful propagation of offspring 3 stages of reproduction Premating prezygotic Postmating prezygotic Postzygote Barriers could evolve in any three stages Zygotic barriers Habitat Temporal Behavioral Mechanical Gametic Snail shells can spiral in opposite directions Mechanical isolation Females can preferentially choose semen of their own species Insect females store sperm This is why males are rare Gametic isolation A species is a human construct Doesn t really exist Defines a group Usually agree with the biological species construct Does not apply to asexuals fossils organisms that we don t know about The difficulty of the biological species concept is quantifying the potential to interbreed Odds of allopatric speciation increase when populations are small and isolated After searation that is i all 7 J r A Polyp101dy also common with frogs and lizards Asexual offspring because it s polyploid Anagenesis is the gradual transition from one species to another Cladogenesis is the branching of one or more species from a parent species Gradualism 7 speciation occurs slowly over time Darwin Plants can do it in one generation however Contention about this idea gradualism because the fossil record is incomplete Because 1 Wrong environment 2 Soft bodies 3 Localized and episodic formation of sediments Burgess Shale 4 Fossils are often metamorphoses eroded subducted or destroyed Punctuated equilibrium speciation occurs by periods of rapid change followed by stasis Proves the fossil record is fine Both methods likely occur Gradualism is more common Stromatolites changed the world by producing oxygen First things to colonize land are plants Mosses Lack vascular tissue Invertebrates follow then vertebrates 39r U39 We are curretly living in the 6 mass extinction Evolution is not goaloriented Generation to generation according to the environment Change in l e an over time A locus is a speci c location on a gene An allele is a variant of a DNA sequence red or yellow eyes A population is a localized group of interbreeding individuals A gene pool is the aggregate alleles in the population Populations evolve individuals don t Evolutiona mechanism 1 migration gene ow 2 Mutation 3 Genetic drift 4 Selection a Natural and sexual All populations undergo genetic drift More important in smaller populations Effected by major catastrophes Random Modes of selection Directional selection shifts the whole curve to the left or the right Disruptive selection selecting for extremes right and left are more populous than the median trait Stabilizing selection a narrower taller curve Sexual selection is nonrandom mating pq l lp l allelic frequencies pA2 2pq qAZ l genotypic frequencies Example 100 owers 9 RR 68 RW 23 WW Calculate R allele frequency 9X2 18 for red owers 68 86 for pink owers 86200 45 200 total number of alleles in the population EXPECTED White 33 The population is evolving Genetic variation comes from mutation 7 substitution silent missense nonsense insertion deletion Meiosis Crossing over Random fertilization of gametes bP N


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