New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biological Principles Laboratory

by: Dr. Phoebe Bauch

Biological Principles Laboratory BSC 1005L

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Biology > BSC 1005L > Biological Principles Laboratory
Dr. Phoebe Bauch
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.65


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Phoebe Bauch on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005L at University of Central Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/227548/bsc-1005l-university-of-central-florida in Biology at University of Central Florida.

Similar to BSC 1005L at University of Central Florida


Reviews for Biological Principles Laboratory


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/22/15
Paramecium Lab Know how Paramecium achieves locomotiontype of motion 1 Through the movement of cilia hair like structures that cover its body Know how the feeding process goes 1 Cilia collects food particles into 2 oral grooves Cell mouth 3 food vacuoles form9Bubble that transports the food 4 digestion 9Food is degraded bythe mitochondria to produce ATP 5 anal pore All the indigestible waste is ejected through the anal pore How does a paramecium take care of gas exchange breathing 1 By diffusion between cytoplasm and the water Know the differences between both forms of Paramecium reproduction Binaryfission s sexual and there is exchange of genetic material Mitosis Conjugation Isjust a Paramecium cell dividing into two identical daughter cells Know how Paramecium Osmoregulates There is a low concentration in the cell Paramecium has a contractile vacuolethat constantly has topump water out ofthe cell so it does not burst Be able to label a Paramecium diagrampictograph and know how to locate Cilia macronucleus oral groove food vacuole contractile vacuole Contractile vacuole Pelllcle Matronucleus Food vacuole Cilia Micronucleus Trichocysts Ana pore Why did we add acetoorcein stain to Paramecium slide 1 To be able to view structures such as the macronucleus and to be able to measure the organism Which cell was bigger Paramecium or Epithelial cells What type of organism did we feed Paramecium with 1 Yeast cells dyed with Congo red After feeding Paramecium how could you tell that digestion was in process 1 Congo red also acts as a pH indicator After a while the red dye turned blue indicating that there was a drop in pH to a more acidic environment which is necessary for digestion to occur FUNGI AND BACTERIA THINK SESSION I Iquot Bacteria Prokaryotic Cell DON T have membrane bound organelles Ex Bacteria Fungi Eukaryotic Cell Have membrane bound organelles Ex Yeast Protists All Fungi plants and animals How can fungi and bacteria be damaging to the environment Damaging Secrete Toxins Disease Causing Salmonella Chlamydia Pneumonia causing bacteria they become resistant to antibiotics How can bacteria be bene cial BeneficialDecomposers found in the soil and decaying organic matter plants and animals Allow for recycling of materials Nitrogen fixers to maintain soil fertility Bioremediation bacteria able to digest petroleum and toxic waste Are a food source for other org s Used in genetic studies Culture of milk products Lactobacillus And how can humans interfere with the natural bacterial Humans have been affecting the natural population of bacteria through abuse of antibiotics antiseptics antibacterial soaps and lotions the use of antibiotics and antiseptics Know the difference of Fungi mold vs veast Mold is a filamentous fungi which appears fuzzy Yeast is a unicellular fungi that appears smooth and slimy LLb Exercises Light the Burner and practice Sterile Technique The BLUE SLANT TUBE is for practice S N The COLORED MEDIUM TUBE has bacterial cultures Antibiotics and Antiseptics Sa rcinasubflava What results do you EXPECT to get from the petri dish that was inoculated with the bacteria and then treated with paper discs soaked in Penicillin and the antiseptics Extracellular Digestion It allows bacteria to be able to consume large decomposing matter by breaking it up into smaller pieces outside the cell and then ingesting the digested material For example the milk proteins exercise Serratiamarcescens Gram Stain Test Gram Positive retain the stain and remain purple Gram Negative they lose the color purple and stay pink Gram stain is a useful diagnostic tool irr 39 9 Spherical cocci Radshaped baclllll Heterotrophs Parasitism live off of other organisms Mutualism both organisms win Commensalism one wins one unaffected Wasmmcmhmug v39 leuplmm llxgelu Reproduction Molecular to Cellular Think Mitosis Chromatid is one copy of a duplicated chromosome which generally is joined to the other copy by a centromere for the process of cellular division Chromatin is the combination or complex of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell Chromosome is a structure of DNA protein and RNA found in cells It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences Humans have 46 Duplicated chromosomeis a particular kind of mutation involving the production of one or more copies of any piece of DNA including sometimes a gene or even an entire chromosome Centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids Cellular Reproduction 61 Phase the first growth period of the cell cycle during interphase in which the cell grows and cytoplasmic organelles are replicated S Phase is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated 62 Phase is the premitotic phase is the third and final subphase of nterphase in the cell cycle directly preceding Mitosis t double checks the duplicated chromosomes for errors M Phase Mitosis is the process in cell division by which the nucleus divides typically consisting of four stages 1 Prophase 70 is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rodshaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible 2 Metaphase 15 is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which condensed and highly coiled chromosomes 3 Anaphase 2 is the stage of mitosis or meiosis when chromosomes are split and the sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell 4 Telophase13is the final stage of mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes of daughter cells are grouped in new nuclei The ceH 39aaume checksquot me dunhcamd hmmnsumes Dr ermr makmg any needed 1 m alrs Each of m as c mmnsamas x duplicated hy ml Ceil lar comeus mm 3 xdudmg m hmmsnmzs m duuhcaxed an L CeH zyde anal J 2 45 chrumusumes ursymheswzed Srthse m whmh phase sthe new y farmed ceH gruwmg tscytup zsm and urgzneHes c 4 Phase At what pumt duesthe ceH cummn tn mwmrg Us uphzse WETLANDS LAB THINK I What happens to Energy as it passes through an ecosystem Energy is lost And to nutrients Nutrients get recycled I Know what a wetland is and why they are important Answer in page 3 of lab manual I Why is it important to maintain biodiversity Biodiversity is thought to be linked to ecosystem stability and the ability of a community to recover after an environmental insult such as pollution I Water chemistry what is pH and why is it a problem if it is off pH stands for potential hydrogen it is a measure of the acidity of a substance water in our case of aquatic ecosystems if it is too acidic or too basic relative to what it should be it is an indication of acid rain excessive C02 in the atmosphere and a degraded aquatic system I Eutrophication what is it and how does the process go Eutrophication is basically llnutrient overload page 6 of the lab manual in steps 15 1 NitrogenampPhosphorus enter the water 2 Algae bloom covers surface as a result of nutrient overload 3 Light gets cut off to underwater vegetation P Decomposition goes up depleting dissolved Oxygen 5quot Death of fish and other aquatic organisms I What are some sources of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nitrogen fertilizer house waste animal waste Phosphorus mainly fertilizers I Dissolved oxygen d0 if it is found to be low what does that indicate High levels of decomposition or high temperatures both factors make the level of dO go down I Why is it important to have good quality control measures and standards in place To make sure the data is reliable and accurate especially when the measurements originate from different sources making sure standards are followed the data can be compared CELL CHEMISTRY THINK SESSION What are two major organic compounds you are likely to find in potato chips Carbohydrates amp Lipids Four Major Organic Compounds Proteins Macromolecules made of amino acids Carbohydrates Polysaccharides made of sugar molecules Lipids Fats Compounds that are insoluble to water PPN Nucleic Acid Polymers made of nucleotides f disaccharides and polysaccharides are both composed of sugars how are they different Disaccharides are sugars Carbohydrates they contain a linkage of 2 monosaccharides Polysaccharides are sugars Carbohydrates they contain a linkage of 3 or more monosaccharides They are huge chains of monosaccharaides What process occurs during digestion Hydrolysis To join two molecules to make a larger compound what process takes place Dehydration synthesis What s the process to break up two molecules Hydrolysis What are the building blocks of proteins Amino Acids What are the building blocks of carbohydrates Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen 1C2H 10 What test did we use to separate different amino acids in proteins Pa per Chromatography What test did we use to identify the presence of small reducing sugars Benedict s reagent What test did we use to detect the presence of starch Iodine Test CELL STRUCTURE LAB THINK Know the selected cell organelles and their main functions table on p 2 of the lab exercise Which organelles are unique to plants Chloroplasts and cell wall When observing Elodea plant how did chloroplasts move around the cell Cytoplasmic streaming When observing the amoebas animal how did they move around the cell They use their pseudophobic feet How do amoebas move Do they have feet They use cytoplasmic streaming to extend their pseudopodia Which organelles structures were visible in the Elodea cell Cell wall vacuole chloroplasts cytoplasm Make sure you see these in your wet mount slides What function did the meat tenderizer and soap detergent play in the mixture The meat tenderizer denatures the proteins that hold the DNA together so it can further unwind and the soap breaks down the fatty acids in the cell membrane so the contents of the cell can be released Why were you able to see the DNA after adding the alcohol DNA is insoluble in alcohol so it comes out of solution it precipitates and we are able to see it Where DNA is found Nucleus Nucleus Stretched to its full length a single molecule of human DNA extends more than three feet but when wound up inside the nucleus ofa cell that same molecule measures about one millionth ofan inch across Cell Membrane Lab Transporting across a membrane Diffusion the movement of solute molecules across a membrane Osmosis the type of diffusion in which water moves across a semipermeable membrane Semipermeable membrane Allows the passage of curtain molecules usually molecules that are really small like water molecules Both transport processes are passive and do not require energy Examples in class the dialysis bag with starch and glucose inside and iodine outside in the water iodine and glucose both small molecules and also water could move in and out through the dialysis membrane Starch is a larger molecule and remained inside the bag as indicated by the dark blueblack color of the bag by the end of the experiment Solutions ampEnvironments osmosis Solute A mixture of substances Hypertonic A solution that is more solute so it will gain water Hypotonic A solution that is less solute so it will lose water sotonic Equilibrium of solute and water Turgid Pressure The plant cell wall will expand from the pressure of water but won t break Plasmolysis Water is lost from the plant cell and the membrane shrinks This will leave a space between the membrane and the cell wall Ex Turgid Potato in distilled water expands Plasmolysis Potato in salt water shrinks Active Transport some types of transport require energy In our case we saw that while the yeast cells were alive they were able to actively pump the red Congo Red Dye out of their cells but once boiled and no longer alive the membrane is not functioning active transport requires energy from the cell and the Congo Red Dye diffused freely into the cells The yeast pushed the Red Congo Dye out of the cell due to Active transport ENZYMES LAB What are enzymes proteins that are catalysts that optimize cell activity while minimizing the amount of energy needed to achieve a specific reaction Structure Primary the amino acid sequence ofthe peptide chains Secondaryhighly regular substructures alpha helix and strands of beta sheet which are locally defined meaning that there can be many different secondary motifs present in one single protein molecule Tertiary structuresFolding due to interactions of the side groups of the different amino acids Quaternary structure the structure formed by several protein molecules polypeptide chains usually called protein subunits in this context which function as a single protein complex Substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts Active site is a small port in an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction Enzyme specificity they will catalyze only one particular reaction Enzyme denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure tertiary structure and secondary structure by adding external stress ex Heat THINK What happens if you destroy the tertiary structure of a protein enzyme Due to denature a severe increase in temperature or a sudden change in pH their active site which is where the substrate enters to be broken down changes shape meaning that the enzyme will no longer work The tertiary structure is the shape of the enzyme so if denature changes its shape then it makes the protein useless What are the substrates enzymes and products in each of the experiments Heat Denature GelatinBromelin protein fragments Substrate specify Glucoseyeast CO2 alcohol Hydrolysis StarchAmylase Benedict s Reagent pH Hydrogen PeroxideCatalase HZO O2 What are two factors that can alter the function of an ezyme Temperature and ph levels Pepsin is an enzyme found in the stomach how do you expect it to function in a pH of 7 One thing that can denature proteins including enzymes is a change in pH and in the case of enzymes this would cause them to cease functioning While hydrochloric acid itself cannot break peptide bonds Cunningham 1989 the low pH in the stomach denatures proteins in food thereby changing their shape and exposing their peptide bonds so that pepsin can break these bonds W Emmisz Cami Mauls TM mm ma mm m sh m mmumema39r 51mm alv iPrlmaeIy Hrmm Drum n a I n 5 1 1 hm quotm H I I I Ill 5 J u 3 la F a A V q39 v I r L d I 1 39 a a t h a u quot n bf39 mnndarystmmma 39 quotiv iv Q n a 5 quotg a E WWIIblunt MI ahas um um Huimullle I I uh VL V I f l Heredity Lab Mendelian Laws of Inheritance 1 The principle of segregation First Law The two members of a gene pair alleles segregate separate from each other in the formation of gametes Half the gametes carry one allele and the other half carry the other allele 2 The principle of independent assortment Second Law Genes for different traits assort independently of one another in the formation of gametes 3 The Principle of Dominance Third Law In a cross between contrasting homozygous individuals only one form ofthe trait will appear in the F1 generation this trait is the dominant trait Gamete A reproductive cell or sex cell that contains the haploid set of chromosomes Genotype A set of alleles that determines the expression of a particular characteristic or trait phenotype 121 Phenotype All the observable characteristics of an organism such as shape size colour and behaviour which result from the interaction of its genotype 31 Complete Dominancean individual carrying two alleles that are both dominant eg AA the trait that they represent will be expressed 39 39 l 39 a type of in ll lei lLdl Ice in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele How are sex linked traits passed on Sexlinked traits are genetic characteristics determined by genes located on sex chromosomes XX gt Women XYgt Male Allele A spot on the locus of the chromosome that is a trait Dominant Gene AA Recessive Gene aa Homozygous Heterozygous


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.