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The Human Species

by: Savannah Ernser DVM

The Human Species ANT 2511

Savannah Ernser DVM
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.67

George Long

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George Long
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Ernser DVM on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 2511 at University of Central Florida taught by George Long in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see /class/227563/ant-2511-university-of-central-florida in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
PRELIMINARY OUTLINE CHECK FOR A FEW DETAILS TO BE DELETED ANT 2511 Spring 2011 Chapter 11 Homo sapiens sapiens Part 1 INTRODUCTION Around 2000000 years ago First modern Homo sapiens evolve in Africa Descendants spread throughout Old World And later to New World Modern Homo sapiens All contemporaries are placed in this species I First are probably descendants of premodern humans Particularly African populations of H heidelbergensis APPROACHES TO UNDERDSTANDING MODERN HUMAN ORIGINS Three theories of Modern Human Origins Paleoanthropologists developed two major theories which are opposed to each other 1 Complete replacement 2 Regional continuity And a third compromising theory I 3 Partial replacement Complete Replacement Model Recent African Evolution Modern populations arose in Africa only One species no admixture Migrated from Africa replacing populations in Europe and Asia single origin Neandertal and other Premoderns In the complete replacement model All premoderns outside of Africa would all be another species of Homo not Homo sapiens Neandertal would be classified as H neandertalensis a different species Mitochondrial DNA Evidence of African origin Genetic data from living people Mitochondrial DNA inherited through mother Concluded the world s population descended from single African lineage Y chromosome More genetic data Y chromosome male chromosome Variation in DNA less compared to other primates Bolsters complete replacement model Neandertal DNA Distinctive Strong direct evidence of genetic discontinuity between Neandertal and early fully modern humans Argues for substantial replacement The Partial Replacement Model Gradual dispersal of H sapiens sapiens out of Africa Modern humans mixed with local archaic populations in Eurasia Some interbreeding The Regional Continuity Model Multiregional Evolution Local populations in Europe Asia and Africa evolve into anatomically modern humans Why Similar Gene flow between these archaic populations Moderns humans not separate species Never independent A single species According to multiregional model regional continuity O 1 modern H sapiens populations did not originated exclusively in Africa 3 2 there was no complete replacement African Migration Current evidence that earliest modern humans from Africa Ant2511 Chap l l Part 2 THE EARLIEST DISCOVERIES OF MODERN HUMANS Omo Africa The Near East Asia Australia Central Europe Western Europe Flores Indonesia Several early fossil are fully anatomically modern forms Omo Ethiopia Klasies River Mouth Cave South Africa Heno Ethiopia Earliest of the fully modern found in Africa Fossils may be 195000 years old 4 Klasies River Mouth Cave Southern Africa on coast Fully anatomically modern form Seems likely that modern humans appeared in East Africa and migrated to southern Africa by 100000 years ago Heno 0 Ethiopia Wellpresened and welldated H sapiens fossils Dates between 154000160000 years ago Best dated hominid fossil of time period Most conclusive evidence of African origin of modern humans Near East 0 Early modern H sapiens sites Sites in Israel Skhul Cave Qafzeh Near East Israel Skhul Cave at Mt Carmel Ten individuals Earliest good evidence anatomically modern humans out of Africa S Dated about 115000 years ago Near Neandertal site of Tabun Qafzeh Cave Twenty individuals Overall moderns But some archaic Neandertal features Tabun Cave nearby indicates modern H sapiens and Neandertals occupations overlapped Asia Zhoukoudian Upper Cave Examples moderns 1810000 years Ordos 0 Mongolia Could be oldest moderns in China Origins China Chinese paleoanthropologists see continuous evolution from Homo erectus to archaic H sapiens to AMH Oppose complete replacement model Australia 0 New Guinea and Australian o By 500000 years ago inhabited by modern humans 0 Australia not connected to mainland 6 o Bamboo rafts Lake Mungo Earliest finds in Australia 60000 30000 years ago Dates controversial Kow Swamp Some archaic traits difficult to explain More robust than Lake Mungo 14000 9000 years ago Central Europe Oase Cave Mladec Oase Cave Romania Earliest anatomically modern H sapiens discovered in Europe Robust but with a chin Mladec Czech Republic Another early modern human site in central Europe Western Europe Many anatomically modern human fossils Back to 40000 years CroMagnon France Most famous site early modern Eight individuals Best known western European samples France s earliest anatomically modern human Discovered in 1868 in a shelter in southern France CroMagnon associated with Aurignacian tool assemblage About 30000 years ago An Upper Paleolithic industry Abrigo de Lagar Velho Portugal Mixture of traits Dates 24500 ya Best evidence for hybridization Fouryearold child s skeleton 5000 years later than last clearly Neandertal find after or not as old as other Neanderals Abrigo de Lagar Velho Some modern features Some Neandertal features Evidence of hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans Support for the partial 0 replacement Model Something New and Different Homo erectus in Java sunives a long time Other population branched off from some early inhabitants of Indonesia Flores O Liang Bua Cave Flores island east of Java Smallbodied and smallbrained hominid Nicknamed hobbits Homo floresiensis Three feet tall Probably descended from Homo erectus populations Isolated island population diverged Natural selection favors reduced body size Dwarf elephants also found in same geological beds Chap 11 Part 3 Homo sapiens continued TECHNOLOGY AND ART IN THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC Europe The cultural Period Upper Paleolithic Began in western Europe 40000 years ago Upper Paleolithic Five cultural periods based on stone tool technologies 0 Chatelperronian starts 40000 years ago 0 Aurignacian O Gravettian O Solutrean O Magdalenian final phase starts 17000 Late Ice Age Major environmental shifts during this period Late Pleistocene Last glacial period of Ice Age 0 Know as Wurm in Eurasia Terrain Much of Eurasia dotted with lakes and marshes Permafrost prevents growth of trees Treeless tundra and steppe in Eurasia Flowering plants mosses other vegetation in short summer Herbivores Abundant pasture for herbivorous animals Large herds of reindeer Mammoths bison horses Across tundra and grasslands Additional First time fish and fowl systematically exploited Especially in southern Europe Abundance Relative abundance Upper Paleolithic people spread over Europe Caves openair camps large shelters Elaborate burials found Sungir 0 Near Moscow 24000 years old Most spectacular burial Bed of red ocher Thousands of ivory beads Mammoth tusk spears Cultural Innovations Better shelters Sewn tailored clothing Increased use of bone ivory antler Age of Technological Innovation Anatomically modern humans Upper Paleolithic Invented new and specialized tools Solutrean Blades Most highly developed Upper Paleolithic industry Skill and aesthetic appreciation Parallel flaked lance heads So delicate considered as possible art Magdalenian Last Stage of Upper Paleolithic 0 More advances in technology Spear Thrower harpoon bow and arrow Spear thrower or atlatl A hooked rod enhancing force and distance Barbed harpoons for salmon and other fish Bow and arrow may have been used for first time during the Magdalenian Bunns Common Upper Paleolithic tool Pointed stone blade Working wood bone and antler Small chisellike for engraving O Burins chisellike to engrave bone Biocultural lmpact Upper Paleolithic more specialized and efficient tools Less requirement for large teeth Dental reduction 0 Chin develops Upper Paleolithic Art Upper Paleolithic wellknown for art Encompasses 25000 years at least 35000 to 10000 years ago Best known in Europe lncludes North Africa South Africa Australia 13 Art in Europe and other Places Symbolic representations or quotartquot well known in Western Europe Also known in Africa South Africa Austria Portable Art In addition to cave art Numerous small sculptures in Europe Elaborate engravings on tools and handles Venuses Female figurines throughout Europe Some realistically caned Others with sexual characteristics exaggerated 0 Perhaps for fertility or ritual purposes Prehistoric ArtEurope European prehistoric art reached its climax during final phases of Upper Paleolithic Cave Art Cave art known from more than 150 sites Majority in France and Spain People in other areas didn t use deep caves for art Painted and caned on rock surfaces in open 0 Eroded away Lasoaux Cave France Wild bulls dominate Hall of Bulls And horses deer other animals Red black yellow 2 Altamira Cave Spain Bison in red and black Used bulges in cave to give relief Meaning not known Religious or magical Grotte Chauvet France Africa Dots Stenciled handprints blow liquid pigment on hand held flat on wall Hundreds of animals By same artist Rock art possible as early as in Europe in Southern Africa Africa Southern Africa Apollo 11 Rock Shelter Namibia Blombos Cave Pinnacle Point Apollo 11 Namibia 28000 ya Rock Shelter Painted slabs Blombos Bone tools beads Ocher fragments Pinnacle Point Ocher as possible personal adornment 165000 years ago Small stone tools microlith Central Africa Katanda Katanda Africa Congo Excavations show remarkable bone craftsmanship Harpoons were made from the ribs or long bone splinters of large mammals Ground flat and precisely pressured flaked to made row of barbs End of Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic lasts until around 10000 years ago Ice Age ends Dynamic age doomed by climatic changes 10000 years ago 0 Temperature rises glaciers retreat End ofthe Ice Age Traditional prey animals disappear decrease in herds of large animals 0 grassland natural pastures replaced by forests Subsistence after Paleolithic Grinding hard seeds roots important Familiarity with plants increase Eventual domestication of plants animals Permanent settlements new technology complex social organization Chapter 12 Human Variation and Adaptation Introduction V Contemporary Interpretations of Human Variation A Human Polymorphisms Characteristics with different phenotypic A genetic trait is polymorphic if locus has two or more alleles l7 Clinal Distributions A cine is a gradual change in the frequency of a trait or allele in populations dispersed over geographical space Clinal distributions reflect natural selection andor gene flow V Human Biocultural Evolution Humans live in cultural environments that are continually modi ed by their activities Evolutionary processes can be understood only within this cultural context 1 Malaria Example Slashandburn Agriculture A traditional landclearing practice whereby trees and vegetation are cut and burned In many areas elds are abandoned Sickle Cell Allele Rain water stands in stagnant pools that provided mosquito breeding areas close to human settlements The increase in the frequency of the sicklecell allele is a biological adaptation to an environmental change 2 Milk Example Lactose Intolerance Infants and young children are able to digest milk Gene that codes for Iactase production switches offquot in adolescence The geographical distribution of lactose tolerance is related to a history of cultural dependence on fresh milk products V The study of the frequency of alleles genotypes and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective Gene Pool Population Genetics A gene pool is the total complement of genes shared by the 18 reproductive members of a population Determining If Evolution is Taking Place Population Genetics Approach 1 Identify speci c population 2 Measure allele frequency for speci c trait 3 Compare frequencies with predicted mathematical model HardyWeinberg Equilibrium The mathematical relationship expressing the predicted distribution of alleles in populations The central theorem of population genetics Provides a tool to establish whether allele frequencies in a human population are changing Factors that Act to Change Allele Frequencies New variation ie mutation Redistributed variation ie gene flow or genetic drift Selection of advantageous allele combinations that promote reproductive success ie natural selection Vlll Adaptive Significance of Human Variation Human variation is the result of adaptations to environmental conditions Levels of Physiological Responses Physiological response to the environment operates at two levels Longterm evolutionarv changes characterize all individuals within a population or species Shortterm temporary physiological response is called acclimatization Acclimatization Physiological responses to changes in the environment 19 Responses may be temporary or permanent A Solar Radiation and Skin Color Ultraviolet Rays UV Radiation Considering the cancercausing effects of UV radiation from an evolutionary perspective Early hominids lived in the tropics where solar radiation is more intense than in temperate areas to the north and south Distribution of Skin Color in Indigenous Populations Dark Skin Ultraviolet Radiation UV 39 Darker skin was favorable nearer equator 39 Melanin blocks UV and helps prevents skin cancer 39 UV was powerful selective agency for early humans in tropics Folate UV depletes vitamin B folate Rapidly in fairskinned individuals Darker skin provides more protection Light Skin Vitamin D Hypothesis Another explanation for depigmented skin in some northern areas Lighter skin may help absorb UV where less sun light UV needed for vitamin D production Vitamin D prevents rickets 39 Rickets more likely where less sunlight UV Light and Vitamin D Synthesis Ultraviolet Rays Ultraviolet Rays penetrate the skin and can eventually damage DNA within skin cells Ultraviolet Rays UV Radiation Considering the cancercausing effects of UV radiation from an evolutionary perspective Early hominids lived in the tropics where solar radiation is more intense than in temperate areas to the north and south B The Thermal Environment 1 Human Res onse to Heat Longterm adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors a Sweat Glands b Vasodilation Capillaries near the skin 39s surface widen to permit increased blood flow to the skin vasodilation 0 Body Shape Bergmann s Rule In mammalian species body size tends to be greater in populations that live in colder climates Because heat is lost at the surface it follows that increased mass allows for greater heat retention and reduced heat loss Allen s Rule In colder climates shorter appendages with increased massto surface ratios are adaptive because they are more effective at preventing heat loss Conversely longer appendages with increased surface area relative to mass are more adaptive in warmer climates because they promote heat loss Bergmann and Allen s Rules 2 Human Res onse to Cold Shortterm responses to cold Metabolic rate and shivering Capillaries near the skin s surface widen to permit increased blood flow to the skin vasodilation Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow from the skin vasooonstriotion 21 Increases in metabolic rate to release energy in the form of heat C High Altitude Multiple factors produce stress on the human body at higher altitudes 39 Hypoxia reduced available oxygen 39 Intense solar radiation 39 Cold 39 Low humidity 39 Wind which amplifies cold stress D Infectious Disease Caused by invading organisms such as bacteria viruses or fungi Throughout evolution disease has exerted selective pressures on human populations Disease in uences the frequency of certain alleles that affect the immune response Impact of Infectious Disease Before the 20th century infectious disease was the number one limiting factor to human populations Since the 19405 the use of antibiotics has reduced mortality resulting from infectious disease Impact of Infectious Disease Between 1980 and 1992 deaths from infectious disease increased Increases may be due to overuse of antibiotics Vectors Agents that serve to transmit disease from one carrier to another Mosquitoes gtmalaria Fleas gtbubonic plague Endemic Continuously present in a population Small bands of huntergatherers less exposure to endemic disease Pathogens Any agents especially microorganisms such as viruses bacteria or fungi that infect a host and cause disease Pandemic An extensive outbreak of disease affecting large numbers of individuals over a wide area potentially a worldwide phenomenon Chapter 14 Lessons From the Past How Successful are We 67 billion living human beings 20 trillion cells in each Only a fraction of all the cells on the planet Bacteria are dominant life form Longevity of Human Species Humansmoderns not a species with much longevity Modern Homo sapiens originating about 200000 years ago Homo erectus most successful human species Existing for 15 million years gt Humans and Impact of Culture Culture is an adaptive strategy enabling humans to become increasingly successful over time Increasing complex technologies cause increasing complexities in culture 23 Much of what is regarded as natural is a result of human activities Upper Paleolithic Big game hunting important during Ice Age Mesolithic Increased exploitation of smaller animals sh shell sh Increased variety of tools Domestication Around 10000 years ago Some people keep domesticated animals and grow crops Neolithic Plants and animal domestication Increased sedentism more reliable food sources Increased population growth Widespread consequences I m pact Drastic impact on environment with permanent settIe Most forest and woodlands cleared in Europe Devastating impact by agriculture communities Cutting Forest Early Earliest reasons Clearing for cultivation and grazing Fire wood and lumber for construction Cutting Forest Later Later reasons as small communities become towns and cities Shipbuilding forti cations temples palaces Exploitation of woodlands and forest important Iast 1015000 years Transport of Resources This eighthcentury B C Assyrian panel depicts the transport of cedar logs from Lebanon to Assyria Woodland Clearing IMAGE These hills in southwest England were at least partly deforested by 4500 years ago Frontier Forests Frontier forests are the remaining natural forest ecosystems Indigenous trees undisturbed large enough to maintain original biodiversity Decline in Frontier Forest Over the Last 8000 Years IMAGE IV The Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity is the totality of all living things from bacteria and fungi to trees and humans Major Extinctions Two Major early extinctions First about 250 million years ago involved continental drift Second 65 million years ago impact of asteroid caused climate change Holocene Extinction Third major extinction Began in late Pleistocene or Early Holocene Holocene is Recent period started 10000 years ago Recent and ongoing extinctions Due to activities of Homo sapiens Continuing now Hunting and climate Many scientist believe several large mammal species especially 25 prey animals pushed to extinction because of overhunting by early humans North America In North America 57 mammalian species became extinct No doubt that climate a factor warming But hunting and other human activities important Nonnative Species Competition with introduced species Pigs goats rats contributed to problem extinction Habitat Reduction Habitat loss Most important single cause of extinction Human population growth is most important factor today contributing to habitat loss Habitat Loss IMAGE Rain Forests Contain over of all plants and animals on earth By 1989 had been reduced to less than half their original size Annual loss of almost 67000 square mile or a football eld every second 15 of the planet39s photosynthesis occurs in the forests of the Amazon V The Present Crisis Our Cultural Heritage Overpopulation The major single challenge facing humanity Population grow tied to other problems Population size unchecked increases exponentially Overpopulation Scientists estimate that around 10000 years ago only about 5 26 million people inhabited the earth By AD 1650 there were perhaps 500 million and by 1800 1 billion Between 10000 years ago and AD 1650 population size doubled 71 times Overpopulation Dates and associated population estimates up to the present are as follows 39 mid18005 1 billion 39 19305 2 billion 39 mid19605 3 billion 39 mid19805 4 billion 39 present 67 billion Global Climate Change The Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming Much energy for human activity derived from fossil fuels coal and oil Increases carbon dioxide in atmosphere Traps heat Green House Gases Carbon dioxide and other green house gasesquot contribute to global warming Air Pollution Air pollution increasingly a factor in human respiratory disease is caused by human activities Deforestation Deforestation contributes to global warming Less trees to absorb carbon dioxide Burning of trees to clear land in tropics releases carbon dioxide 27 20 percent of carbon dioxide from burning Amazon rain forest Consequences of global warming Agricultural lands Dramatic uctuations weather patterns Loss of agricultural lands Deserti cation and flooding Extinction of plants and animal species and altered patterns of infectious disease Disease Spread of mosquitoborn disease 39 Warmer temperature increases range of insect and vertebrate vectors Increases range of microbes that cause disease Ecological Footprints Average amount of land and sea required for each person to support his or her lifestyle resources consumed for energy housing transportation food water and waste disposal Comparing Footprints Developing nations 25 acres US 24 acres Resources Used The average American uses an estimated 400 times the resources consumed by a resident of Bangladesh The US produces 2530 of all carbon dioxide emissions that end up in the earth 39s atmosphere Solutions What can be done about Air quality Reduction of ozone Greenhouse effect Reduced arable lands Accumulation of refuse Responsibility and Change Only real chance of reversing trends is by sacri ce Much responsibility on industrialized West Use Fewer Resources Developed nations especially the United States Must use less resources Wasteful habits TEST 2 REVIEW Chapters 678 12 Ant251 18pring 2011 Chap 06 Overview of Living Primates Primates 1 Introduction I A mammalian 2 Primate Characteristics A Limbs and Locomotion a Prehensile or grasping ability C Senses and the Brain Eyes positioned forward on the front ofthe face Decreased reliance on sense of smell 3 Primate Adaptations explanations 3A Evolutionary Factors Explaining Characteristics 1 Arboreal Hypothesis Traditional explanation Adaptation to living 2 Visual Predation Hypothesis Forward facing eyes for grabbing insects 3 Flower Plants 1 Rise of flowering plants influenced primate evolution Dental Formula Old World Anthropoids and New World monkeys different 3D Locomotion 1Quadrupedal Most primates quadrupedal Majority arboreal 2 Vertical Clinging amp Leaping Many prosimians and tarisers Cling vertically Spring away from trunk 3 Brachiation Brachiating moving by Gibbons and siamangs especially 4 Prehensile tails Only among World monkeys 4 Primate Classification Primate Taxonomy Categories illustrate evolutionary relationships Traditionally based on physical similarities Biochemical Data amp Taxonomy Primate classification changing because of genetic evidence Revised Classifications Note some primatologists in recent years suggest grouping all great apes and humans in same family Primate Classification Primate Taxonomy Primates are categorized in subgroups 1 Strepsirhini lemurs and lorises 2 Haplorhini tarsiers monkeys apes and humans y A Survey of the Living Primates Primate Suborders o Primates order Divided as follows 0 Two ma39or divisions suborders o 1 Strepsirhini strepsirin ee 2 Haplorhini hap lorinee Lemurs and Lorises strepsirhini Primitive primates Known as prosimians Lemurs o Madagascar Island off the coast of Africa Lonses 0 Islands of southeast Asia Anthropoids Anthropoids Monkeys Apes and Humans Monkeys Apes and Humans Anthropoids Two divisions of Anthropoids 1 New World monkeys 2 Old World primates Old World Monkeys Apes Humans New World monkeys platyrrhini nostrils Old World anthropoids oatarrhini nostrils Monkeys New World Monkeys o Arboreal trees 0 Some use prehensile tails Old World Monkeys and other Old World Primates Old World Monkeys Most widely distributed primate Africa Asia Japan Hominoids Traditionally Apes and Humans Apes 0 Found in Asia and Africa 0 Includes Lesser Apes and Great Apes 1 Lesser Ages 0 Gibbons o Siamangs Gibbons and Siamangs o Smallest apes Tropical areas of southeast Asia Brachiation arm swinging Distinctive long arms and curved fingers 2 Great Apes Orangutan gorillas chimpanzees and bonobos Orangutans Heavily forested areas of Indonesian islands Gorillas Largest living primates Forests of central Africa Exhibit marked sexual dimorphism Primarily terrestrial Knuckle walking Almost exclusively vegetarian Chimpanzees o Equatorial Africa 0 Locomotion includes knucklewalking 0 Eat a variety of plant and animal foods 0 Large communities Bonobos o Similarto chimpanzee o Subspecies called pygmy chimpanzee Sexuality includes frequent copulations 3 Humans According to recent revisions are classified as Family Hominidae also includes great apes Homo Sapiens Primate Heritage 0 Primate heritage evident o 1 Human teeth are typical primate teeth 0 2 Dependence on vision 0 3 Flexible limbs and grasping hands 0 4 Omnivorous diet Human Characteristics unique not shared Human characteristics 1 Dependence on culture 2 Dramatic increase in brain size amp cognitive abilities 2 Bipedal locomotion Chapter 07 Primate Behavior THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR Behavior in freeranging primates Studied from ecological and evolutionary perspective Ecology Evolution Behavior Behavioral Ecology An approach that focuses on the relationship between 1behaviors 2 ecological factors The Evolution of Behavior Behaviors have evolved through the operation of natural selection Primate Social Structure Social structures are the results of natural selection in specific habitats Primate Social Structure SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SOCIAL STRUCTURE Many including the following Distribution of resources Predation Distribution of Resources Leaves can be abundant will support large groups of animals Fruits and nuts occur in clumps exploited by smaller groups Where predation pressure is high large communities are advantageous Why Be Social 0 Cost of competition offset by benefits of predator defense PRIMATE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Several behaviors reinforce integrity ofgroup Includes dominance communication aggression affiliation and altruism Dominance Many primate societies organized into dominance hierarchies Home Range Primate groups are associated with a home range Core Area Core area is portion within home range Contains the highest concentration of predictable resources The core area portion of home range defended against intrusion Affiliative Behaviors Reinforce bonds between individuals and enhance group stability 1 Grooming 2 Altruism Behaviors that benefit another while posing risk to oneself REPRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS Bonding Permanent bonding is not common among nonhuman primates Sexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on one sex usually males Increases the frequency of traits that lead to greater success in acquiring mates Dimorphism selection produces dimorphism Especially body size Presence or absence ofdimorphism can indicate mating structure PRIMATE CULTURAL BEHAVIOR Primate Cultural Behavior Cultural behavior is learned it s passed from generation to generation through learning not biologicalquot Cultural Tradition When leaned behavior passed to offspring Koshima Macaques Japan Koshima Island Macaques First reported example of cultural behavior among monkeys washing sweet potatoes in stream Chimpanzee Cultural Behavior Chimpanzee tool use 1 Termite fishing 2 Leaf sponges 3 Hammerstones and platforms to crack nuts Chimp Hunting Tools Sharpened sticks to hunt galagos Regional Variation Only chimp habitually makes and uses tools There are regional variations of tools used Regional dietary preferences also noted for chimps LANGUAGE Use of language a distinctive human trait Nonhuman Communication Venet Monkeys Vervet monkeys have different alarm calls for particular predators Snakes eagles leopards Learned but limited Apes Psychologists working with chimpanzees were not able to teach apes to speak Apes can learn to interpret visual signs and use them in communication Sign language and various symbols Chap08 HOMINID ORIGINS PART 1 EARLY PRIMATE EVOLUTION PALEOANTHROPOLOGY Dating Methods Early Primate Evolution Perspective Primate Evolution In context of geological time periods 0 Starting around 65 million years ago Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene 4 Levels of Primate Evolution in order from earliest to bipedal human ancestors O 1 Prosimians 2Anthropoids 3 Hominoids 4 Hominids Hominins EARLY PRIMATE EVOLUTION Paleocene 65 55 Earliest primates diverging Eocene 55 34 mya Earliest definite primates appear I Fossils found in two continents I 1 Europe I 2 North America 0 Continents connected Eocene Prosimians Prosimian radiation in Eocene Oligocene Anthropoids Early Anthropoid radiation in Oligocene Fayum Most Oligocene anthropoid fossils from Fayum Egypt Including Apidium and Aegyptopithecus Apidium Aegyptopithecus Miocene Spectacular Hominoid APE radiation in Miocene Diverse Miocene Hominoid Ape fossils found in Africa Asia Europe quotthe golden age of hominoids None in New World Americas Miocene Hominoids Hominoids are grouped geographically African forms 2344 mTyTa Proconsul is best known European forms 43 14 Dryopithecus is best known Asian forms W Sivapithecus is best known genus General Points on Miocene Hominoids Most too quotderived to be ancestors to living forms Except Sivapithecus may link to orangutan Late Miocene Hominidhominin Divergence II lnitial divergence of quothominidsquothominins from African quothominoids Most likely late Miocene Hominids or Hominins are bipedal ll Hominid Origins Introduction First definite Hominid fossils found in Africa Definition of Hominid Distinctive hominid characteristics Defining hominids Bipedal locomotion Large brain later Tool making at some stage Mosaic evolution Characteristics did not evolve at same time and place Called mosaic Evolutionary Pattern Physiological and behavioral systems evolve at different rates Bipedal Locomotion Walking on two feet Most distinctive feature of family Hominidae Bipedal locomotion is single most important characteristic of hominid evolution indicating if a fossil is a hominid O Other features like brain size and behavior become significant later What s in a Name Image Traditional Classification Hominoids Superfamily humans and apes Hominids Family bipedal hominoids Revised Classification 0 Includes Great Apes in same taxonomic family with humans Great Apes would be called Hominids AND HUMANS ARE CALLED HOMININS Added Levels Two levels of classification added ll 39 I ll 39 II Subfamlly and tribe l 39 ll 39 39 II 39 l ll 39 39 II Hominids still Hominids IN OUR TEXT Traditional classification quot Hominids used this term in text BE AWARE THAT NEWER TERM HOMININ MAY REPLACE HOMINID FOR HUMANS The Bipedal Adaptation Advantages of Bipedalism 1 Freed the hands for carrying objects and for making and using tools 2 Wider view of the surrounding countryside O 3 Efficient means of covering long distances Bipedal Modifications 1 Pelvis most dramatic Shorter broader basinlike shape elongated in quadrupeds 2 Foramen magnum repositioned 3 Spinal curvature 4 Lengthening of leg 5 Femur angled inward 6 Longitudinal arch 7 Big toe realigned BIOCULTURAL EVOLUTION Most distinctive human behavioral feature Dependence of culture Biology makes culture possible Culture further influences biological evolution Paleoanthropology Paleoanthropology The study of early humans Paleoanthropology as a Multidisciplinary Science Paleoanthropologists use skills of several disciplines Geologists archaeologists physical anthropologists Paleoecologists Example Geologists may locate potential early hominid sites Sites locations of discoveries Archaeologists search for hominid trace and study artifacts O Artifacts are objects or materials made of modified for use by hominids Dating Methods Age of Sites and Fossils Paleoanthropologists use two types of dating methods 1Relative dating 2 Chronometric or absolute dating 1 Relative Dating Determines only if object is older or younger than other objects a Stratigraphy Layering of deposits Based on the law of superposition Lower stratum layer is older b Fluorine analysis O Bones Incorporate fluorIne from groundwater durIng fossHIzatIon Longer buried more fluorine c Biostratigraphy Uses fossils of better known animal or species to help date associated hominid remains d Paleomagnetism Shifting of the geomagnetic pole o Magnetic partIcles act as anCIent compass Point to location of pole when rock formed 2 Chronometric or Absolute Dating Second major category Provides an estimate of age in actual number of years Most are radiometric 0 Based on rate of radioactive decay a Potassiuma rgon KAr Potassium decays into argon gas 39 II II HeatIng resets clock Volcanic rock in East Africa 0 dates rock not bone b Carbon14 Radiometric method 0 Dates organic materIal c FissionTrack Counts tracks left in crystalline rocks Uranium atoms disintegrate d Thermoluminescence Radiometric inorganic material REST OF CHAPTER 8 ON EXAM 3 THERE ARE NINE PAGES LESS THAN FALL 2010 REVIEW WHICH COVERED ALL OF CHAPTER 8


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