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Week 10 Notes

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Note over High Energy Feedstuffs: Soluble Fiber and High Starch Feeds
Feeds and Feeding
Dr. Meyer
Class Notes
Feeds and Feeding, Meyers, High Energy Feedstuffs: Soluble Fiber, High Starch Feeds




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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dragon Note on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 3232 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Meyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 03/24/16
08: High Starch Feeds AN SCI 3232 Dr. Meyer Energy Dense Feedstuffs • High in: C -> energy • Fat • CHO • Starch • Sugar • Soluble sugar • Protein feeds -> high energy High starch feedstuffs • Cereal grains • Potato co-products and waste • Corn • Bread waste and co-products • Barley • Bakery waste and co-products • Oats • Wheat • Sorghum (Milo) • Rye • Triticale • Hominy • Millet Feeding cereal grains • 40 to 72% starch – primarily starch • Vide variation • Corn -72% • Protein is of variable quality(AA profile) and quantity • < 18% • 5-15% CP • 1 to 6% fat • Less oilseed • All fat remaining in product to animal Feeding cereal grains • P >>> Ca • Phytate – P bound – unavailable to non ruminants • Rumen microbes can break down phytate • Feed more P to non ruminants • Feed phytase to non ruminants • Supplementing Ca • Low in vit A, D, and many of B-complex (thiamine exception) • Not as bad in yellow orang and red • Moderate vitamin E Corn • Feed corn = “dent” corn • Usually yellow: cryptoxanthin • 72% Starch • CP variable with N fertilization and variety/hybrid • Zein • Low in Lys and Trp • 46% RDP • Low in Niacin • Pellagra Corn anatomy Other cereal grains • Barley • Oats • Increased CP, RDP • Less energy • 25-30% hull • Less starch • Less starch • 47% starch • 58% starch • More fiber • Best CP (>80% RDP) Other cereal grains • Wheat • Grain Sorghum/Milo • Protein similar to barley • Drought and heat • Hard > soft tolerance • Energy similar to corn • Similar to corn • 77% starch chemically • Highest use = flour • 72% starch • Contains tannins Other cereal grains • Rye • Triticale • Similar to wheat • Wheat x rye nutritionally • Similar to hard wheat • Less palatable nutritionally Other cereal grains • Millet • Proso = grain • Foxtail, pearl = forage • Intermediate to oats and corn Relative feeding value of cereal grains Ruminant Swine Poultry Grain CP ME ME ME Corn 100 100 100 100 Barley 124 96.2 88.6 74.5 Oats 122 87.1 80.9 75 Hard Red Wheat 132 101.5 97.4 94.8 Sorghum/Milo 114 98.8 96.3 96.7 Rye 127 96.2 89.3 78.6 Triticale 161 96.2 91.2 92.2 Millet 118 96.2 89 86.5 From Kellems & Church, 2010 Rate of ruminal fermentation Type/species cereal grain and processing • Processing effects: • Steam flaked > steam rolled > dry rolled > whole • Heat and H2O- change in particle size exposing more starch for digestion • Increase fermentation fate • Grain • Wheat > Barley > Corn > Sorghum > Oats(fastest to slowest) • Plant coating-fiber + wax/no wax • Non-waxy > waxy Lardy and Dhuyvetter, 2000 Extent of ruminal and total tract starch digestion Rate=speed Extent=how much can be digested oats = wheat > barley > corn > sorghum Same amount of digestion Grain Prices Affects what rains we are using Volatile prices Supply/demand 0.14 0.12 0.10 2008 0.08 $/lb 2009 0.06 2010 0.04 0.02 0.00 Corn Barley Milo Oats Feed wheat Feedstuffs (MW markets), Sept. Relative Grain ME Cost 0.12 0.10 0.08 Corn Barley 0.06 Milo Oats 0.04 Wheat $/lb relative ME (corn = 100) 0.02 0.00 Dairy Beef Hogs Relative ME cost = 2010 Cost ÷ Relative ME Potatoes Mostly starch, high energy, some protein and vitamins and minerals • Whole + halved – choking hazard • Processing by-product – chips, French fries • Ruminants – highest potatoes • Raw • < 50% • Non-ruminants • Cooked • < 30% Thorsgard Sunrise Acres, Northwood, ND Slurry of potatoes by-product Bakery co-products/ Bread waste Flour- starch removed from wheat • Breads, candies, flours, nuts, etc. • Highly variable-changing products • High fat + sugar High energy • 9 to 12% CP • Very low fiber • High ME • Mostly to ruminants PB&J By-product Dvorak Ranch, Manning, ND Learning Objectives 1. Why do we feed cereal grains to livestock and other animals? 2. Know the nutrient composition of corn. 3. What do common cereal grains have in common? • How do they differ? • How do these compare with corn? 4. What are other high starch feedstuff options? 09: High Energy Feedstuffs: Soluble Fiber ANSC 3232 Dr. Meyer What is soluble fiber? Hemicellulose> easiest to digest, most soluble Lignin> very difficult to digest, less digested, least soluble High soluble fiber feedstuffs Co product feeds • Soyhulls • Oat hulls • Beet pulp • Oat mill by-product • Corn bran • Sunflower hulls • Corn screenings • Sunflower screenings • Wheat bran • Rice bran • Wheat midds • Rice by-products fractions • Wheat mill run • Rice hulls • Sorghum germ millfeed • Rice mill run • Barley hulls • Rye middlings • Barley malt product • Grain sceenings, chaff, dust, fines • Cottonseed hulls = variable T erms used • millingourse outer covering of cereal grain kernel, removed during Outer cover=fiber • Hulls: outer coverings of grain kernel or seed • Middlings/Midds: layer of grain kernel inside the outer bran, endosperm, and some bran particles Endosperm=starch of cereal • Mill run: bran, middlings, and sometimes including starch • Shorts: fine particles of bran, germ, starch, and tailings Most of the components of a kernel + starch • Screenings/fines: result from cleaning grains/seeds Super variable • Pulp: residue after processing, extracting, orjuicing Sugar beets, citris Example: Wheat Feed CP % Fat % NDF % Parent compound Wheat 14 2.3 12 Wheat bran 17 4 46 Mostly outer Wheat midds 19 2 36 More starch Wheat mill run 17 0 37 Wheat shorts 20 0 30 Higher than parent compound Some protein comes out with starch When using oilsees(SB) get oil and have SBM left overSheep NRC, 2007 Feeding high fiber co-products • High in soluble fiber-variable- how digestable • Can be moderate in CP – concentrating CP- very depedent on parent compound • AA?- look like parent compound • Low niacin • Often higher Ca (than parent), can be high P and Mg • Usually higher in trace minerals> outer coating Soybean hulls or “Soyhulls” Outer covering of soybeans Feed mostly to ruminants • Can contain urease % DM basis Soyhulls % CP 12-13 % RDP 55-60 % Fat 2 % NDF 60-70 Hemicellulose + cellulose % ADF 40-50 % Lignin 3 NEm, Mcal/kg 1.94 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.3 % Ca 0.53 % P 0.18 Beet Pulp Fed mostly to ruminants and horses, sometimes to gestating sows • Nutrient content varies % DM basis Beet pulp with molasses inclusion % CP 9-10 • Can be fed wet or dry % RDP 40-45 % Fat <1 % NDF 45 % ADF 20-25 % Lignin 3.5-4 NEm, Mcal/kg 1.76 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.14 % Ca 0.68 % P 0.10 Wheat midds Universal- available Fed to pigs and poultry % DM basis Wheat midds • Vary by wheat variety • Red, white, hard, soft % CP 18 % RDP 75-80 Mill run and shifts= more variable % Fat 3-3.5 % NDF 35-40 lower in fiber % ADF 10-15 But high in starch % Lignin 6 NEm, Mcal/kg 2.03 NEg, Mcal/kg 1.37 % Ca 0.15 % P 1.00 Cottonseed hulls Fed to ruminants • Fuzzy or delinted % DM basis Cottonseed hulls • Gossypol % CP 4 Low CP % RDP 50 Decrease male % Fat 1.5-2 Fertility- don’t % NDF 85-90 feed to males Highest % ADF 65-70 fiber % Lignin 24 NEm, Mcal/kg 0.79 NEg, Mcal/kg 0.25 % Ca 0.15 % P 0.09 Sunflower hulls Poorest quality Fed to ruminants % DM basis Sunflower hulls % CP 4 % RDP 15 % Fat 2-2.5 % NDF 70-75 % ADF 60-65 % Lignin 20-25 NEm, Mcal/kg 0.90 NEg, Mcal/kg ND % Ca 0 % P 0.11 Other co-products or wastes? Feed to ruminants, They can eat more feedstuff successfully DDGS, WDGS- higher fiber Apple pulps Coffee filters Coffee grounds Peanut shells Feeding considerations • Bulky-storage, feeding • Usually pellet • Low density • How to feed? • Usually pellet more cosistant in size increased density Feeding considerations • Variable palatability- product dependent • Pellet, add molasses • Can have variable quality> be on safe side, test or feed to lower risk animals Why feed fibrous co-products? • Ruminants? • Non-ruminants? • Cheaper • Cheaper • Can get more fiber> more energy • Species and timing specific • Available fill/effective fiber • Gestating sows • + associative effects • Pet foods • Forage based diet • Decrease nut. Den. • humans


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