Microbiology for Health Professionals
Microbiology for Health Professionals MCB 2004C
University of Central Florida
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn Willms on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCB 2004C at University of Central Florida taught by William Safranek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/227586/mcb-2004c-university-of-central-florida in Microbiology at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Lecture Exam 1 1 Historical Perspective Antony van Leeuwenhoek made simple microscopes discovered bacteria yeast algae and protozoa Ferdinand Cohen he proved monomorphism and developed aseptic transfer Louis Pasteur saved French beer industry created anthrax and rabies vaccination discovered anaerobic life no need of oxygen to live and disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms ask experiment Robert Koch one bug one disease Koch s postulates take blood sample from diseased animal and grow it Then inject into healthy animal who did not have this bacteria and that animal should get the exact same disease as the other Robert Hooke helped Ben Lavevenhook publish his work M icrographia Matthias Schleiden amp Theodor Schwann Schleiden Schwann theory that plant and animal tissues are made up of these cells Rudolf Virchow Theory of Biogenesis living cells come from living cells 2 Microscopes Characteristics Simple Microscope one magnifying lens 320x magnification Compound Microscope more than 1 lens 1000x magnification Has ocular and objective lenses Total magnification ocular x objective Brightfreld Microscope generally used with compound microscope Darkfreld Microscope illuminated objects neon against a dark background increased resolving power Phase Contrast Microscope for example these microscopes accentuate the slight re ective difference of the water the cell is based in versus the water in the cytoplasm of the cell Fluorescence Microscopes builtin UV light source common in clinical setting UV stimulates dyes and pigments to light up Electron Microscopes uses electron beam as illumination magnets are used instead of lenses organisms are killed by the fixation process gtTransmission electron microscopy TEM shows the internal structure of cells the cells are cut into thin sections thus destroying the cell high magnifications are used and high resolution is capable gt Scanning electron microscopy SEMshows the external features of intact cells 3 Functions of Compound Light Microscope Eyepiece lens the lens at the top that you look through usually 10 or 15x power Tube connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses Arm supports the tube and connects it to the base Base the bottom of the microscope used for support llluminator steady light source used in place of mirror Revolving nosepiece or turret holds 2 or more lenses and can be rotated to easily change power Objective lenses There will usually be 34 objective lenses on a microscope they are 4X 10X 40X and 100 powers Rack stop adjustment that determines how close the objective lens can get to the slide only need to adjust this if using thin slides and aren t able to focus on specimen at high power Condenser lens focuses the light onto the specimen Diaphragm or Iris rotating disk under the stage it has different sized holes and is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide 4 Monomeric Units and Bonds for Each Class of Macromolecule Protein MU amino acids Bond peptide bond Polysaccharide MU pentoses and hexoses Bond covalent bond joins pentoses and hexoses glycosidic bond Lipid MU fatty acids and glycerol Bond carbon bond ester or ether linkage Lipopolysaccharide DNA MU nucleotides Bond hydrogen bond phosphodiester bond RNA MU ribose phosphate group and nitrogenous bases AUCG Bond hydrogen bond phosphodiester bond 5 CharacteristicsFunctions of Each Class of Macromolecule Protein functions include dissolving other nutrients providing energy storing energy and controlling chemical reactions Polysaccharide functions as carbon and energy reserves and form cell wall components Lipids helps make up the phospholipid bilayer they also dissolve other nutrients dilute chemical reactions store energy and control chemical reactions DNA function is to code the way proteins turn genes on or off RNA function is to convert the information stored in DNA into proteins 6 Functionscharacteristics of Cell Structures Cytoplasmic Membrane selecteive barrier that surrounds the cell contains integral membrane proteins if this becomes compromised to the point where it can t be fixed the cell will die Functions determines what goes in and out based on transmembrane proteins it is also the anchor for those particular proteins the cell membrane essentially gets its energy through the proteins Ifthere are no more positive charges on the outside of the cell then the cell will get no energy and it is dead Cell Wall provides rigidity not shape Function keeps bacterial cells from lysing due to internal turgor pressure 2 types Gramnegative and Grampositive What characterizes gramnegative cell walls is the outer membrane and periplasm Still serves the same function as the grampositive cell wall Cytoplasm Inclusions granules within cells function is storage of energy compounds and are a source of structural building blocks Nucleoid the DNA of bacteria is contained in the nucleoid F lagella Most bacteria move around with agella In prok it is a rigid structure like the propeller of a motor The euk agella move in whiplike motion gtPolar I stuck at one end of the cell gtLophotrichous is like polar but there is more than one at the end bundles of agella gtPerihrichous agella all over the cell surface GlycocalyX is the polysaccharide material lying outside the cell functions include attachment of pathogens protection from Phagocytosis and resistance to desiccation if too dry capsules will go into suspended animation in the uid available to prevent drying out Pili amp Fimbrae are not involved in motion They are like tether lines They can glue themselves to surfaces this is how certain bacteria attach to cells to spread infection Pili serve as receptors for certain viruses and are involved in the process of conjugation and in the attachment of certain pathogenic bacteria to tissues Endospores the most resistant biological structure They are formed within the vegetative cell highly resistant to heat drying radiation acids and chemical disinfectants Dormacy is maintained for long periods Bacillus require oxygen to make endospores while Closm39dz39um need oxygen to live C lostridz39um are anerobes 7 Characteristics of Biological Classi cation Systems 1 Arti cial vs Natural phylogenetic classifications Phenotypic based on observable characteristics Genotypic based on nucleic acid sequence data Polyphasic uses both phenotypic and genotypic data Arti cial is a way to classify things it does not show natural classifications and usually it is based solely on phenotypic observations Natural is the evolutionary relationships of organisms over time Phenotypic are things you can see and are measurable They are inaccurate because they don t show true biogenetic relationships Genotypic is based on nucleic acid sequence data with no phenotypic data of what organism actually looks like Polyphasic includes both phenotypic and genotypic data 2 Domain 9 Kingdom 9 Phylum 9 Class 9 Order 9 Family 9 Genus 9 Species 3 Linnaean System Carl Linnaeus 2 kingdoms Plant and Animal Linnaeus specialty was plants He looked at phenotypic patterns to group animals and plants even though it wasn t based on DNA He was the first to develop the binomial system of nomenclature each species name is made of 2 parts 4 Five Kingdom System Whittaker Plants Fungi Animals Protists and Monera Whittaker said that the most important division is are you prokaryotic or eukaryotic All of the prokaryotes were lumped into one group If you are eukaryotic are you multi or unicellular Ifunicellular they were protists Ifmulticellular you were a plant fungi or an animal 5 ThreeDomain System Carl Woese three ribosomal molecules small subunit sequencing 2 major groups of prokaryotes bacteria and archaea along with the 1 group of eukaryotes known as domain eukarya 8 Principles of Microbial Taxonomy Taxonomy is the classi cation of living organisms It is more subjective than a science Taxonomy includes classi cation nomenclature and identi cation Taxonomy is a means for organizing elements of groups of things in an orderly reproducible manner Classi cation involves the organization of relationships among related taxa and the creation of schemes for interpreting those relationships Nomenclature is a means by which standardized approaches to the formulation of names ensures that people use the same terms in referring to a single taxonomic entity Identi cation is the determination that an unknown isolate belongs to one of the labeled groups and is included within the classi cation schemes 9 Characteristics of Cell Based Life Metabolism uptake of chemicals from the environment their transformation within the cell and the elimination of wastes into the environment Reproduction one cell gets larger then divides into 2 daughter cells Differentiation a new cell structure such as a spore is formed by the old cell structure Communication cells communicate by chemical signals they put out chemical signals and take in chemical signals Movement living organisms are often capable of selfpropulsion however cells don t have to be mobile to actually be a cell Evolution cells evolve to display new biological properties You are either cellular or acellular If you are acellular the 6 characteristics of cells do not apply If you are cellular you are either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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