General Microbiology MCB 3020C
University of Central Florida
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn Willms on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCB 3020C at University of Central Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/227588/mcb-3020c-university-of-central-florida in Microbiology at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
l Eukaryotic cell characteristics Presence of a nucleus Membranebound organelles Phototrophic or chemoorganotrophic May or may not have chloroplasts Alveoli under the cytoplasmic membrane alveolates 2 Function of eukaryotic cell structures Endoplasmic reticulum with the presence of both rough and smooth portions Rough ER synthesizes proteins Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and steroids and attaches receptors on cell membranes Golgi apparatus Processes and packages macromolecules Important in the processing of proteins for secretion Lysosomes Contains acid hydrolase enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris Peroxisomes Involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids branched chain fatty acids Damino acids and polyamines Hydrogenosomes Found in some anaerobic ciliates and fungi Produces molecular hydrogen acetate carbon dioxide and ATP Cytoskeleton microfilaments microtubules Protects the cytoplasm Provides rigidity to the cell 3 Characteristics of protozoa major protozoan groups Phagotrophic aerobic protists All eukaryotes other than those belonging to Animalia Fungi Plantae Chromista Lack cell walls Colourless Motile Phago and pinocytosis Mastigophora agellates Amoebozoa Sarcodina amebas Cilophora ciliates 4 Characteristics of the current kingdoms of Eukarya Diplomonads and parabasalids Unicellular agellated protists lacking chloroplasts Anaerobic Fermentative 2 nuclei of equal size giardia diplomonads Parabasal body trichomonas parabasalids Eugleozoans Crystalline rod in agellum Phototrophic or chemoorganotrophic Alveolate Presence of alveoli under the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane Ciliates dino agellates apicomplexans Stramenopiles Hairlike projections on one agellum Retronemes Diatoms golden algae oomycetes Cercozoans and Radiolarians Threadlike pseudopodia Marine Amoebozoa Lobeshaped pseudopodia Terrestrial or aquatic Gymnamoeba entamoeba acellular slime molds cellular slime molds 5 Characteristics of Viruses especially their structure and replication Genetic element with either RNA or DNA Must replicate inside a liVing cell Has an extracellular state Virion Lytic or lysogenic life cycle Helical or icosahedral symmetry Some are enveloped Some have enzymes lysozymes reverse transcripate neuraminidase 6 Characteristics of Viroids and prions Viroids Naked circular RNA Smallest known pathogens Crop diseases Possibly escaped introns Prions Infectious extracellular proteins Misfolding of a normal protein formed by an abnormal protein and a chaperone Causes Mad Cow Transmissible spongiform encephalies 7 Characteristics of algae major algal groups Eukaryotes containing chlorophyll Oxygenic photosynthesis Some forms are microscopic seaweed kelp Phylogenetically heterogeneous Chlorophyta rhodophyta diatoms dino agellates 8 Characteristics of bacterial genetics Mutations Genetic recombination Homologous recombination Transfer of DNA Transposition Transposons Insertion sequences Some Viruses 9 Methods of genetics exchange Transformation 7 the pick up of exogeneous DNA Transduction 7 genetic exchange performed by Viruses Conjugation 7 genetic exchange performed due to cellcell contact Requires a sex pilus F plasmid Hfr cells 10 Types and characteristics of the various mutations discussed Spontaneous or induced Frameshift mutations Basepair mutations Silent mutation Codes for the same codon Missense mutation Codes for a different codon Nonsense mutation Codes for a stop codon Viruses are genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a host cell Obligate intracellular parasites A virion is the extracellular state of a virus and is metabolically inert Contains nucleic acid surrounded by protein and occasionally other macromolecules It is how the virus moves from the cell it was produced in to a new cell Viruses use either DNA or RNA as their genetic material Some viral genomes are circular but most are linear Virus families have names that end in iridae Viruses are usually measured in nanometers 11000 of a micrometer Viruses could not be properly classified until the invention of the electron microscope The nucleic acid of the virion is surrounded by a capsid protein shell Some viruses have only one kind of protein in their capsid but some have several distinct proteins The capsomer is the smallest morphological unit that can be seen with the electron microscope The overall process of virion assembly is called selfassembly The nucleocapsis is the complete complex of nucleic acid and protein packaged in the virion Some are naked and some are enveloped Rodshaped viruses have helical symmetry Spherical viruses have icosahedral symmetry The most efficient Most enveloped viruses infect animals The viral envelope consists of a lipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it Usually glycoproteins Derived from the membranes of the host cell but the proteins are encoded by viral genes Lysozyme when used by bacteriophages makes a small hole in the bacterial cell wall and allows the viral nucleic acid to enter Later causes lysis of the cell Retroviruses contain reverse transcriptase Some viruses contain their own RNA polymerase Cells cannot make DNA or RNA from an RNA template Certain animal viruses have neuraminadases that cleave glycosidic bonds to release the virions in animal cell connective tissue Viruses infecting prokaryotes are the easiest to grow in the lab Animal cell cultures are usually derived from cells originally taken from the organ of an experimental animal Usually dissociates with an enzyme and then spread over a flat surface to form a monolayer which is then overlaid with a suitable culture medium and incubated A plaque is a clearing on a lawn of growing host cells Can be assumed to have originated from the replication of a single virion The number of plaqueforming units is always lower than counts of the viral suspension made with an electron microscope Five stages of viral replication Attachment adsorption Penetration injection 1 2 3 Synthesis of nucleic acid and protein 4 Packaging and assembly maturation 5 Lysis The first few minutes after infection he virus undergoes an quoteclipsequot Infectious particles cannot be detected in the culture medium even though they are present Infectious particles are being removed from the environment as they adhere to the host cells The burst size is the number of virions released Viral replication is usually a onestep growth curve The most common basis for the host specificity of a virus depends upon attachment The virion has one or more proteins on the outside that are called receptors For some viruses to replicate not only must nucleic acid enter the cell but protein must too Attachment and penetration could still not result in viral replication is the information cannot be read once inside the cell A cell that allows the replication cycle to take place is called quotpermissivequot Some enveloped animalviruses are 39 r Iat the 39 dumping the virions into the cytoplasm The most complex penetration mechanisms have been found in bacteriophages The tail fibers of bacteriophages interact with the polysaccharides on the outer layer of the gram negative cell envelope Eukaryotes possess something called RNA interference Prokaryotes can use restriction endonucleases to cleave the viral DNA to prevent its replication Specific for doublestranded DNA so singlestranded DNA and RNA is unaffected Viruses can modify their DNA to avoid attack through glucosylation and methylation Doublestranded DNA viruses can proceed directly as if the virus used mRNA Singlestranded DNA viruses must first synthesize a complementary DNA strand mRNA is usually and its complement is usually mRNA is the complement to the template strand of DNA Negativestrand RNAs must synthesize a complementary mRNA It is the same with double stranded RNAs Virulent viruses sometimes kill their hosts after infection Lambda is a temperate bacteriophage Results in lysogeny The virus genome is not expressed results in a prophage Temperate viruses can resort to the lytic cycle Lambda genome consists of linear dsDNA Animal infection can result in tumours transformation persistent infection latent infection or lysis Retroviruses contain an RNA genome that is replicated through a DNA intermediate Retroviruses were the first carcinogenic group to be identified Retroviruses are enveloped viruses with several proteins in the virus coat and seven internal proteins 4 structural and 3 enzymatic The enzymes found in a retrovirus virion are reverse transcriptase integrase and protease The retrovirus genome contains two singlestranded RNA molecules both of the orientation Viroids are infectious RNA molecules that lack a protein coat Have a stable extracellular form Smallest known pathogens Cause plant diseases The viroid RNA is a covalently closed circle The viroid is able to exist extracellularly because of the extensive secondary structure of its genome Viroids enter plants through a wound Viroids move from cell to cell via the plasmodesmata The viroid is replicated in the host cell nucleus or chloroplast The viroid has ribozyme activity Prions do not contain DNA or RNA Causes diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Healthy prions are largly ahelices Unhealthy prions are more bsheets Rogue prions quotreplicatequot by converting normal prions that already exist into the pathogenic form
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