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General Psychology

by: Nicklaus Lind

General Psychology PSY 2012

Nicklaus Lind
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.5

Cyrus Azimi

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Cyrus Azimi
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicklaus Lind on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Central Florida taught by Cyrus Azimi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/227606/psy-2012-university-of-central-florida in Psychlogy at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter ten Motivation 1 Definition In general motivation may be defined as a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction The innate inborn biological force that predisposes the organism to act in a certain way is called instinct II Rewards and Incentives 1 Rewards and Reinforcers Rewards as we have discussed before are roughly the same as reinforces Primary reinforcers act as rewards without prior learning A sweet taste for example is pleasant when it is tried for the first time Secondary reinforcers become rewarding through learning such as money or poker chips 2 Incentive lncentive defined as any goal or external condition that causes an organism to act Positive incentive directs behavior towards a goal while negative incentive directs behavior away from it 111 Homeostasis and Drives Homeostasis is defined as the organism s tendency to maintain a constant internal environment The internal environment may lose its constant balance due to physiological or psychological factors When these factors occur a condition called drive is brought about which moves the organism towards taking care of the physiological or psychological need in order to regain the balance or homeostasis An example is when a person feels thirsty signaling a change in the homeostasis The need for water drives the person to find and drink water This will regain the condition of homeostasis IV Thirst Thirst is the psychological manifestation of the need for water which is essential for survival Thirst has physiological basis When the water in the cells or within the cells of the body is eliminated and is lost there is need to replace the lost water This is manifested in a condition referred to as thirst The organism has the need for water and shows the drive to find water Then the lost body water is not replaced a condition called dehydration occurs This is illustrated in cases of shipwreck or being stranded in a desert Under such condition the organism cannot live more than three days Thirst is one of the most important and pressing motivators Death due to thirst is reported to be very painful V Hunger Hunger involves many of the same homeostatic concepts as thirst but eating is more complex than drinking For one thing we are accustomed to eat at certain times of the day whether we are really hungry or not Our eating behavior is influenced the social customs Food preference is also the result of social learning Intake of foods gives us energy and maintains homeostasis 1 The role ofglucose in hunger Glucose sugar has the most important role in hunger Indeed when the level of glucose decreases in the blood the body experiences the condition of hunger and the need for food intake is experienced As the amount of glucose decreases the body experiences more hunger This is noted in an important experiment As we know glucose is burned in our bodies due to insulin secreted by pancreas Injection of insulin lowers blood sugar and increases food intake while injection of glucose raises blood sugar level and inhibits stops food intake 2 Physiological Hunger Cures We have noticed when we are hungry because our stomachs sometimes quotgrowlquot These sounds are caused by muscular contractions of the walls of the stomachs However stomach contractions are not the cause of hunger As we stated before it is the drop in the level of glucose in the blood that signals the need for food intake When the level of blood sugar drops neurons in particular parts of the brain especially hypothalamus become very sensitive to glucose level When the level falls too low the activities of these neurons are disrupted and they signal the rest of the brain to produce the sensation of hunger The role of hypothalamus is very important It is associated with shortterm control of good intake longterm control of food intake and control of water intake The role of liver is also very important Receptors in the liver are highly sensitive to changes in blood sugar The liver can also more accurately measure the various types of nutrients used by the body in hunger Hypothalamus remains the center for control of hunger and good intake Damage to this organ causes loss of appetite or over eating 3 Anorexia and Bulimia Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by extreme selfimposed weight loss which can result in many dangerous side effects including death Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating rapid eating of a large amount of food followed by attempts to purse the food by means of vomiting or laxatives Both anorexia and bulimia are more frequent in girls and young women Malfunction of hypothalamus together with personality and social factors play important roles in anorexia and bulimia Persons suffering from these disorders have low selfimage and consider themselves to be quotfat and ugly VI Gender and Sexuality Similar to hunger and thirst sex is a powerful motivator Although biologically based sex is a social motive and usually involves another person Likewise sex is not crucial for a person s existence unlike hunger and thirst Some also believe it does not disturb the condition and balance of homeostasis A person s sexual identity is established during the fetal period In cases of Gender Identity Disorder a neonate is prewired for a specific gender despite hisher biological sex Adult sexuality and behavior depends on both biology particular hormones and environmental learning interaction 1 Early Sexual Development Gender Identity gender identity refers to the process that male s come to think of themselves as males and females as females A biological male who thinks he is in the llwrong body and should be a female suffers from Gender Identity Disorder stated above Between two and three months after conception a primitive sex gland or gonad develops into testes if the embryo is genetically male or into ovaries if the embryo is genetically female Once testes or ovaries develop they produce the sex hormones Thus the sex hormones are very important in the prenatal sexual development of the fetus The male hormone is called androgen If the sex glands of the embryo produce enough androgen the neonate will have male genitals An important male hormone is testosterone which is important in the development of sexual desire As for the females lack of production of androgen is sufficient to produce a female No female hormones are needed The female hormone is called estrogen Androgen not only causes the development of male genitals but also influences the brain cells and masculinizes the brain Thus the fetus is quotprewiredquot to show masculine traits whereas a fetus is quotprewiredquot to show feminine traits will do so despite his biological sex Sometimes at the time of birth the sex of the neonate is not clearly determines Neonates born with ambiguous looking genitals are called hermaphrodites Contrary to some belief there is no true case of a hermaphrodite in human beings In other words humans are either male of female and no human has both male and female genitals Sometimes the testes have not descended and the neonate is thought to be a female During adolescence the individual develops masculine traits 2 Adult Sexuality In humans both biological and environmental factors are important in shaping adult sexual behavior In fact culture influences the expression of sexual desire Incest sexual relationship with the members of family is prohibited by most of modern cultures Some cultures are more liberal regarding sexual activities whereas others are very strict Over the years sexual activities in the United States have become less restricted Premarital intercourse has become more acceptable Gay and lesbian relationships are also accepted a Maternal behavior hormones play important parts in maternal behavior including feeding and caring for the infant by the mother Hormones related to maternal behavior include progesterone prolactin and estrogen However care of infants is also influences by the environmental factors Some mothers give their infants up for adoption Some other neglect and abuse their infants Research shows that parents who abuse their children tend to have been abused by their own parents 3 Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation refers to the degree a person is sexually attracted to persons of the other sex andor persons of the same sex It is different from sexual identity since most people with different sexual orientations are comfortable with their biological sex Sexual orientation ranges from exclusive heterosexuality to bisexuality and to exclusive homosexuality Over the years people in modern societies have become more comfortable with their sexual orientations a Homosexuality until the mid 70 s homosexuality was considered to be a deviation of a physiological disorder The American Psychiatric Association APA considering various research studies removed homosexuality as abnormal behavior and considered it as alternative life style Studies indicate that one s sexual orientation is not something that one simply chooses Gay men and lesbians do not choose to have sexual desires towards the persons of the same sex Although the cause or causes of homosexuality is not known it is clear that both biological and environmental factors especially early experiences interact in demonstrating this behavior Some people feel that giving male hormones to homosexuals might change their behavior and make them heterosexual This is not true at all Research shows that when male homosexuals are given additional male hormones their sex drive increases but they still prefer male sexual partners Today most psychologists and psychiatrists consider homosexuality as a variant of sexual expression and a different life style Adoption of children by gay and lesbians together with gay and lesbian marriages are becoming increasingly more frequent in western cultures VII Curiosity Motives Curiosity and exploratory behaviors seem to be important motives in both humans and animals People are motivated to seek stimulation to explore their environment actively even when the activity satisfies no bodily needs Thus the development of curiosity of exploratory behavior seems to occur as a motive apart from physiological needs 1 Exploration and Manipulation We seem to have inborn drives to manipulate and investigate objects Curiosity is sometimes demonstrated for the purpose of investigation This behavior starts in childhood which develops through life span Children pull their toys apart to learn more about them They are curious about events around them It is also true that some people are more curious that others The difference is noted among children 2 Sensory Stimulation and Deprivation Both exploration and manipulation provide the organism with new changing sensory input We have a need for sensory stimulation and get bored when stimuli become constant or minimal Consider sitting in a large room alone without television or radio for a period of time The feeling tends to become more uncomfortable as time passes Studies on the effects of sensory deprivation when stimuli are markedly reduce reveal important findings For example a prisoner places in isolation in a dark and quiet cell for more than a week is likely to show a detrimental effect on hisher mental functioning Clearly people require sensory stimulation for normal perceptual and intellectual functioning Volunteer human subjects are placed in coffintype boxes airconditioned but submerged under water No light or sound is present Subjects may terminate the experiment at any time Although there is a wide variation among people in their tolerance of stimulus deprivation most people find the experiments very uncomfortable and wish to discontinue them


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