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General Psychology

by: Nicklaus Lind

General Psychology PSY 2012

Nicklaus Lind
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.5

Cyrus Azimi

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Cyrus Azimi
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicklaus Lind on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Central Florida taught by Cyrus Azimi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/227606/psy-2012-university-of-central-florida in Psychlogy at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
Chapter 6 consciousness I Aspects of Consciousness 1 Consciousness A person s perceptions thoughts feelings and memories that are active at a given moment are referred to as consciousness or awareness 2 Freud s views Sigmund Freud proposed preconscious and unconscious levels as well Memories and thoughts which can be readily accessible to us are in the preconscious mind whereas memories impulses and desires that are not accessible are in the unconscious mind Under certain conditions such as in our dreams or under the influence of certain drugs or due to slips of tongue the unconscious material becomes conscious 3 Active and Passive Consciousness Active consciousness refers to being active initiative and seeking such as problem solving Passive consciousness refers to being receptive of what is going on such as watching a television program Doing well on an examination requires active consciousness 4 Repression According to Freud painful memories especially during childhood years are removed from conscious mind and are placed in the unconscious mind though the process of repression The person seemingly quotforgetsquot painful memories and needs psychological intervention to bring such memories to conscious mind 5 Day Dreaming A creative way to relieve boredom is a daydream However persisting in this behavior is not healthy Day dreaming is based on thoughts and images in memory 11 Sleep and Dreams 1 Stages ofSleep The sleep schedule changes over the life span Neonates spend most of the time sleeping Gradually they adopt the patters of their parents sleep Each individual functions on hisher biological clock which is also known as circadian rhythm It more or less indicates when the person goes to sleep and when the person wakes up Interference with the circadian rhythm is noted when a person travels over several time zones eg going to Europe from USA a phenomenon known as jet lag In order to determine the stages of sleep the electroencephalogram is obtained This is known as EEG Following are the various stages of sleep a The Awake Stage if the person engages in brain activities such as solving problems or listening attentively EEG demonstrates the beta waves which are short and compact 57 The Relaxed Stage when the person begins to relax with hisher eyes closed the EEG demonstrates the alpha waves which are larger than the beta waves This is also referred to as stage one Stage two is defined by the presence of sleep spindles and Kcomplexes Stage three and stage four demonstrate deep sleep with delta waves Naturally the percentage of delta waves is higher in stage four REM sleep after an adult has been asleep for about ninety minutes the EEG becomes very active and rapid eye movement is noted Dreaming usually occurs during REM sleep 0 2 Sleep Disorders lnsomnia refers to lack of ability to fall sleep It can vary in degree Narcolepsy refers to falling asleep at any time without a person s will to control it A student who falls asleep while taking a test probably has narcolepsy Um 3 Dreams Everyone dreams People who report that they do not dream probably have more difficulty remembering their dreams Dreaming is an altered state of consciousness in which picture stories are constructed based on memories and current concerns or on fantasies and images The scientific study of dreams began with the work of Freud He believed dreams were llroyal roads to unconscious and felt during dreams the unconscious material which is repressed becomes apparent He distinguished three types of dreams dreams based on every day activities wish fulfilling dreams and nightmares He also believed that dreams were ways of gratifying wishes and desires He felt nightmares represented fight between undesired wishes and superego People who sleepwalk usually do not remember what they did walking This is another form of sleep disorder which was studied by Freud III Meditation and Hypnosis Meditation refers to reaching an altered state of consciousness by performing certain rituals and exercises The rituals of meditation include regulating breathing forming mental images and making or giving out special sounds called mantra Traditionally meditation followed the practice of yoga Meditation may be valuable for people who suffer from anxiety and tension Hypnosis is considered an altered state of consciousness It is brought about by a series of suggestions causing relaxation and sleep However in order to produce hypnosis a willing and cooperative subject is needed Such a person is willing to give up some control over hisher behavior to the hypnotist and accept some changes in reality Under hypnosis a person will do an act if heshe is willing to do so No one can be forced to do an act against hisher will under hypnosis While under hypnosis the hypnotist or therapist makes certain suggestions to alter specific behaviors such as smoking The person under hypnosis is highly suggestible and demonstrates posthypnotic responses by following the suggestions received under hypnosis At the suggestion of the hypnotist events occurring during the hypnosis may be quotforgottenquot This is called posthypnotic amnesia Today hypnosis has extensive applications Combined with therapy called hypnotherapy it is used to deal with variety of emotional disorders Its use in dentistry surgery and childbirth has been proven Hypnosis also shows the power of mind over body Under suggestion subjects carry out extraordinary acts The power of mind over body is most accurately demonstrated in our everyday activities such as wiggling our ears or rolling our tongues which some people can do and some cannot IV Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs refer to that affect behavior consciousness and or mood They include both legal and illegal drugs and substances Consistent use of drugs may result in both physical and psychological dependency Physical dependency is noted when a person s body needs the drug to live Psychological dependency is noted in a person s strong desire to ruse the drug but is not a life threatening condition The following is a summary of the classification of various drugs of substances 1 Depressants These drugs depress central nervous system CNS and brain centers causing retardation and slowness in behavior a Ethanol ethyl alcohol contrary to popular belief alcohol is considered a CNS depressant A concentration of 003 to 005 in the blood produced lightheaded ness relaxation and release of inhibition A drinker is considered legally intoxicated when there is a concentration of 0040 may cause death Intoxicated persons who report seeing snakes on the wall and experience agitation show alcohol hallucinations b Opiates opium and its derivatives known as opiate are drugs that depress CNS slowing behavior and capacity to respond These drugs are also called narcotics Drugs obtained from opium include codeine morphine and herion In the order of the weakes to strongest they are as follow codeine morphine heroin Morphine has been used as an effective painkiller especially in use with cancer patients Heroin is an extremely addictive drug 2 Stimulants In contrast to depressants and opiates stimulants are drugs that increase alertness and general arousal by stimulating CNS and brain centers a Amphetamines amphetamines are powerful CNS stimulants They are also known as quotspeedquot or quotuppersquot An immediate effect of amphetamines is increase in alertness and a decrease in feelings of fatigue and boredom Some amphetamines Dexedrine are used for weight reduction b Cocaine cocaine is obtained from the dried leaves of the coca plant It is a powerful stimulant causing increased energy and activity It is not considered a hallucinogenic mind altering drug Crack is a form of cocaine which is highly addictive 3 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens of psychedelics are drugs which change perceptual experiences Some hallucinogenic drugs are derived from plants and others are made in the laboratories a LSD lysergic acid diethylamide or quotacidquot is a colorless odorless and tasteless substance which produces hallucinations at very low doses b Cannabis a psychoactive substance that creates cognitive or motor impairments and sometimes hallucinations The cannabis plant cannabis sativa is native to warm and humid climates The dried leaves are used to produce marijuana lts active ingredient ls THC Marijuana doesn t create physical dependency but certainly brings about psychological dependency Thus its use or abuse is very much debated It causes memory problems but has been beneficial in eating disorders and patients suffering from AIDS Drugs such as marijuana that primarily produce changes in perceptual experiences are called psychedelics


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