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World Civilization I

by: August Stracke I

World Civilization I WOH 2012

August Stracke I
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.97

Edward Dandrow

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Edward Dandrow
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by August Stracke I on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WOH 2012 at University of Central Florida taught by Edward Dandrow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/227616/woh-2012-university-of-central-florida in History at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
The foundaTions of civilizaTion The Sumerian civilizaTion emerged upon The flood plain of The lower reaches of The Tigris and EuphraTes Rivers abouT 4000 BC The social sTrucTure of The Sumerians was decidedly differenT from oTher socieTies of ThaT and laTer Times The Sumerian communiTies were ciTy sTaTes organized around a Temple and ruled by priesThood The insecuriTies of life jusTified The role of The priesThood When calamiTies occurred despiTe The besT efforTs of The priesThood This was explained as being The resulT of The acTions of oTher gods acTing in concerT which overruled The wishes of The local god The MesopoTamians builT massive Temples or zigguraTs which housed The priesle class The human represenTaTives of The gods The priesTs conTrolled The religious life of The communiTy The economy land ownership The employmenT of workers as well as The managemenT of long disTance Trade Sumerians arose in The flood plains and where a agriculTural civilizaTion The Sumerians lived as small communiTies They are independenT or auTonomous communiTies ThaT arise around small Temples o The Temples became The focal poinT of The communiTy The Temples were essenTial noT jusT for The religion buT also for The economy These religious siTes exisTed before The communiTies arose ZigguraT comes To represenT The mounTain The hill of life The gods live on Top of The mounTains o MosT people never encounTered The god The Temple is organized in levels The god is usually represenTed as a sTaTue The people really believed ThaT The sTaTue was The god The priesTs owned mosT of The land so They had a greaT amounT of power The priesTs ideological views were ThaT They dominaTed The communiTy People who were wealThy buT were noT priesTs creaTed Their own nobiliTy lugal means llting These were rival insTiTuTions buT They needed To coexisT The king enforced The divine will of The god Ideology a sys of ideas and images ThaT ulTimaTely aim To naTuralize cerTain poinTs of views opinions and facTs We acT in response To cerTain ideas as if They were naTurally True UnquesTionable guT feeling abouT Things world views Theology The noTion ThaT you had a personal god began in Sumerian Civic god The god worshiped by The communiTy A loT of civilizaTions have The same sTrucTure If one was noT able To go To The Temple To worship The god They senT a wooden sTaTue of ThaT represenT Them These were mass produced Religion is cenTral To The Sumerians iT orders all aspecTs of Their life everyThing ThaT happens is due To some form of divine inTervenTion In These independenT communiTies came To be ruled by lltings or warlords We call if Sumerian civ because They were poliTically similar They all had lltings Temples priesThoods ecT They had a shared language and The region over Time became economically inTegraTed even Though each ciTy saw Themselves as Their own counTry O O 0 000 O o The idea ThaT They were all parT of a larger group didn39T sTrillte Them 0 By 3000 BC we begin To see The idea ThaT all of The regions were connecTed in some way 0 One of The Things ThaT helped do This was The inTroducTion of wriTing o MosT socieTies funcTion on an oral level wriTing is inTroduced slowly in The eliTe classes 0 The inTroducTion of wriTing in MesopoTamian is inTroduced by necessiTy by merchanTs Over Time The symbols used are inTroduced inTo socieTy o The goods are sold in The Temples and when The merchanTs arrive wiTh cerTain Things marked The priesTs also embrace This wriTing form and called if cuneiform which began as picTures and Then devolved info a simple form of symbols 0 WriTing becomes a way To disTinguish The eliTe form The common slob on The sTreeT o WriTing creaTes a sTable socieTy This helped To creaTe a sense of civilizaTion and sTabiliTy o PriesTs lltepT records 0 Sumerians creaTed The noTion of conTracTs iT s a highly legalisTic socieTy o The kings had To rely on priesTs o PriesTs wroTe prayer liTeraTure o WriTing creaTed a much more complex socieTy o AncienT MesopoTamia is an inlltind socieTy In The 2000 BC Priesfs had dominaTed The socieTy buT somewhere along The line The power moved To The king The yrs 2900 To 2350 BC is known as The early dynasTic period Whaf defines an arisTocraT is warfare From arT hisTorical poinT of view This is when The figure of The king evolves from being smaller To The god To being bigger They used The same Time of imagery for Two Thousand years IT s aT This Time ThaT we see The beginnings The horned crown of The kings is a symbol of The bull profoundly violenT sTrong and can kill you o In The bible horns represenf evil we are noT The religion of old The early dynasTic period of The Sumerians The posiTion of The king became cenTral o Laid The foundaTions of oTher civ The rise of kingship we see The exisfence of sTanding armies up To ThaT poinT The soldiers were farmers mercenaries One of The mosT famous of The kings is Gilgamesh a hisTorical figure Uric 27OOBC AfTer This period he became a folk hero he served as a way of enferfainmenf AbouT 700 yrs his sTory is wriTTen down and became The epic of Gilgamesh He became a Type of mode of kingship In The sTory The gods became insulTed and so They creafe a foil of him Enkidu The earliesf daTe for The epic of Gilgamesh is bw 2100 and 2000 BC Kings ofTen campaigned bw one anofher aT The same Time engaging in Trade The wars wore down These sTaTes and drained down resources The beneficiaries of The war were The middle men They gained Trade and miliTary experience A greaT number of nomadic Tribes also gained from The war In 2350BC Sargon of Agade Took advanTage of The war and invaded His followers were somidic a group of ppl ThaT speak a similar language They came from an area in The norTh known as Akkad o Sargon is a legendary figure Some of The legends ofSargon sound sTrangely familiar To The sTory ofSalomon He waged warTo some of The ciTies in The souTh And gained a greaT deal of Terrifories In order for The ppl To recognize him as Their king he decided To make an example of The king of Umma and puT a collar on him and dragged him back To The ciTy of Nakkur puT him in a cage in which anyone enfering The ciTy could defile him and he also Took The kings wife as his concubine He expanded up To The Norfh Trough Mesopofamia and came To The head wafers of boTh The Tigri and The Euphrafes rivers and for The firsT Time in hisTory Mesopofamia has been broughT under a single poliTical adminisTraTion This creaTion of an empire under Sargon is criTically imporTanT for The TransformaTion of Mesopofamian economic exchange and culTural exchange This allowed Sumerian and Arcadian learning To occur Much of The liTeraTure ThaT survive is acTually Arcadian The Sumerians were viewed as a superior culTure by The Arcadian s So They adopTed Their culTure They adopTed cuneiform The problem is ThaT Sumerian and Arcadian are noT relafed languages Sargon helped To shape The idea of kingship he becomes The model for near easfern kingship He dies in 2315BC And while There are a number of compeTenT kings There are none like his grandson NaranShin 2250BC Shin The proTecTor deifies and IshTar The queen One of The Things ThaT he promoTed was The idea ThaT The king was a living god he embraced if from Egypf Idea of divine kingship Despife The miliTary success of Sargon many of his greaT grandchildren quarreled wiTh one anofher and if ripped aparT The empire if affecfed iTs economy and if ulTimaTely benefifed oTher neighboring nomadic Tribes The Arcadian empire showed whaT poliTically unify could do If showed ThaT The Sumerian Tribes could define Themselves as Sumerians In 2160 a group called The guTins descended from The mounTain and Took advanTage of The chaos and Took over The Sumerian empire The Gufins raged for a very shorT period of Time and around 2IOOBC somefhing happened In The ciTy of Ur a local governor decided To rise up and revolT and gain confrol of The ciTy and name himself king UrNammu Driven by desire for independence and Sumerians being ruled by Sumerians he launched a war kicking The guTins ouT He seTs inTo moTion a period called NeoSumerian empire and if is considered a golden age When The Gilgamesh was wriTTen These Sumerians developed a Sumerian naTionalism by embracing Arcadian language and liTeraTure Ur Nammu is famous for anoTher reason he is famous for his law code called The code of Ur Nammu He is considered To be The firsT person To puT law inTo wriTing This is a very culTurally producTive period BuT There were forces way beyond Their conTrol and around 2000 some changes began To manifesT Themselves and This is due To environmenTal changes Sea levels began To rise and well no more fresh waTer Much of The ferTile soil used To grow crops became increasingly salTinaTed Thus over Time crops were reduced and if inTerfiled wiTh Taxes and Thus oTher people Toollt advanTage of ThaT In The norTh The AmoriTes Babylonians and To The souTh The ElamiTes highly influenTial civ ElamiTes lasTed for 2100 yrs They laid The foundaTion and serve as middle men bw MesopoTamia and India Around 2000BC AmoriTe invaders began To make Their way To MesopoTamia The person who brings The empire To The end is Hammurabi Hammurabi came To power in 17921 7503C jusT lillte lltings before him he soughT To lay The foundaTion for his own memory He began To build The ciTy of Babylon in honor of his own memory and his own personal Shamash The sun god and The naTional god by The name of Marduk Hammurabi lays The foundaTion for a new kingdom and begins To expand his influence HisTorians relaTe This To The Babylonian empires and Hammurabi is considered To be a hero In order To break The power cenTer in Sumerian socieTy he made Alltlltadian The language of The governmenT In The Hammurabi Code Hammurabi is shown wiTh Shamash The sun god Shamash is presenTing To Hammurabi a sTaff and ring which symbolize The power To adminisTer The law If is a near compleTe law code if perTains To civil acTs noT criminal acTs o MosT of The laws inheriT To properTy and sex if perTains To offspring and The properTy goes To Their sons Shamash The god of CONTRACTS 00 A loT also perTains To slaves ThaT can inheriT properTies and woman can run Their own business The old Babylonian empire iBOOBC159SBC begins To Hammurabi AfTer Hammurabi dies 1750 his successors are noT as moTivaTed as Hammurabi KassiTes conTinually raided The Babylonian empire HaTaiTes The changing The dynamics in The middle easT is due To These ndoEuropeans a group of ppl ThaT speak a language relaTed To one anoTher They descended around 2018 and remained There for roughly and dramaTically changed Things In The 19gtTh cenTury scienTisTs decided To caTegorize The languages l SOBC when we have a hisTorical record of Their llting This may mark The firsT Time ThaT The enTire TerriTory was under The power of a single llting They were organized in a common llting HaTusilis reigned unTil 152OBC He decided To slaughTer all of his living sons because he was afraid ThaT one of Them would rise up againsT him He ulTimaTely solidifies his conTrol noT only in haTTie buT also AnaTolie His grandson Mursilisl 162OBC lucllty To escape his grandfaThers slaughTer Reigned form 1620159OBC He acquired greaT fame 159SBC he descends To Babylon and launches a raid againsT Babylon He zapped inflicTed massive amounTs of desTrucTion and Toollt everyThing He made his way back and was able To spread his influence Upon his reTurn he was assassinaTed by his broTher in law The assassinaTion had done significanT damage The old HiTTiTe lltingdom fell aparT OuT of The vacumm new lltingdoms arise nTerna rivary fragmenTed much of The TerriTory and There were oThers To exploiT This The norTh The Hurrians a second group of ndo Europeans and The MaTani also ndo Iranians The MaTani form a sTaTe nexT To The AnaTolie sTaTe buT They came To noTice ThaT if was Troublesome so They Toollt over easTern AnaTolie and expanded AlThough The HiTTiTe lltingdom collapses Their culTural influence didn T Gods Technology vocabulary were exchanged The indoEuropean influence inTroduced new Technologies The war charioT and various local lltings needing some sorT of advanTage began To embrace a new form of meTal referred as iron And if is because of if daily use ThaT iT began To be inTroduced for miliTary use Egypf Some of The locals realizing The hardness of iron iT slowly caughT on This changed The way wars are foughT The collapse of The Old HiTTiaiTe empire laid The foundaTion for The NeoHiTiTiTe empirei 3703C ruled by Suppiluliumas I he reigned unTil T326BC This king was a brillianT general and over The course of a few years pushed HiTTiTe influence almosT Trough all of AnaTolie The firsT Thing he did was desTroy The kingdom of The MiTanni and This group Traveled over To India There are a number of documenTs ThaT showed some sorT of relaTionship bw The HiTTiTe and The EgypTians and made marriage proposal and someone didn39T like This so he was assassinaTed n 1274BC MuwaTallis EgypTian and HiTTiTe forces meeT in The largesT charioT baTTle in hisTory The baTTle of Kadesh This baTTle is reffered as a greaT baTTle and each side claimed vicTory afTer and each also had problems managing Their resources and They lefT Themselves vulnerable To oTher groups UnTil 1258 where They agreed To a peace TreaTy and enTered inTo an alliance bw a new formidable TreaT seria Roughly around The year TZOOBC everyThing came To a collapse The HiTTiTes provided a large amounT of grains for The ppl Around 1400 sulee climaTe changes sTarTed which inTerfered wiTh grain producTion unTil The 1200 when They sTopped sending grain inTernaTionally This affecTed everyone else and They no longer had exTra grain and Thus The armies sTarTed To plummeT Collapse in agriculTure ulTimaTely affecTs Taxes Realizing ThaT They no longer had Tax money They raised The Taxes as Taxes rise The abiliTy of The sTaTe To defend Themselves 12501200 large amounTs of migraTions occur and The Arameens spread They are noT a miliTary successful group They bring a new culTure dynamics Aramaic becomes The dominaTe language in The area They bring Their gods ecT They are influenTial Judaism ChrisTianiTy and Islam Too The sea ppl descend down are do a series of raids and The sTaTes fall aparT TZOOBC marks The end of The Bronze Age There is a sTaTe of rebirTh buT laTer HemiTic a somidic language ConsisTed primarily of The river Where ever There was ferTile soil is EgypT There are a loT of myThs abouT EgypT EgypT was a fairly isolaTed civ They had no concepT ouTside of EgypT We do know The earliesT foundaTions were abouT 5000bc Over Time These communiTies slowly spread up and down The river and sTarTed exchanging ideas 35003000BC socieTy is becoming complex They were forTs up and down The river There is miliTary acTiviTy and They are fighTing each oTher ciTies To The souTh and The norTh all had Their own kings and They Tried To Take over Their neighbors 3300 BC 2 individuals divide The Nile There is a king of Upper EgypT and lower EgypT DespiTe Their isolaTion There is sTill Trade coming from MesapoTamia and Their ideas spark Their 3T 00 culTural homogeneiTy creaTes a single sTaTe 3500 The firsT hisTorical example of The king of EgypT is made On ceremonial mace are The remains of an image if is likely ThaT The very firsT king occurred around 3500 and is referred as king scorpion who is probably The ki We have addiTional evidence of a second king we don39T know when The scorpion king died In The palleT on Narmer There is an indicaTion ThaT There was a second king named Narmer He is seen as The firsT king of a unified EgypT and if is believe ThaT King Narmer is abouT To kill The king of lower EgypT The bull represenTs The king The reverse in The cenTerwe have long necked lion The walls of The ciTy a guy naked and The bull which represenTs The king abouT To Take The ciTy Up we have The king wiTh The crowned of upper and lower EgypT By 3000 Thanks To Narmer EgypT is a unified sTaTe Referred To The king of Upper and Lower EgypT noT Pharaoh buT he lefT no successor also There is no TiTle of king so we don T know ThaT he used The TiTle king of a unified EgypT Around There is a new king The firsT king To seT a dynasTy3000 2686 king Ahha He sTarTed The firsT dynasTy of EgypT The series of symbols is called hieroglyphs and if appears around The Time of unificaTion of Upper and Lower EgypT 3534OOBC is considered The Time ThaT wriTing came abouT Goddess MoTT The King was essenTial To The preservaTion Ma aT is considered order sTabiliTy balance harmony wisdom jusTice TruTh She is also The way Things are supposed To be Ma39aT symbol feaTher is a goddess as well and a concepT she is considered To be The daughTer of The God Rah The way To mainTain Ma39aT is Trough The performance of riTuals EssenTial To mainTaining Ma39aT is The riTuals ThaT The king is supposed To go Through The ones ThaT The king does noT perform The PriesT come in Ma aT is noT The only image of lltingship The king iTs self is divine He becomes an embodimenT of The god Horus falcon he also becomes The embodimenT of oTher gods DiviniTy is noT associaTed wiTh The individual if is associaTed To The office An individual is noT born a god he becomes one when he Takes The posiTion of The king They go Through a series of riTuals and Thus become a king The occurance of The king can only become one only if he receives Ka a sign of diviniTy He opens himself for diviniTy To come inTo his body There was a Ka specific for lltingship ThaT is specific To The office Ka animaTing life force provides idenTiTy and definiTion To Things T exisTs in Two realms simulTaneously Shadow is your Ka in This life and The afTerlife There is no difference Life exisTs in a series of mirror images IT s energy The ouTline of someThing Ba The expression of personaliTy if is The funcTions ThaT define someThing if Ka is The life force Then Ba is everyThing ThaT defines iT Ba and Ka exisT simulTaneously o Ifwhen u were alive u were a king Then in The afTerlife you are a king if is a mirror image MoT The besT way To describe EgypTian religion is There s gods for everyThing so some of The gods share powers and form someThing compleTely new COMPLICATED PPL During The firsT dynasTic period we see The rise of EgypTian idenTiTy Over Time The EgypTians began To see Themselves as a single ppl and began To develop a fear of foreigners When foreign came in if was a sign ThaT someThing was going To go baTh EveryThing is defined in Terms of The ways ThaT The king and The gods operaTe They really didn39T care abouT The ppl n 2686BC The old dynasTy came To an end and The New dynasTy rose The Old Kingdom Arose mosT famous of The Early lltings is Djoser 26682649BC AfTer his deaTh he came To be associaTed To perfecT governmenT Due To his second in command a man by The name of mhoTep They boTh did a perfechob ThaT They were deified by EgypTians and became gods buT weren T They already gods Djoser is famous for The Tomb ThaT he lefT behind iT looks like a ZigguraT ZigguraT is a Temple noT a Tomb and There s a flighT of sTeps leading To The god The king is buried in The boTTom The Old Kingdom is The age of The pyramids The EgypTians TranslaTed This as a creaTion mound or a mounTain ThaT poinTed To The sky conTradicTs Their Theology because The world of The dead is To The wesT under The sea Much laTerwe see Three major pyramids o Snefru he builT a number of pyramids Troughs EgypT buT is famous for The pyramid of Giza o Khufu represenTs The heighT of royal power and uTilized all available resources To builT The largesT pyramid of Giza 23 million blocllts OfTen The ppl who builT The pyramids are slaves buT They are really hired manual laborers o Khafre builT The second largesT and also builT The spinx They were raTher complex BuT There is a gradual breakdown Memphis and eTheopolis worked for Their independence This helped To undermine The power of The kings n addiTions These lltings relied sTrongly in breurochacy NobiliTy becomes independenT All of This was exasTrobaTed by Pepi II he reigned 90 yrs Problem wiTh having a child and Then an oldman as king is ThaT They cannoT go To war WiTh The governmenT unable To conTrol iTs ppl caused an economic brealltdown ClimaTe change caused 21802040 marks a period wiThouT cenTral command known as The firsT inTermediaTe period These periods are very imporTanT To The developmenT of EgypTian socieTy This have a dramaTic impacT in The significance of The King and Ma39aT Pessimism arises surviving liTeraTure The god Osiris The god of The afTerlife RaTher Than focus on riTual iT begins To focus on personal devoTion and eThic A dramaTic Turn around and if does noT occur overnighT Rise of personal diviniTy DemocraTenaTion of The afTerlife Each individual is responsible for The preservance of Their own Ma39aT 20401720 known as The middle Kingdom The beginning of poliTical unificaTion Rise of The power ofThebes by a man by The name of MenTuhoTep II a noble who wiTh his influence brough uniTy back The image of king changes he is no longer seen as a divine figure buT he is seen as an embodimenT of The land a faTher figure he Takes The crap of The evil nobles Kingship is abouT wisdom noT abouT miliTary power or noble sTanding One parTicular deaTh riTual changed now They creaTed sTaTues To represenT The servanTs of The nobles In 1720 There was anoTher breakdown and we enTer info The second inTermediaTe period AGAIN In 1720 groups of ppl from The norTh immigraTed and formed communiTies in The norTh CannaniTes When EgypTian socieTy collapse The Hyksos Took over a good porTion of lower EgypT To The souTh Kish invaded EThiopia These Hyksos were probably forced back by The hiTTies When They arrived The had new Technologies bronze weapons and armor use composiTes and They rode in charioTs EgypTians had some cavalry buT They foughT primarily on fooT The noble families were able To push ouT The kingdom of Thebes and roughly around 1550 a campaign againsT The Hyksos began led by Ahmosel He came To power 15401545 The New Kingdom began He expelled The Hyksos and begins a campaign againsT Kish and exTended EgypTian TerriTory Changes The naTure of kingship info a bad ass warrior figure ThuTmose I came To power in 15041492 Takes his conquesT ouTside of EgypT and Takes his conquesT inTo PalesTine and for The firsT Time To make sure ThaT his memory is preserve he builT a new funerary grounds he converTed an enTire valley To The burial of The kings The Valley of The Kings There was a graTed need To proTecT The body The pyramids are Too conspicuous They wanTed To proTecT The bodies aT all cosT AfTer The reign ofThuTmose ThuTmose II and ThuTmose III was a child so his sTepmoTher HaTshepsuT Took conTrol for 20yrs She did a very effecTive job and she didn39T hide herself buT dressed as a king She lunched a series of campaigns inTo Kush or Nubia and was very successful and broughT Them inTo conTrol To make sure They would remember her she made a morTuary for herself carved info The Cliffside Dier el B Died in 1547 and her son came To The Throne as ThuTmose He defaced his sTepmoThers sTaTues and was a skilled general and spenT mosT of his Time in The norTh area puTTing down revolTs For The very firsT Time he pushed so far norTh ThaT he encounTered The HiTTiTe empire Perhaps one of The mosT famous kings of This Time is AmenhoTep i353 EgypT was aT iTs largesT exTenT and was growing incredibly wealThy for iTs conTrol over Trade rouTes When he came To power he decided To impose his own personal god as The god of The sTaTe He argued ThaT all of The gods ThaT The EgypTians worshiped are merely aspecTs of ATon He began The developmenT of monoTheism He changed his name inTo His wife NeferTiTi gained greaT fame for herself she was fairly independenT and marked The beginning ThaT The queen also had power 1337 afnaTen was assassinaTed The successor was King TuTankhamun he is famous because his Tomb was found inTacT MosT of The Tombs have been ransacked Ramses dynasTy during The new kingdom The mosf famous was Ramses II 12761212 He is famous for 0 He was an aggressive imperialisf frying fo push Egypfian influence ifs furfhesf he had liffle problems pushing ifs influence down info cenfral Sudan He fesfed his kingdom againsf fhe Hiffife empire and around 1274 he mobilized a large army and mef fhe Hiffife in fhe baffle of Kedesh largesf chariof baffle in hisfory and fhe largesf vehicle baffle unfil I943 He proclaimed vicfory buf if was in facf a draw 0 Affer fhis fhere was a peace sign in 1348 bw fhe Egypfians and fhe Hiffifes 0 Famous for his presence in fhe new fesfamenf king fhaf expels fhe Hebrews 1200 under fhe reign of Ramses II fhe sea people arrived The sea people were a mixed band of people fhe descended down info lower Egypf and began ravaging fhe land despife Ramses milifary success againsf fhem fhe Egypfian kingdom began fo decline and fhe lasf Ramses died in 1069 Ancienf India 2600 Harrapan BC civilizafion arises We know very lifer fhey only leave some archeological evidence and some fexfs They were sfable and complex sociefy possibly had a cenfralized governmenf cifies were large and fhe houses had drainage sysfems economic life was complex buf cenfered around agriculfure grew wheaf and barley engaged in clockwork mefal work and clay had a complex religious life fhaf survive fhe conquesf of fime Wriffen language are picfographic buf fhere is nof franslafion for if mosf of fhe wrifing fhaf survive is fhoughf fo be religious wrifing and cylinder seals IZOOBC people sfarfed fo frickle info fhe Harrapan valley 18001 7OOBC larger groups of people called Aryans fhey are fhe earliesf Indians If is likely fhaf disasfers or an invasion scenario broughf abouf fhe end of Harrapan civ We don f know why buf if collapsed around I700 The earlier Aryans were seminomadic people and infroduced horses an5d caffle Early Vedic India Vedas are wriffen sources of 700500 BC wriffen in Sanskrif The earliesf Veda wriffen Veda gave fhe name of RigVeda 15001000 IOOOBC marks fhe beginning of a new period called fhe Lafer Vedic Age or called Brahnanic Age The Priesf were in charge of religion and Economic Religion was cenfral and fhey invenfed some prayers fhaf were passed down buf fhe meaning of fhese prayers was losf Brahna High priesf Brahmana are oral commenfaries named affer fhe high priesfs 1000 or so a new group of genre of verbal fradifion was fhe Brahn fhey creafed a prayer fhaf showed whaf a prayer meanf in fhe pasf Buf confrol over fhese commenfafors creafed a single inferprefafion of a pracfice The infroducfion of wrifing 700 500BC broughf abouf by some form of economic acfivify Parficipafion in fhe rifual of sacrifice came fo define fhe haves and fhe have nof s Values of human beings came fo be defines as whefheryou are capable of performing sacrifices In response fhere is a group of priesfs fhaf look ouf for fhe ones who cannof parficipafe in fhe sacrifices Indian scholars began fo re read fhe Vedas buf in a new way nofjusf as wrifings abouf proper rifuals buf as a way for individuals fo live life oufside of fhe rifuals As parf of fhe Brahmanas a social change occurred fhaf people began fo inferpref fhe Veda as if s nof fhe knowledge of rifuals fhaf is imporfanf if is knowledge of fhe divine Awhole new genre of liferafure developed fhe Upanishads fhey argue fhaf life really is suffering and fhaf u can sfop suffering if you undersfand fhe purpose of creafion Nof geffing caughf up in all fhe fhings fhaf u do buf whaf u know Brahman single poinf of divinify absolufe infinife formless and unknowable knowledge is power so Brahman is unknowable Everyfhing has value buf fhe mosf imporfanf is human beings because fhey are imbued wifh Brahman The sense of divinify wifhin a human being is afman soul Early Indian liferafure argue fhaf afman seeks release from ifs fleshy prison fo be unifed wifh Brahman Problem Physical world The world around us Traps The spiriT and The spiriT is disTracTed by oThenvorldly Things so The soul becomes disTracTed weighTed down and iTs prevenTed To be reuniTed wiTh Brahman Nirvana reunion wiTh Brahman The ATman only experiences diviniTy your sense of self is losT you become parT of Brahman Samsara When u die and ur soul Tries To go back To iTs creaTor buT iT can39T so if reincarnaTes Depending as how much The soul is weighTed down ThaT39s whaT you are reincarnaTed as Karma law of The Universe ThaT dicTaTes your physical form good acTions leads To good forms The more good you do The less chance ThaT you will be reincarnaTed as a slug or someThing Do bad Thing and bad Things will happen To u Problem Good and evil are relaTive if is ouTcome based if is noT based on your inTenT 0 Ex give money To homeless guy homeless guy buys drugs overdoses and dies guess whaT you jusT commiTTed an acT of evil 0 Find a new born on The side walk you donoThing because The more you anchor yourself To The child He can grow up To do someThing incredibly bad so ur screwe 0 IT is hard To leT go of The world eliminaTe all of The Things ThaT bind me To This world Moksha To be liberaTed from The reincarnaTion cycle The cycle of Karma The episTemology is aquiering The proper knowledge of Karma To break The cycle and be reuniTed wiTh Brahman 2 secTs Came ouT of This 0 Jainism argues ThaT iTs founder Vardhamana or Mahavira was a final Jina The lasT person To break The cycle of Karma he was The fifTh person To do if Much of iTs beliefs are similar To Hinduism CreaTion iTself has neiTher a beginning nor an end IT has differenT forms buT has no beginning or end IT has many cycles NoT linear Agree ThaT The universe is filled of life if differs in The exTenT and everyThing is equal Ex The anT u sTep on has The same soul u have so you don T sTep on The anT Much like Hinduism everyThing you do has a meaning Really easy To acquire maTerial weighTs How do you prevenT This you do NOTHING And when u have To do someThing do if aT The mosT minimum EaT sTuff ThaT falls from Trees Goal is asceTicism Principle ThaT guides behavior is Ahimsa no harmprincipal pracTiTioner of Ahimsa Gandhi LeasT famous o Buddhism begins wiTh a noble39s reacTion To The Hindu religion To The unanswered quesTion Prince of The ruling lltingdom ofSiddharTha GauTama 4OOBC When exposed To The ouTside world he encounTered loTs of horrible Things Life consisTs of 3 TruThs aging sickness and deaTh Upon living his family he sTudied under several religious figures buT felT ThaT could noT answer how do you overcome pain in life One day he was in mediTaTion and came up wiTh an answer The middle way A life of self indulgence lefT one unhappy as well as living in an ascedic Type of lifesTyle Try To live a conTrolled asceTic life sTyle buT sTill indulge in some of life s pleasured He comes To clarify his view and realizes The TruTh and Thus becomes enlighTened and becomes The Buddha IT can be spelled ouT in The four noble TruThs Life is suffering pain is a naTural course of life suffering is merely a circumsTanTial effecT on you noThing is permanenT everyThing passes we Thinllt ThaT everyThing is permanenT and Thus we suffer The origin of suffering is aTTachmenT our devoTion To TransienT Things leads To anger and ignorance n Terms of self definiTion we define ourselves based in objecTs I am The son of faTher we Tallt abouT family and we Talllt abouT maTerial objecTs Suffering is based on desire so by eliminaTing desire and aTTachmenT you eliminaTe suffering All Things have a proper way of doing Them follow The eighTfold paTh if you follow This you will reach nirvana Nirvana is noT The negaTion of iTself iT s a sTaTe of enlighTmenT IT is a sTaTe of exisTence where you are no longer parT of The cycle of reincarnaTion BodhisaTTvas people who allow Themselves To reTurn To The world in order To guide us CHINA Begins around a The yellow river 4000BC earliesT foundaTions for communiTies Over Time we see The developmenT of agriculTure Very diverse area involves may Types of people coming TogeTher Xia dynasty 2200l3Cl 7663C assume it to be the first political dynasty in china Know very little about this dynasty Most of the evidence is archeological Their architecture is very corrosive The first historical dynasty is the Shang dynasty 17661050 and developments offer us some sort of evidence for the Xia dynast In the Shang dynasty the king dominated all aspects of life and his powerwas supported by a military aristocracy They had a system of writing but ultimately its legacy is bronze work The Shang are already experimenting with bronze much early than other civ The Shang dynasty also left behind its social organization its ideas about hierarchies are laid out during this dynasty and continue on till 1909 Don t refer to this as an empire The Shang developed and cultivate the use of cosmology or astrology That the heavens are organized in a rational way the heavens reflect the gods Cosmology came to dictate the very social structure of the Shang dynasty The Shang was a very strong society but it collapsed around 1050 Shao dynasty 1050 and continue Shang practices The cosmological underpinnings did necessarily support the idea of hereditary monarchy where anyone in the family had the same chances of becoming king The Shao felt that this was not good and promoted the idea of hereditary monarchy The Shao also came up with a doctrine called the Mandate of Heaven While the Shang relied in astrology the Shao did also but they institute it as the Mandate of Heaven Where everything is just right However if there is a revolution then that means that the gods no longer favor the king Not only are you llting you have to be a good king The Shao dynasty was fairly powerful but they begin to see themselves as different individuals but this is an area of mass immigration and the problem is the further away you send the nobles and they begin to lay down the foundations and they begin to gain power power they can use to revolt against the king Over time alliances are set up with nomadic tribes and begin to see themselves as Chinese and so they want to be the center thus we have conflict China has to deal with the constant conflict with the nomadic ppl Civilization and nomadic people 771 the Shao dynasty collapsed well half of it reason constant pressure by nomads local commanders and the government The Eastern Shao77l481 BC period dominated by the eastern Shao Was fairly weallt 441 the Shao dynasty is very small Nomads spread technology and techniques The Turks nomads integrate themselves into Chinese society Your identity is tribal based 481 collapsed of the eastern Shao they were ruling in name only 401256BC the age of the warring states A series of philosophies arose but non was more influential than Confucianism Confucius 515417 The father of Chinese society he wrote nothing what we know was written down by his disciples He is a product of his time his philosophy is reactionary In general what he hoped to do for his students is provide an ethical guide line because the state is reliant upon the individual and the ethical make up of the individual He argued that the most important principle is duty or harmony Li the respect that a son gives to his father respect for the elders Family life is the core of Chinese society and it should be spread to the entire state He calls for a resurrection of the ancient customs and practices and this involves a radical transformation of society Calls for a creation of a new nobility not hereditary but based on character He was aiming at the nobility of the soul lillte Plato and Socrates The virtues that he proposes are humanity integrity riotousness self sacrifice loyalty Act in a way that you would want others to treat you How can you recognize is iTs hard well exTernal appearances maTTer If someone has The appearance of a good person Then he musT be a good person He may Talllt abouT The nobiliTy of The soul and gives The image ThaT anyone can be a noble buT he also believes ThaT The poor people cannoT have a noble soul because They are noT educaTed WhaT he ulTimaTely does is creaTe The educaTed eliTe vs everyone else SocieTy governmenT The sTaTe would be sTable if They are ruled by The educaTed eliTe You have To Take a TesT in order To be parT of The governmenT The way To creaTe a good socieTy is noT To impose iT buT To creaTe a model for everyone else The faTher of Chinese socieTy is Confucius Mencius one of his disciples disciples 37029OBC He embraced mosT of Confucius ideals buT improved some of his poinTs He argues all human beings are fundamenTally good if is Trough educaTion ThaT Those good acTs are broughT ouT How do you draw ouT The goodness GovernmenT educaTion The purpose of governmenT is To maximize goodness and well being GovernmenTs should only do Those Things ThaT do The mosT good He also believed in The concepT of rebellion someThing ThaT is normal in governmenT IT means ThaT The gods have rejecTed The governmenT His ThoughT is noT ThaT popular his wriTing do noT caTch on he becomes a secondary person There are a number of surviving works and These are miliTary TheorisT 0 Sun Tzu The arT of war Taoism LaoTse some Time in The fourTh cenTury seems To be a connecTions bw Taoism and Hinduism o EveryThing in The world is connecTed o No True definiTion To if 0 Tao a mysTerious cosmic force ThaT is connecTed To and represenTed by The acT of creaTion sTabiliTy and flux or change 0 IT s a reacTion againsT culTure 0 IT is cynical buT highly posiTive CulTure insTiTuTions everyThing in This world is a falsehood 0 When u accepT ThaT everyThing isn39T permanenT Then and only Then can you live an honesT life according To The Tao o TaoisT simpliciTy living in The momenT o If you follow rules u r resTricTing whaT you can do break The rules 0 Taoism empesizes simpliciTy everyThing ThaT an insTiTuTion does is judged by a value sysTem ThaT is false 0 There is no such Thing as good and evil 0 Hinduism and Buddhism There is a rejecTion of The world Taoism is embraces life39s momenTs each momenT ThaT you are in is a unique momenT and you should enjoy ThaT 0 Where as emoTion geT in The way in Buddhism and Hinduism in Taoism emoTions are parT of life 0 The have a moraliTy ThaT which follows The Tao is moral BuT if The Tao is a mysTerious force Then whaT Life blinds you wiTh so many disTracTions you musT rejecT Them all EveryThing is paradoxical Don T Tallte life seriously EaT drink and be merrylll for Tomorrow we die If asllts of you jusT To accepT Things Don39T do anyThing ulTimaTely you wanT To creaTe exTernal peace in order To creaTe inTernal peace 0 rTues Harmon TranquiliTy SponTaneiTy Compassion SpiriTual insighT MEDITATION BREATHING AND DIET Legalism human beings are fundamenTally evil because They are selfish creaTures o How do u creaTe a good socieTy made up of evil creaTures You compel Them To be good wiTh fear and devoTion The laws become criTical Reward Them for good behavior Punish Those who acT bad 0 O O O I I I I O O O O OOOOOO CehTral To all of This is The sTaTe iTs The mosT imporTahT Thing hoT The individual Developed during The Warring sTaTes Doesh T lead To The besT View of humahiTy FirsT philosophical docTrihe in China 2563C ReacTionary school of ThoughT Individual is subordihaTe To The sTaTe


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