Human Factors II
Human Factors II EXP 6257
University of Central Florida
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lessie Rodriguez on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXP 6257 at University of Central Florida taught by Peter Hancock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/227652/exp-6257-university-of-central-florida in Psychlogy at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Hancock 2 a Human Error 1 HUMAN ERROR Instructor Dr Peter Hancock Topic Overview HuInan error is probably the most difficult topic that we will deal with this semester and most probably that is why we have left it until last and also why we are all here assuming there is some degree of safety in nuInbers As you might well expect huInan error is crucial to all of human factors and there are many estimates which y about concerning the percentage of accidents and incidents due to huInan error We can now put this immediately to rest the answer is 100 Any nuInber less than 100 is simply a re ection of the failure to take the incident or process far enough back Having established a 100 error rate we cannot now say that huInans are 100 responsible How is this We need to understand very early on that it is the error itself which is very much at the heart ofthe problem Error iInplies a deviation from some plaImed course of action However the premise of the idea of planning as well as the designation of the epithet error each implies the presence the prejudice and the perception of at least one other individual We can and indeed should argue that someone can plan something try to execute that plan somehow fail to do so and recognize their own failure all without the presence of any other individual and this is true However without the external referent we have no window into the soul of the individual to understand whether they are telling the truth when they say they have made an error Like the introspectionism as of old it can be appealing and can even develop into a huInan enterprise where the loudest barking dogs hold sway but it is not science and does not lead to progress Thus in general someone specifies an action or sequence of actions 7 someone then fails to adhere to those actions and then typically a third party serves to apply the label huInan error Note how many assuInptions there are in this typical sequence First the action must be specified although the level of detail is rarely suf cient to provide a deterministic speci cation then this action must be communicated to the individual in unequivocal terms which never happens in marriage and perhaps not so successfully in other social interactions then some deviation must occur from this action and that deviation is almost ubiquitously judged by an arbitrary external standard Let s have an example A taxi driver is told to drive me downtown 7 as you can see this is a very loose de nition ofwhat is to be achieved During the journey we are in a collision which results in a fatality 7 the local Police attribute the event to driver distraction7 basically huInan error Now consider the event is not a collision but the driver making a poor Hancock et a Human Error 2 lane change 7 was there an error No Police report is generated I got downtown all right 7 was there an error Some people like to judge error by the outcome the collision occurred and therefore there was an error However this leads to the question what caused the collision 7 the answer equals error How do you know there was an error 7 because there was a collision 7 people who make such arguInents should go into politics Let us not belabor the point but in class we will need to discuss the philosophical underpinnings of the idea of error 7 please be prepared to do so Descriptions of Error How have people typically tried to solve the error problem 7 especially in the behavioral sciences Well one tried and tested approach is to spend a lot of tiIne describing the nature of or a taxonomy oferror see Kantowoitz amp Sorkin 1983 In general one can forget to do something that one intended or was told to do 7 this is typically refereed to as an error ofomr39m39on Let us recall our signal detection lecture and note that this is the equivalent of a min A second form of error is doing something that one did not intend or was not told to do In the error literature this is referred to as an error ofcommr39ssr39on The equivalent in signal detection is a fake alarm however in real7world conditions where one has the opportunity to do a whole bunch of stupid things it is not directly equivalent to a false alarm which has a much more constrained meaning related to the target that has previously been identi ed Errors of commission can thus be broad and often entertaining Some errors of commission eg Devon Loch become part of the cultural fabric An additional form of error which has no direct correlate in signal detection theory is a time order error That is you have a sequence of actions you intend to perform or have been told to perform and you accomplish one or more of those actions out of sequence Note that an error of omission followed by an error of commission can very much specify a time order error Regardless of these lovely descriptions that is all they are They are used largely by you the arbiter of events to specify what went wrong after the event This will make you sound like a wise professional and few will then doubt you quali cations 7 but don t try to hand out this stuff in enlightened company The problem is predicting these occurrences Saying when and why they will happen This has not yet been solved Current Learning Objectives We do not expect you to be able to solve the problems ofhuman error but at the end ofthis lecture you should be aware that there are problems associated with the understanding ofhuInan error You should Hancock et a Human Error 3 now be aware that error and its designation is very much tied up in a number of crucial Philosophical issues such as the nature of intention determinism versus indeterminism the nature of free will and the like You should also now understand that attitudes to human error are cultural and that our general understanding is very much predicated upon our Western mechanistic view of the world You should also understand that the notion of error and blame are very much associated with each other and that there is a whole legal edifice in this country reliant on this intrinsic linkage and questioning this view of causation is to threaten not only the status quo but some very powerful entrenched institutions You should also now know that in Human Factors the idea of Human Error remains somewhat primitive with a strong emphasis on post hoc descriptions of what the error was rather than a frontal attack on what human error is Descriptive structures such as the idea ofa Human Error Potential Risk Estimation and the like seek to put comforting numbers on uncertainty but you should now be aware of how fragile and foundationless such estimates are Finally you should now have some acquaintance with some of the major figures in the area and their ideas on error and a conception of what problems face us in terms of future progress Know this and you will understand as much as any contemporary scientist on the issue LECTURE READINGS Brakeman amp Slocombe CS 1929 A review of the recent experimental results relevant to the study of individual accident susceptibility Psychological Bulletin 26 1538 DeSilva HR 1942 Why we have automobile accidents New York Wiley Hale AR amp Glendon A1 1987 Individual behavior in the control ofdanger Elsevier Amsterdam MacNiven E 1994 Increased prevalence of lefthandedness in victims of head trauma Brain Injury 8 457462 Magliozzi TL 1994 Cars civilization and world peaceTechnology Review 97 6263 Norman D 1984 Categorization of action slips PsychologicalReview 1 88 115 Peters GA amp Peters BJ 2006 Human error causes and control CRC Press Taylor amp Francis Florida Reason J 1990 Human error Cambridge Cambridge University Press Stump NF 1944 Visual functions as related to accident proneness Personnel 18 5056 Trimpop RM 1990 Risktaking behaviour Development and empirical examination of risk motivation theory Dissertation Abstracts International 5211 6126 Weinerman ER 1949 Accident proneness A critique American Journal ofPublic Health 39 15271530 Hancock Stress and Performance 1 STRESS AND PERFORMANCE Instructor Dr Peter Hancock Lecture Overview Although stress has been around as long as human beings have existed and indeed well before that the scientific conception of stress was really only establish in the early decades of the twentieth century Prior to this tirne stress research was progressing but under the urnbrella of other terms and conceptions One of the earliest names to associate with Stress is that of Hans selye and his now classic strerr ofLy e similarly the text by Walter Bradford Cannon entitled nie Wisdom ofthe Body was another in uential text that emerged from the original observations of claude Bernard a French physician who cornrnented on the stability of bodily mctions in the face ofexternal perturbation Bernard hirnselfwas in uenced by Harvest original discoveries in Medicine These observations led to the idea of borneostasis and selye s general adaptation syndrorne which each focus on ways in which the body combats the sources of largely physiological disturbance to which it is exposed In the psychological domain stress has been generally included in the area of energetics Freeman 1949 which include concepts today that we recognize as attention workload fatigue anxiety as well as several facets of emotion One major step in this progress was the recognition of the importance of the mctioning of the ascending reticular activating system7 ARAS French 1952 Morruzzi amp Magoun 1949 which provided a mediating structure in the brain stem through which much intcoming stimulation could be modified in terms of damping or amplification and then distributed through the di fuse thalamic projection system7 DTPS This con uence of neurotphysiological advance combined with the information processing revolution which we have talked of before now meant that various constituencies of interested parties eg engineers psychologists neuroscientists etc could each partake ofa very fruitful interchange of information We need to add to this mixture the pivotal paper of Hebb 1955 This was his APA Presidential speech and it had a strong impact on the realm of psychology in setting the stress issue to the forefront About this time the YerkestDodson 1908 experiment and nding was rediscovered and despite its inherent problems and perhaps because of them see Hancock amp Ganey 2003 the invertede description ofstress and performance was thoroughly established in the psychological literature from which it has not subsequently been displaced Attached you will nd a copy of the Hancock and Ganey Paper 7 Hancock Stress and Performance 2 Please read this and be prepared to discuss this in class Now the marriage of multidisciplinary insights a strong thematic presence in the base discipline and an evident marriage between a general description and a neuroephysiological mctional system led to the heyday of stress research Allied to each of these concerns was an everepresent need for realeworld systems to incorporate stress understanding and the since the resources were evident for research the 1960 s and 1970 s saw the height ofthese efforts Rosy as this picture appears there were always some aws in the ointment The YerkeseDodson relationship really had little to do with stress and performance the construct of arousal was never really unambiguously clarified and predictions of realeworld effects based upon uniediInensional theories simply didn t work It was into this disappointment that two major figures injected a degree of rationality and progress The first Richard Lazarus pointed out the problem of individual response and the fact that stress is just as often a mction of the person as it is of the world they encounter e g some people appraise bungeejumping as exciting 7 1 think they re crazy Lazarus see Lazarus amp Folkman 1984 thus demonstrated that individual psychological differences had a great deal to do with whether we see things as stressful or not This transactional view is most evident today in the work of Matthews 2001 In the European tradition and following Broadbent Robert Hockey and his colleagues pointed out that there was a patterning of stress states Hockey amp Hamilton 1983 and so no single arousal mechanism could account for such a diversity of outcomes In essence Hockey s work exposed the unitary arousal explanation and with it the underpinning of the major theoretical account of stress and performance Contemporary Descriptive and Explanatory Theories Following Hockey s exposure of the vacuity of unitary arousal there was a hiatus in which a number of theorists offered their notion as to how stress and performance worked Among these were Pribram and McGuiness 1975 Sanders 1983 and Natanen 1973 This scientific situation culminated in a large NATO Meeting in Les Arcs France in which the collective researchers gathered together to explore the next steps in stress theory The resulting text Hockey Coles amp Gaillard 1986 contained suggestions from various individuals including Wickens 1986 and Hancock 1986 The latter conception was elaborated into the full Hancock and Warm 1989 model and we shall spend a considerable time discussing this formulation so again preereading this paper will be very helpful in discussion Much of class time will be given over to the development of this model and discussion will be predicated upon the understanding that you have read this paper Hancock Stress and Performance 3 Current Learning Objectives At the end of this lecture you should be aware of the major theories of stress and performance and be able to articulate the major differences between each You should be able to provide a detailed and support critique of the simple invertedeu model which pervades undergraduate texts 7 but as you will now understand is awed in many different ways You should be able to provide descriptive alternatives to the invertedeu and be able to relate why such theories of stress are important to huInaneInachine systems and their operation in critical phases You should also understand how stress theory lies at the very heart of the idea of human energetics and you should have a growing framework as to how these various energetic concepts t together LECTURE READINGS Cannon WB 1932 The wisdom ofthe body Norton New York Freeman GL 1948 Energetics ofhuman behavior Ithica NY Cornell University Press French JD 1952 Brain lesions associated with prolonged unconsciousness Archives of Neurlogical Psychiatry 68 727740 Hancock RA 1986 Stress and adaptability In GRJ Hockey AWK Gaillard and MGH Coles Eds Energetics and human information processing pp 243251 Dordrecht the Netherlands Martinus Nijhoff Hancock PA amp Ganey HCN 2003 From the invertedU t0 the extendedU The evolution of a law of psychology Human Performance in Extreme Environments 71 514 Hancock PA amp Warm JS 1989 A dynamic model of stress and sustained attention Human Factors 3 5 519537 Hebb DO 1955 Drives and the CNS Conceptual Nervous System Psychological Review 62 243254 Hockey GRJ Galliard AWK amp Coles MGH Eds 1986 Energetics and human information processing Dordrecht the Netherlands Martinus Nijhoff Hockey GRJ amp Hamilton P 1983 The cognitive patterning of stress In GRJ Hockey Ed Stress and fatigue in human performance pp New York Wiley Lazarus R S amp Folkman S 1984 Stress appraisal and coping New York SpringerVerlag Matthews G 2001 Levels of transaction A cognitive science framework for operator stress In PA Hancock amp PA Desmond 2001 Stress workload and fatigue pp Mahwah NJ Erlbaum Moruzzi G amp Magoun HW 1949 Brainstem reticular formation and activation of the EEG EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology I 455473 Naatanen R 1973 The invertedU relationship between activation and performance a critical review In S Kornblum Ed Attention and performance IX pp New York Academic Press Hancock Stress and Performance Pribram K H amp McGuiness D 1975 Arousal activation and effort in the control of attention Psychological Review 82 116149 Sanders AF 1983 Towards a model of stress and human performance Acta Psychologica 53 61 97 Selye H 1956 The stress oflife McGraw Hill New York Wickens CD 1986 Gain and energetics in information processing In GRJ Hockey AWK Gaillard amp MGH Coles Eds Energetics and human information processing pp 373390 Dordrecht the Netherlands Martinus Nijhoff Yerkes RM amp Dodson JD 1908 The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habitformation Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology 18 459482 MAIN COURSE REFERENCES Hancock PA amp Szalma 1L Eds 2008 Performance under stress Ashgate Chichester England Macmillan NA amp Creelman CD 2005 Detection theory A user s guide 2nd Ed Mahwah NJ Erlbaum VIDEO PRESENTATION Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 1987 Human Factors Success Stories HFES Santa Monica CA
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