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Class Notes, Motor Development

by: Allie Newman

Class Notes, Motor Development KIN 362

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Kinesiology > KIN 362 > Class Notes Motor Development
Allie Newman
GPA 4.0
Motor Development
Tyler Williams

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Day #1, class period one, motor development
Motor Development
Tyler Williams
One Day of Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Allie Newman on Wednesday January 14, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to KIN 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/14/15
Allie Newman KIN 362 Notes 112 15 Motor Development 0 A continuous process of change in functional capacity 0 The capacity to exist to live move and work 0 Involves change in movement behavior Changes are Seguential and irreversible Agerelated but NOT agedependent Continuous throughout life change in functional capacity 0 Cumulative changes result from interactions within the individual and between the individual and the environment 0 Who should care 0 Professionals Physical Educators which practices work best and are appropriate Therapists physical and occupational what the purpose is factors affecting movement ability Coaches how to initiate these behaviors o Engineers and designers sizes arranged living spaces sports gear etc 0 Health care providers how movement affects us early on and later on in life 0 Parents 0 Motor behavior includes both motor development and motor learning 0 Motor development refers to the development of movement abilities Not all changes in movement constitute development 0 Motor learning refers to relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated With practice or experience Already have the knowledge but you can improve what you already know 0 Motor control refers to the neural aspects nervous system s control of muscles which permit skilled and coordinated movements 0 Fine motor skills as few as one motor neurons attached per muscle ber Used to make precise movements 0 Gross motor skills one motor neuron innervates many muscle bers Precision of movement not quite as important 0 Physical Growth indicates a quantitative increase in size or body mass Timiras 1972 o For humans this growth period starts with conception and ends in late adolescence or early 20 s 0 Physical Maturation refers to a qualitative advance in biological makeup 0 Cell organ or system advancement in biomechanical composition Teeple 1978 o The state of optimal functional integration of an individual s body systems and the ability to reproduce 0 Note development continues long after physical maturity is reached This is called aging 0 Aging the process that occurs with the passage of time leading to loss of adaptability of full function and eventually to death Spirduso 1995 O O O 0 Process of growing older regardless of chronological age Changes that lead to a loss of adaptability or function and eventually to death Newel39s ModelEcological Perspective Karl Newel1986 suggested that to understand movement we must consider the relationships between the characteristics of the individual mover the environment and the purpose or reasons for movind I If any of these three factors changes the resultant movement changes The interaction of individual task and environment changes the movement and over time patterns of interactions lead to changes in motor development Newell calls the three factors of the triangle constraints Constraints shape movement I Constraints provide channels from which movement most easily emerges and can 0 Limit or discourage certain movements 0 Permit or encourage other movements 0 Example re in building people rush out rather than stay Individual Constraints Structural Constraints related to the body s structure 0 Change slowly with growth and age 0 Height muscle mass strength limb length Functional Constraints related to behavioral function 0 Can change over much shorter period of time than structural constraints 0 Attention motivation fear experiences Environmental Constraints Properties of the world around us outside the body global not task speci c Physical o Gravity surfaces of oor temperaturehumidity amount of light Sociocultural 0 Gender roles cultural norms involvement of females in sport Task Constraints External to the body Related speci cally to the tasks or skills at hand 0 Goal of task movement or activity throw catch andor run in football 0 Rules guiding task performance movement in basketball traveling How Do We Know It Is Change Agerelated change is fundamental in the study of motor development o How do we know that a change is agerelated and not a uctuation of behavior or a product of a measuring instrument Research 0 Observe individuals movements 0 Describe differences between people of different age groups or instances of observation 0 Example video of agerelated throwing demonstrations 0 Researching Developmental Change look at powerpoint for example of data for each 0 Longitudinal An individual or group is observed over time Measuring change in the individual or group Study can require lengthy observation 0 CrossSectional Individuals or groups are observed at different ages cohorts Change is inferred not actually observed assumption m shorter time to collect data Q never really observe change could be other factor causing the change 0 Sequential or Mixed Longitudinal Minilongitudinal studies with overlapping ages Example cohorts of 4 year olds 6 year olds and 8 year olds studied over a 3 year period 0 A Paradox in Deve0pment o Universality individuals in a species show great similarity in development If you look at a group of children they perform many of the same motor skills 0 Variability individual differences exist If you look closely at those same children individually you see difference more and less advances skills Children can arrive at the same point in development by very different pathways 0 Life Span Motor Development 0 This class examines motor development through a developmental perspective 0 Gaining knowledge about motor development and the constraints related to it


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