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Management of Organizations

by: Miss Kristopher Farrell

Management of Organizations MAN 3025

Miss Kristopher Farrell
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.85

Dean Cleavenger

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Dean Cleavenger
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Kristopher Farrell on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAN 3025 at University of Central Florida taught by Dean Cleavenger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/227675/man-3025-university-of-central-florida in Business, management at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
People do what is Positive Immediate Certain It is certain that you can find exceptions to the principles in this class 1 82510 We are foregoing other things because we are hoping to have a better job one day 73 We do not have a good sense of how challenging a real career is if you do not have a passion for it EMOTIONAL LABOR Something in the 60s mintsburg what do managers do 03 i Ask managers what they do in a survey but it is difficult to recall ii Largest manager study at the time iii Primarily observation iv They followed thousands of managers and watched them v Contrary to a planned day they are interrupted and fragmented often vi Fragments as long as 7mins on average vii Switch tasks to put out fires reactive instead of proactively Managers bring home work with them 2 f Get interrupted at work a lot so people often work from home So many hours are spent PREPARE FOR THE REAL CAREER WORLD i Pg 10 Pyramid of managers managers tell people below what to do and they do it 3 Pg 13 mangers help by supporting people that help customers 5 Not everyone ought to be a manager I Peter principle sales assoc becomes a sr sales assoc and then becomes a manager and things changes drastically if you keep promoting people and then they will get to a high point where they are not as effective Reverse pyramid 3 i Without the doers the company is nothing ii Managers need people like coaches need players to execute plays to win the game iii Value of managers goes through all levels of workers to the customer People have to multitask to be more effective REVIEW i 7mins 3 ii People do what is positive immediate and certain iii People do not do it because of negative delayed and uncertain results iv Who is the most important people closest to the customers the employee that helps the lady find the dress in the right size Chapter 9 Planning Tools and Techniques Techniques for Assessing the Environment 1 EnvironmentalScanning 1 Competitorlntelligence 2 Global Scanning 2 Forecasting 1 Quantitative forecasting a time series analysis b regression models c econometric models d economic indicators e substitution effect 2 Qualitative forecasting a jury of opinion b sales force composition c customer evaluation CPFR Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment 3 Benchmarking 4 Best practices Techniques for Allocating Resources 1 Budgeting 1 Variable budget 2 Fixed budget 3 Cash budget 4 Revenue budget 5 Expense budget 6 Profit budget 2 Scheduling 1 Gantt Chart 2 Load Chart 3 Program Evaluation and Review Technique PERT vv vv 39 events activities slack time critical path 3 Breakeven Analysis 4 Linear Programming Contemporary Planning Techniques 1 Project Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 v v objectives activities and resources sequences time completion date Compare with objectives goals additional resource requirements 2 Scenario Planning Contingency Planning Chapter 10 Organizational Structure and Design Defining Organizational Structure Organizational Design 1 2 9 9quot Work specialization Departmentalization 1 Functional 2 Product 3 Geographical 4 Process 5 Customer Chain of command Span of control Centralization and decentralization Formalization 1 Highly formalized organizations 2 Lowformalized organizations Organizational Design Decisions Mechanistic and Organic Organizations 1 2 Mechanistic Organization Organic Organization Contingency Factors 1 Strategy and Structure 1 Innovation 2 Cost minimization 3 Imitation quot Size and Structure 3 Technology and Structure 1 Unit production 2 Mass production 3 Process production 4 Environmental Uncertainty and Structure 1 Dynamic complex and uncertain environments 2 Stable simple environments Common Organizational Designs Traditional Organizational Designs 1 Simple structure 2 Functional structure 3 Divisional structure Contemporary Organizational Designs 1 Team structures 2 Matrix and project structures 1 Matrix structure 2 Project structure 3 Boundaryless Organization 1 Internal boundaries a Horizontal boundaries b Hertical boundaries 2 External boundaries 3 Virtual organization b Network organization Today s Organizational Design Challenges 1 Keeping Employees Connected 2 Building a Learning Organization 1 Boundaryless environment 2 Teams in the structural design 3 Managing Global Structural Issues Chapter 11 Communication and Information Technology Understanding Communication What Is Communication a transfer meaning b understanding meaning Types of Communication 1 Interpersonalcommunication 2 Organizationalcommunication Functions of Communication 1 Control 2 Motivation 3 Emotional Expression 4 Information Interpersonal Communication Elements of the communication process 1 Sender 2 Message 3 Encoding 4 Channel 5 Receiver 6 Decoding 7 Feedback 8 Noise Distortions in communications 1 Encoding sender a skills b attitudes c knowledge of the process of encoding d socialcultural background 2 Message a symbols b content c choice offormat d noise 3 Channel a choice the appropriate b use of multiple channels J v Decoding receiver a skills b attitudes c knowledge of the process of decoding d socialcultural background 5 Feedback Loop Methods of Interpersonal Communication Evaluating Methods 1 Feedback speed 2 Complexity capacity 3 Breadth potential 4 Confidentiality 5 Encoding ease 6 Decoding ease 7 Timespace constraint 8 Cost 9 Interpersonal warmth 10 Formality 11 Scanability 12 Time of consumption Choosing a Method 1 needs of the sender 2 attributes of the message 3 attributes of the channel 4 needs of the receiver Role of Nonverbal Communication 1 sounds 2 images 3 behaviors 4 clothing and physical surroundings nonverbal messages in oral communications 1 body language 2 verbal intonation Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication 1 Filtering a number of vertical levels in the organization b organizational culture 2 Emotions 3 Information overload 4 Defensiveness 5 Language 6 National culture Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication 1 Use feedback 2 Simplify language 3 Listen actively 4 Constrain emotions 5 Watch nonverbal cues Organizational Communication Formal vs Informal Communication 1 Formal communication 2 Informalcommunication Direction of Communication Flow 1 Downward communication 2 Upward communication 3 Lateral horizontal communication 4 Diagonalcommunication Organizational Communication Networks 1 Chain network 2 Wheel network 3 AllChannel network The Grapevine Understanding Information Technology How IT Affects Managerial Communication Benefits of Information Technology IT a ability to monitor performance b complete information c collaboration and sharing d accessibility Networked Computer Systems How IT Affects Organizations a removes constraints of time and distance b provides for the sharing of information c integrates decision making and work d creates problems of constant accessibility to employees Communication Issues in Today39s Organizations 1 Managing Communication in an Internet World 4 1 Legal and security issues 2 Lack of personal interaction Managing the Organization s Knowledge Resources a build online information databases b create communities of practice The Role of Communication in Customer Service 1 recognize the 3 components of the customer service delivery process a customer b service organization c individual service provider 2 develop a strong service culture 3 importance of communication for individual service provider or contact employee quotPolitically Correctquot Communication Chapter 12 Human Resource Management The Importance of Human Resource Management HRM 1 as necessary part of the organizing function of management 2 as an important strategic tool 3 adds value to the firm High performance work practices The HRM Process Functions and Process 1 Hiring employees a human resource planning b recruitment and decruitment c selection 2 Educating employees a orientation b training LU v Retaining employees a performance management b compensation and benefits c career development Environmental Factors Affecting HRM 1 Employee Labor Unions Collective bargaining agreement 2 Governmental Laws and Regulations Affirmative action 3 Demographic Trends Human Resource HR Planning Steps in HR planning 1 Current Assessment 1 Human Resource Inventory 2 Job Analysis a Job description b Job specification KSAs 2 Meeting Future Human Resource Needs Factors a goals b forecast c availability of KSAs Recruitment and Decruitment 1 Recruitment Major Sources of Potential Job Candidates 1 Employee referrals 2 Erecruitingnternet 3 College recruiting 4 Professional recruiting organization 2 Decruitment 1 Firing 2 Layoffs 3 Attrition 4 Transfers 5 Reduced workweeks 6 Early retirements 7 Job sharing Selection Selection Decision Outcomes 1 correct decision a successfully accepted b successfully rejected 2 selection errors higher costs a reject errors Type I b accept errors Type II Validity and Reliability 1 2 Validity Reliability Types of Selection Devices 1 2 3 6 Application Forms Written Tests Performance Simulation Tests a Work sampling b Assessment centers Interviews Background Investigations a Verification of application data b Reference checks Physical Examinations Realistic Job Preview RJP Orientation Types of Orientation 1 Workunit orientation 2 Organization orientation Employee Training Types of Training 1 2 General Specific Training Methods 1 N v Traditional 3 b c d e onthejob job rotation mentoring and coaching experiential exercises workbooksmanuals r v classroom lectures TechnologyBased a CDROMDVDvideotapes audiotapes b videoconferencing teleconferencingsatellite TV c Elearning Employee Performance Management Performance Appraisal Methods 1 2 3 v Written essays Critical incidents Graphic rating scales Behaviorally anchored rating scales BARS Multiperson comparisons Management by Objectives MBO 360degree appraisals Compensation and Benefits Types of Compensation 1 Base wage or salary 2 Wage and salary addons 3 Incentive payments 4 Other benefits and services Determining Compensation and Benefits 1 Traditional approach 2 v a Jobbased b Business or industry based Alternative approach a Skillbased pay b Variable pay Career Development 1 Career Development Before 2 Career Development Today Boundaryless career Rules that Guide Careers 1 Career choice 2 Job search 3 Surviving and excelling in a career Current Issues in HRM 1 Managing Downsizing 2 Managing Workforce Diversity 3 h 5quot Sexual Harassment Workplace Romances WorkFamily Life Balance Types of Programs a Segmentation b Integration Controlling HR Costs Employee healthcare Employee pension plans Chapter 13 Managing Change and Innovation Forces for Change 1 Iquot External Forces a Marketplace b Governmental laws and regulations c Technology d Labor market e Economic changes Internal Forces a Changes or in organizational strategy b Workforce changes c New equipment d Employee attitudes Two Views of the Change Process 5x N The Calm Waters Metaphor Lewin 1 Unfreezing the status quo 2 Changing to a new state 3 Refreezing to make the change permanent WhiteWater Rapids Metaphor Managing Organizational Change Types of Change Agents 1 Managers 2 Non managers 3 Outside consultants Types of Change 1 Changing Structure a Structural components b Structural design Iquot Changing Technology 5 Changing People Organizational Development Techniques 1 Team building 2 Intergroup development 3 Process consultation 4 Survey feedback Sensitivity training U39I Managing Resistance to Change Why People Resist Change 1 Uncertainty 2 Habits 3 Concern over personal loss 4 Belief that the change is not in the organization best interest Techniques for reducing resistance to change 1 Education and communication 2 Participation 3 Facilitation and support 4 Negotiation 5 Manipulation and cooptation 6 Selecting people who accept change 7 Coercion Contemporary Issues in Managing Change 1 Changing Organizational Cultures Conditions that facilitate cultural change 1 Occurrence of a dramatic crisis 2 Leadership changing hands 3 Young flexible and small organization 4 Weak organizational culture Strategies for Managing Cultural Change 1 Behavior management 2 Create new stories symbols and rituals 3 Select promote and support employees 4 Redesign socialization 5 Change the reward system 6 Clearly specified expectations 7 Shake up current subcultures 8 Get consensus through employee participation 2 Handling Employee Stress Stress is associated with a Opportunities b Constraints c Demands Conditions for Potential Stress Become Actual Stress 1 Uncertainty over outcome 2 The outcome must be important Causes of Stress 1 Personal factors 2 Jobrelated factors Symptoms of Stress 1 Physical 2 Psychological 3 Behavioral 3 Making Change Happen Successfully 1 Focusing on making the organization ready for change 2 Understanding manager39s role in the process 3 Increasing the role of individual employees Stimulating Innovation Creativity vs Innovation Stimulating and Nurturing Innovation Systems View of Innovation Creating the quotRightquot quot 39 for 39 39 39 quot Variables 1 Structural Variables 1 Organic structures 2 Abundant and available resources 3 High and frequent interunit communication 4 Minimal time pressure 5 Support for creativity work and nonwork Iquot Cultural Variables 1 Acceptance of ambiguity 2 Tolerance of the impractical 3 Low external controls 4 Tolerance of risk 5 Tolerance of conflict 6 Focus on ends rather than means 7 Opensystem focus 8 Positive feedback Human Resource Variables 1 High commitment to training and development 2 High job security 3 Creative people idea champions


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