Immunology PCB 3233
University of Central Florida
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Carol Pagac on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PCB 3233 at University of Central Florida taught by Gregory Weigel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/227684/pcb-3233-university-of-central-florida in Biology Molecular Cell & Dev at University of Central Florida.
Reviews for Immunology
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Exam 1 Review for Final Chapters 12 1 C3 Convertase ofthe Alternative Pathway Chapter 2 Slide 19 a C3bBb b 2 C5 Convertase ofthe Alternative pathway Chapter 2 Slide 22 a C3b2Bb 3 C5 Convertase ofthe Classical Pathway Chapter 2 slide 22 a C4b2a3b 4 C3 Convertase ofthe Classical pathway a C4b2a 5 C5C9 a MAC 6 Basophil Chapter 1 Slide 44 a Granulocyte b Stains with basic dyes blue c Present in low numbers in circulation lt02 d Similar to mast cells in morphology i Both contain and release large characteristic electrondense granules in their cytoplasm during allergic reactions lgE e Produced from stem cells of the bone marrow like all granulocytes 7 M cells Chapter 1 Slide 76 a Pathogens arrive through direct delivery across mucosa mediated by M cells A region of GALT includes tonsils adenoids appendix and peyer s patches that line the gut Merari Negron 8 Neutrophil Chapter 1 Slide 34 a Pus forming pyogenic bacteria i Ex S Aureus b Effectors of innate immunity specialized in the capture engulfment and killing of microbes Work in anaerobic conditions found in damaged tissue Short lived and die at site of infection Phagocytic cells that contain toxic substances in intracellular granules iv Employ oxygendependant and oxygen independent pathways to destroy pathogens c 2nd to act Macrophages act first since they reside in tissue 9 CR3 and CR4 Chapter 2 Slide 35 a Complement Receptors b Recognize iC3b 10 Diapedesis Chapter 2 Slide 60 a Neutrophil squeezes between endothelial cells b Movement of WBC s from the blood across blood vessel walls into tissues 11 A chemokinerj gm s 39 mm mm x unmanmsdw and my Merari Negron 2 11 Respiratory Burst Chapter 2 Slide 65 66 a Neutrophil 13 Cell dies bc it can t replenish its granulesChapter 2 Slide 67 b Respiratory burst transient increase in Oxygen a Neutrophils consumption purpose is to raise the pH of the phagosome b Neutrophils gt Apoptosis gt Phagocytosed by macrophage so the granule contents can become active to kill the pathogen 14 Hematopoeisis Chapter 1 Slide 26 27 a Hematopoiesis the generation of the cellular elements of blood including NADPH i Red Blood Cells or erythrocytes RBC oxidase NADPH 202 I NADPH 20 H H White Blood Cells orleukocytes WBC superoxide iii Megakarocytes or Platelets superoxide I I I I I dismutase b These cells originate from plurIpotent hematopOIetIc stem 2H 202 H202 02 cells HSC whose progeny differentiate and divide under hydrogen peroxide the influence of various hematopoietic growth factors catalase ZHZOZ ZHZO 02 c HSC gIve rIse to other cells In a process called self renewal becoming more mature stem cells that commit to different lineages 12 Macrophage Receptors that secrete cytokines Chapter 2 Slide 39 a Toll Like Receptor TLR i 10 receptors i39 Specificities for different microbial products iii TLR 4 senses ligand LPS 1 TLR 4 expressed on Macrophages 2 TLR 4 detects LPS and sends signal to the nucleus of the macrophage to make and common I erythroid lymphoid progenitor progenitor progenitor secrete inflammatory cytokines as well as cytokines that activate innate immune responses Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 3 LPSisa ma39or ram ne ative bacteria 0 J g g component 0 neutrophil eosinophil basophil k erythrocyte 4 LPS is an endotoxin responsible for septic shock 5 Signal interferon alpha and beta slide 43 effector NK cell dendritic T c 9 cell Figure 13911 The Immune System 2e 9 Garland Science 2005 mast cell 15 Primary Lymphoid Tissue Chapter 1 Slide 63 a Bone Marrow b Thymus 17 A patient that lacks innate immunity Chapter 1 Slide 23 a A patient that lacks innate immunity can t control the infection at all 57 Innate immunity cells are needed to activate the adaptive cells Lacking innate immunity only Lacking adaptive immunity only Numberolmicroorganisms Normal humans Du ration of infection 18 Edward Jenner Chapter 1 Slide 7 a Origins of immunology attributed to Edward Jenner b Discovered in 1796 that cowpox quotvacciniaquot protected from human smallpox c Procedure called vaccination cl Prevents severe disease by exposing the immune system to the infectious agent in a form that cannot cause the disease Merari Negr n 3 19 Adaptive Immune Response a B cells 20 Inflammation Chapter 2 Slide 29 a C3a and C5a contribute to acute inflammation i Also referred to anaphylatoxins ii C5a is more stable and potent than C3a b What exactly do they do i bind mast cells phagocytes and endothelial cells ii Release of histamine 1 Histamine increases blood vessel permeability and blood flow 2 Activate endothelial cells direct phagocytes to site of infection c C5a increases the quot of and 39 quot to blood vessel walls and acts as a powerful chemotactic factor cl What does this mean i C5a is able to attract phagocytes to areas where complement has been fixed ii The leukocytes follow a gradient of the c5a back to the site of infection amplemen Lampanen Merari Negron 4 Serine proteases Skiquot dirt 9quotquot blood clot OIEIEIGIaluIalolalu Covalent binding to cell surface Homologous 3 ector cell 9 1 r convertase Homologous Control of activation Blwmpnw r r e e I 7 y n ass Opsonlzatlcn 03b Identical Figure I 8 The immune System Zed D Garland Scienu 1009 Initiation of membraneattack 21 Is CR1 on the surface of the pathogen mpIEXf rmau n 3 False Local inflammation 05a C3a Identical C5b Identical Figure 924 The immune System Zle lo Garland Science 2005 22 Myeloid progenitor cells Chapter 1 slide 27 a Polymorohonuclear leukocytes BEN i Neutrohil 25 What initiates the Lectin Pathway Chapter 2 Slide ii Basophil a Mannose Binding Lectin iii Eosinophil 23 C3bBb C3 Conv Alternative is disrupted by Chapter 2 slide 26 c r antibody binds to speci c cu a DAF Decay accelerating factor l l 1 l l l l b MCP Membrane co factor protein 553333 1I 5 l mm l COMPLEMENTACTIVATION kl J CLEAVAGE OF 3 TO C33 AND Sb C3b COVALENTLV BOUND T0 SURFACE COMPONENTS OF PATHOGEN L f J1 Perforation of pathogen cell membranes 24 What is the main difference between the pathways a Initiation Recruitment of in ammatory cells L39 u DEATH OF PATHOGEN 26 Adhesion Molecule discussed in class a ICAMl 27 Extravasation Chapter 2 slide 60 a Rolling Adhesion b Tight Binding c Diapedesis d Migration CXCLB x receptor LFA1 Q i 4in g9 ogogo y Oio 39 tqioi A x cher kine CXCfB V Figure 2311 2 ol 3 Yhe Immune System seal in Garland Science 2mm 28 Weibel plade bodies Chapter 2 Slide 62 a Granules with Pselectin which are present inside endothelial cells 29 Inflammatory Cytokines a L1 L6 TNFot involved in inflammation and cause fever Merari Negr n 5 Acutephase proteins Neutrophil Increased body Creactive protein mobilization temperature mannose binding a e lectin body temperature Activation of pie n Phagocytosis Opsonization Decreased viral and bacterial replication Figure 235 m Immune 5mm led to Garland Sclenu zoos 30 MAC a End as transmembrane channels 31 Type 1nterferons Chapter 2 Slide 80 amp 85 a Alpha a nd eta ii e fiht viral infections Interferon response Activate NK cells to kill i I I l39gands for receptors virusinfected cells viral replication Figure 145 the Immune System 34 in Garland Sclemelnnly 32 Pyogenic a Pus forming 33 At birth cells are made in the Chapter 1 Slide 50 a Hematopoietic activity Bone Marrow yolk sac fetal liver and spleen bone marrow 1390 2390 3390 4390 5390 years i 5 5 months birth Figure 1 u a the Immune system 21 e Garland Science 2005 34 Secondary adaptive immune response is activated when the antigen is encountered for the first time T F a False when it encounters it the second time 35 Epitope a The portion of the antigenic molecule that is bound by an antibody or gives rise to the MHC binding peptide that is recognized by a T cell receptor Also called antigenic determinant Antigen being recognized Part of the antigen to which the antibody binds Merari Negr n 6 36 If you get sick the first time and then 6 months later you are sick to the same thing a The response would be quicker and faster 2 Slide 44 Activates NK cells Chemotactic factor recruits neutrophils sop i s to site of infection Activates vascular Activates vascular 39 an at ellum endothellum and Activates lymphocytes Local tissue destruction Increases access of e ector cel s uid drainage to ymph nodes w393939n 4 Fever Production of lL6 Induces acutephase protein production by hepatocytes Mobilization of Figure 227 The Immune System Bed 9 Garland Science 2009 38 Fixed immune defenses include Chapter 2 Slide 49 a Skin innate immunity 39 Main opsonin on the surface of a pathogen chapter 2 Slide 21 a C3b 40 Macrophage phagocytic receptors Chapter 2 Slide 46 a CR3 and CR4 b Carbohydrate binding proteins ectins i Ex mannose amp glucan receptors c Scavenger receptors Merari Negr n 7 41 Chemokines CCCXC Chapter 2 Slide 56 46 Immunologic memory Chapter 1 Slide 77 a Direct traffic a Lymphocytes that expand persist providing long term b CXCL8 lL8 amp lL12 memory i First time infections results in a primary response 42 Organ Failure Chapter 2 Slide 48 which leads to memory of the pathogen a Release of TNFot ii Subsequent infections with the same pathogen b When infection develops in the blood the systemic release having the same antigens will elicit a secondary of TNFot on endothelium venules 9 in all tissue response which is much faster and stronger than simultaneously induces a state of shock organ failure and the original primary response death iii Basis for vaccination E a 43 Functions of Spleen Chapter 1 Slide 73 E a Filter for blood that removes old or 3 damaged cells Red pulp i b Site where bloodborne pathogens encounter lymphocytes 2 a Secondary lymphOid organ White Wquot 47 Acute phase proteins chapter 2 Slide 71 a c Blood is the only way in or out for lymphocytes as well as a Oreaetive protein CRP Classical for pathogens39 b Mannose binding lectin Alternative wmmwmwwum d Spleenic macrophages and dendritic cells in the spleen to i Enhance complement xation to pathogen surfaces take up antigen and stimulate Tand B cells C Both aetas opsonins d Both can activate a pathway 44 Four human pathogen types Chapter 2 Slide 6 a Viruses bacteria fungi and parasites 48 opsonization Chapter 1 Slide 54 a Way of making microbes more platable to the phagocyte 45 Lymohocytes chapter Slide 28 i Increases recognition 339 WBC b Molecules coating a microbe such as complement or b39 Never Let monkeys Eat Bananas antibody facilitate contact and ingestion of the microbe c Neutrophils Lymohocytes Monocytes Eosinophils and Basophi s Neutrophil 40 75 Eosinophil 1 6 Basophil lt 1 Monocyte 2 1 0 Lymphocyte 20 50 Merari Negron 8 49 Innate Vs Adaptive immune response Chapter 1 Slide 59 7 it of CDR s on an immunoglobulin b i a 6 Rapid response hours Slow response days to weeks 8 CD8 T calls a Cytotoxic Fixeu variable 9 Somatic recombination variable region genes require a Limited number of specificities Numerous highly selective specificities Constant during response Improve during response 7 J Common effector mechanisms for the destruction of pathogens figure 17 quot2 Immune System31 w Gutmi sagme 1905 50 NK cells a Innate immunity 51 Cell stained redorange a Eosinophil Exam 2 Review for Final Exam 9 Chapters 34 1 Antibody mostly in blood 9 IgG 2 Antibody mostly in the body 9 lgA 3 Fc receptors and involved in allergic rxns 9 lgE 4 Protects mucosal surfaces 9 lgA 5 High avidity low affinity 9 lgM DP gt39O P P Nquot O 11 12 l3 l4 VI 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Chapter 5 BC R B cell receptor and TCR T cell receptor how are they created Structure of immunoglobulin and the T cell receptor TCR The T cell receptor TCR type of antigen vs lg type of antigen Function of a T cell receptor TCR TCR complex Tcell receptor antigen binding sites T cell receptor diversity Severe combined immunode ciency syndrome SCID Omenn Syndrome Bare lymphocyte syndrome lIV heterozygosity Organization and rearrangement of the y and 5 TCR genes What is unique about yo T cells MHC class I molecules and MHC clam II molecules Structure of MHC class I and class II molecules 32 microglobulin Peptide that can bind in MHC class I and MHC class II molecules Peptide binding groove of MHC class I and MHC class II molecule Degenerate binding of MHC molecules Class of T cells for intracellular and extracellular pathogens Class of MHC molecules for intracellular and extracellular pathogens Cytotoxic T cells and coreceptor called C08 Helper T cells and co receptor called CD4 Process for generating peptides from intracellular vs extracellular pathogens Proteasome TAP1 and TAP2 Calnexin Invariant chain lHADM CLIP Chaperones molecules MHC genetic complex chromosomes genes region I II and III of MHC Types of cells that express MHC class I and MHC class II molecules Diversity of MHC class I and MHC class II molecules The reason for gra rejection The types of human MHC class I molecules HLAA B and C present to CD8 T cells The types of human MHC class II molecules HLADP DQ and DR Chromosomes genes that encode MHC class I and class II Chromosomes genes that encode the protein products BZmicroglobulin and the invariant chain and what do these proteins do MHC restriction MHC polymorphism MHC allotypes alloantigen alloantibody alloreactions etc THl and THZ cells roles B cells macrophages Chapter 6 PreB cell receptor What does allelic exclusion mean VB and VJ rearrangements heavy and light chains Surrogate light chain 5 and meB Igot and IgB Immature B cell vs mature B cell Large PreB cell gt Small PreB cell Unproductive rearrangements and productive rearrangements Anergy What do the bone marrow stromal cells do for B cells Chromosomal rearrangements Development ot B cells where and steps Signal for successful gene rearrangement checkpoints what happens if the cell fails the checkpoint and what would cause it to fail at the checkpoint B cell receptor antigen speci city Somatic recombination somatic hypermutation mRNA alternative splicing N and F addition of nucleotides go back to chpt 4 if needed Receptor editing B l cells
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