Physiological Psychology PSB 3002
University of Central Florida
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Physiological Psychology PSB 3002 Exam 3 Study Guide gt Chapter 13 Learning and Memory What is 1earningC mes from a change in behavior or thought based on experience lrr lification vfsynaptic connections in our bruins Translate info we acquire through our senses into neural signals which are coded perceived and stored I Know how memories are stored I They change the way we perceive perform think and plan by physically changing the structure of the nervous system altering neural circuits that participate in perceiving performing thinking planning I Know the different types of memories I Declarative Memory memory that can be verbally expressed such as memory for events in a person s past I Nondeclarative Memory memory whose formation does not depend on the hippocampal formation a collective term for perceptual stimulusresponse and motor memory I shortterm memory memory for a stimulus or event that lasts far a short while I episodic memory ot a collection of perceptions ofevenls organized in time and identified by a particular contem I semantic facts and general inibnnntion I spatial memory learning about relationships among many stimuli Be able to describe the four different types of learning and give examples I perceptual learning lezuning to recognize a particular stimulus I stimulusresponse learning earning to autnniaticalh make 1 particular response in the presence of a particular stimulus includes instrumental and classical conditioning I motor learning aiming to make a new response I relational learning I Episodic Learning remembering sequences of events episodes that we witness I Spatial Learning perception of spatial locations Be able to describe classical vs operant conditioning I Classical Pavlov s dog A learning procedure when a stimulus that initially produces no particular response is followed several times by unconditional stimulus that produces a defensive or appetitive responseUR the first stimulusCS itself evokes the responseCR I Operalitinstrumental I Organisms team to behave in certain ways by noticing the consequencesquot of their behavmrS response becomes more or less liker to occur depending on its consequences Be able to describe reinforcement and punishment I Reiniorcenienlappetitive stiniulus that to an a paniculur behuTtOI39illCl GzLSing the probability of 2t behavior occurring a grain I PDSllth g e receiving a trezit for good behztvmr I Negative zilee anny buckling seiilbell to stop amtoying sound I Continuous happens every time vending machine money in push button soda comes out every time I Paitial happens only dl l of the time Fixed Interval paid once a weekevery other week Variable ratio slot machine 0 Fixed ratio after speci ed number of responses video game 0 Variable inteiyal check emails I Punishment aversive stimulus that follows a particular behaviordeereasing the probability of a behavior occurring again I Positivetgive touching a hot stove or being yelled at I Negative ake away cell phone taken away or grounded What is long term potentiationAn increase in the magnitude of excitatoifv postsynaptie potentials in postsynaptie neurons over the long term when u eak and strong synapses lire at the same time to a single down channel neuron the Vieak synapses become stronger A longterm increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated high frequency activity of that input I Be able to describe the process I Termnial button ofstrong synapse becomes active I EPSI propagated along the dendrite and ll i ggers an action potential in the axon I Strong synapse becomes active and triggers an action potential in the axon I Back ash triggers dendritic spike depolarizing the dendiite and all ofthe dendritic spines I Depolarization ejects the magnesium ions from the ion channels ofthe NMDA receptors in the dendritic spines I Tei39muial button of weak synapse becomes active while postsynaptic membrane is still depolarized I No magnesium ions in the ion channels of the NMDA receptors so calcium enters the cydoplasm ofthe dendritic spines and initiates LTP I Know what neurotransmitters are involvedglutamate and its effects 011 the NDMA receptorsmenibrane is depolarized zuid glutamate is attached to the buiding site the NMDA receptor is both quot it b 39 I 39 Be able to describe the Hebb rule I Cellular basis of learning involves strengthenng ofa synal39se that repeatedly active andneurmP 39 39 4 A quot when the postsynaptie neuron tires What is episodic learning I memory ol a collection of perceptions ofeyents organized in time and identi ed by a particular context remembering sequences of events episodes that we witness How does longterm depression affect learning and memoryLTD is caused when low frequencies are repeatedly stimulating the synapses opposite of LTP but seems to have the same effect on memory and learningTbe 39 names are eakened and make the sturoundir synapses seein strongerf7 Inability for neural circuitry to firetWeak synapses do not depolarize a neuron when activeLTD has been linked to issues with amount of calcium at synaptic channels in the hippocampus So people with LTD have been shown to have lower levels of calcium thus less potentiality for building AMPA receptors therefore is harder for them to make NEW long term memories I Know how AMPA receptors are related to LTDLn LTD there is a reduction of AMPA receptors that lasts around an hour or two What is short term memory Long term memorys1101ttenn is a memory for a stimulus or event that lasts for a shon While longterm is for a long While I How do they differ I Lt39xngrterm tr 39 nee medial temporal lobe plays a role in long arm memorx ti vl nmtiun I Shortterm temporaryr Frontal lobe What is the function of the basal ganglia I evidence suggests that as leamed behaviors become automatic and routine they are transferred to the basal ganglia Also connects the sensory association cortex and the motor association cortex I Basal receive sensory information and info about plans for movement form neocortex I Instrumental conditioning activates the basal ganglia Know the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia I A terogmde amnesia for events that occur after some sturbanc gtllCl as head injury or certain degeneratth brain diseases t I Retrograde zunne or events thal preceded some disturbance in the brain such as head Injury or electrocmn39ulsiw shoot I 1quot L IJNKCLMX39V t H I What acts as a retrograde messenger to the terminal buttons I Nitric Oxide from the dendritic spine back to the temiinal button Be able to describe Korsako quots Syndrome I Pcnnanent amtem39 Lle tnnnesla caused by brain damage resulting i run chronic alwholism or malnutrition I degenerative disorder I neither hereditary nor contagious caused by environmental factors usually involving chronic alcoholism I Results from a thiaminevitamin Bl de ciency caused by alcoholism I sometimes in the severely malnourished and have then received intravenous infusions of glucose What is a dendritic spike I An m1 101 rmtentml that occurs m the dendrite ofsume types oil jm139tlitlzll cells What role does the hippocampus play how the hippocampus aids in memory consolidation I memory consolidation 7 converting shortmemories to longterm memories gt Chapter 14 Human Communication What is aphasia Speech production I What is Broca s area known for Where is it located I What characterizes Broca s aphasia o What is agrammatism o What is anomia o What is apraxia of speech Speech comprehension I What is Wernicke s area known for Where is it located I What characterizes Wernicke s aphasia o What is pure word deafness o What is transcortical sensory aphasia o Defineautotopagnosia I What is the arcuate fasciculus known for What is pure alexia What is the tipofthetongue phenomenon Which part of the brain is it associated with Understand the difference between phonetic and wholeword reading as well as the difference between surface phonological and direct dyslexia Explain the lateralization of verbal behavior Which area of the brain is activated for word pronunciation gt Chapter 17 Anxiety Disorders Autistic Disorder ADHD and Stress Disorders Panic disordersanxiety I How are anxiety disorders characterized I What is anticipatory anxiety I Define agoraphobia With what are anxiety disorders treated What is Tourette s syndrome What is obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD Know the difference between obsessions and compulsions What is trichotillomania and onychophagia What are the causes of 0CD Which area of the brain is involved What is the most effective treatment for OCD and panic disorders What are the key symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD What are the key characteristics ofa person with ADHD Which area of the brain is most affected With what is ADHD treated How does it affect the neurotransmitters Stress I What are glucocorticoids I What effect can longterm stress have on the brain I What is the difference between antibodies and antigens