Advanced Fishery Management
Advanced Fishery Management FISH 510
Popular in Course
Popular in FISH
This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amparo Schumm on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FISH 510 at University of Idaho taught by Christine Moffitt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/227711/fish-510-university-of-idaho in FISH at University of Idaho.
Reviews for Advanced Fishery Management
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/22/15
The Precautionary Principle and Approach VS Risk Assessment 0 PP and RA are used for policy decisions concerning environmental protection and management Differences I PP applied in the circumstances Where there are reasonable grounds for concern that an activity is or could cause harm but Where there is uncertainty about the probability of the risk and the degree of harm I RA requires information data driven decisions and determination of estimates of risk resulting 7 stepwise approach o en carefully lai on approaches for RA Four Central Components of Precautionary Principle or Approach 0 Taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty 0 Shifting the burden of proof to the proponenm of an activi y 0 Exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions 0 Increasing public participation in decision making Precautionary ApproachPrinciple I Avoid serious or irreversible potential harm despite lack of scienti c certainty as to the likelihood magnitude or causation of that harm I Precaution is noW an established principle of environmental governance prominent in law policy and management instrumenw at international regional and domestic level I The Precautionary Principle has been endorsed internationally on many occasions At the a Summit meeting at Rio in 1992 World leaders agreed Agenda 21 which advocated the widespread application of the Precautionary Principle in the following terms Precautionary Principle and the European Union 2000 I Decisionmakers have to determine What action to take and they should take account of the potential consequences of taking no action the uncertainties inherent in the scienti c evaluation and they should consult interested parties on the possible Ways of managing the risk I Measures should be proportionate to the level of risk and to the desired level of protection They should be provisional in nature pen 39 e availability of more reliable scienti c data Wording in Codes I Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage lack of full scienti c certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing costeffective measures to prevent environmental degradation Principle 15 I In Fisheries Management this precautionary approach has been de ned in two international instrumenw 2 International Fisheries Applications FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries CCRF Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the UnitedNations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks UNIA Code of Conduct of Responsible Fisheries I 39States should apply the precautionary approach 39 y to conservation management an exploitation of living aquatic resources in order to protect them and preserve the aquatic environment I The absence of adequate scienti c information should not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures Precautionary Goals for Fishery Quotas 0 Assessing the need for closer oversight of actual fish mortality rather than landings This may involve more effective monitoring of fishing effort at sea eg via broadening the use of vessel monitoring systems 0 assessing the need to decrease outputs ie lower catch limim especially for fisheries at the limit Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Adopted UN 1995 Set of principles in accordance with the relevant rules of international law for responsible fishing and fisheries activities taking into account all their relevant biological technological economic social environmental and commercial aspects Sections on 0 Fisheries Management Precautionary Approach 0 Fishing Operations 0 Aquaculture Development 0 Integration fisheries into coastal area management 0 Fisheries research 75 Precautionary approach 751 States should apply the precautionary approach widely to conservation management and exploitation of living aquatic resources in order to protect them and preserve the aquatic environment The absence of adequate scientific information should not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures 752 In implementing PA States should take into account inter alia uncertainties relating to the size and productivity of the stocks reference points stock condition in relation to such reference points levels and distribution of fishing mortality and the impact of fishing activities including discards on non target and associated or dependent species as well as environmental and socioeconomic conditions 0 753 States and subregional or regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements on the basis of the best scientific evidence available inter alia determine stock specific target reference points and at the same time the action to be taken if they are exceeded an a stockspecific limit reference points and at the same time the action to be taken if they are exceeded when a limit reference point is approached measures should be taken to ensure that it will not be exceeded Precautionary Principle 754 In the case of new or exploratory sheries States should adopt as soon as possible cautious conservation and management measures including inter alia catch limits and effort limits Such measures should remain in force until there are suf cient data to allow assessment of the impact of the sheries on the longterm sustainability of the stocks whereupon conservation and management measures based on that assessment should be implemented The latter measures should if appropriate allow for the gradual development of the sheries Precautionary Principle 755 If a natural phenomenon has a signi cant adverse impact on the status of living aquatic resources States should adopt conservation and such adverse impact States should also adopt such measures on an emergency basis where shing activity presenw a serious threat to the sustainability of such resources Measures taken on an emergency basis should be temporary and should be based on the best scienti c evidence available Standard of proof to be used in decisions regarding authorization of fishing activities should be commensurate with the potential risk to the resource while also taking into account the expected benefits of the activities Common 3 Arguments Against Flawed vague and cannot be invoked as bases for societal decisions Should not be employed in regulatory context or policy tool when we do not know consequences Would lead to unwanted consequences that would not consider the big picture Risk Assesment Preferred approach for US but not exclusively Works using testable hypotheses and data 1ven Mechanisms for harm transparent approaches Process based less value laden BUTi there are complex systems that are difficult to model and regulate Criticisms I Toxic chemicals multiple sources I Disenfranchising all but experm from decision making I US policy more reactionary than precautronary Defenses I Safety factors are already precautionary I PP not science based I Stifle innovation in new technologies Summary Points from Kriebel et al I Cosw risks judgement requires political decision I Scienti c data has uncertainty I Scientists make assumptions I Risks clearly exceed bene ts in some cases I In gray areas status quo o en continues I Scienti c conservatism interpreted as favoring promoters I Public good is represented in PP and approaches bene w can be estimated but nal 5 Characteristics of Fish Populations Unexploited Populations 7 Mortality natural 7 Growth 7 Recruitment 0 Exploited Populations 7 Fishing and Natural Mortality 7 Compensatory Growth 7 Recruitment and Yield Mortality 0 Essential component to understand in management 0 Natural causes 0 Fishing mortality 0 dNdt ZN rate of change in cohort over time where Z is the rate of change Assume population with stable age distribution or one year class over time ifequal mortality among group s Numb er of sh Time Mortality I dNdt ZN rate of change in cohort over time I Integrating and rearranging and integrating N t Nana 39quot where N1 is number of fish at time t and N is number fish at time 0 and Z is the force of total mortality or instantaneous total rate T time elapsed since T0 Survival is the opposite of Mortality I S NtN0 or S N MIN if survival is comparable over times to consider I Rearranging and integrating this we get Substituting S in the equation before N t N0e quotv Then NtNO S e then take the natural log of that equation and you get Z lnS or Ln S Z or substituted back it would be ln N M In N Graphical Method for the calculation of mortality Z Ln Numb er Slope 7z of sh Age oI Fish Alternative methods SEN N0 EN If you are estimating survival form an age series S N t1 Nt2Nt Nt1 Nt2 Catch Curve to estimate mortality Ln Nt In NH 7 z t Ln Frequency of z slope sh at age Age oI Fish When we add shing to natural mortality 0 Terminology is Z F M where F is fishing mortality and M is natural mortality these rates are additive 7FMt in 7M1 No None None 9 Determining Fishing Mortality 0 Direct Comparison of Catch and Fishing Effort Cf where F fishing mortality is considered proportional to fishing effort f CzNz cleCINz clN1 Catch Fishing Effort 0 or S NMNt Fishing Effort 0 gt Growth length and weight I Age and Growth methods I Hard parts length at age condition factor I Types of growth rates 7 Absolute increase incremental t1 7 t1 7 Relative growth incremental divided by inu39tal h 7 111 7 Insmntaneous growth ln h 7 ln t1 WeightLength Relations w alquot I Log w log a blog l I Fulton s index of condition wl3 or I Allometric condition factor wlb Log w linear solnu39on y A Bx Log Length Fish are among the last of the wild creatures hunted by humans for sport and food in several fisheries I Subsistence primarily for food I Recreational mainly for fun I Commercial primarily for profit I Non consumptive ecosystem value Issues within sheries I Long term access and allocation I Lack of agreed principles for allocation between competing groups commercial customary subsistence recreation and non consumptive I The Human Connection People I Fisheries are as much about people as sh Components of a Fishing Community I Demographics Population migration age and gender education level I Sociocultural Objectives religion genderroles social strati cation cohesion traditions I Economics Income distribution and level dependence on shery diversity in opportunity types ofmarkets Institutional Patterns oforganization ownership communit infrastructure regulatory and enforcement traditional ecological knowledge I Environmental Availability of stocks habitat conditions in environment Fishery System Mamas ost harvest activities Vessels and Technology Other occupations Culture Ecmmmic Sncinecnnnmic Em Envirnnmen Legislative Frzmzwm39k Subsistence ome authrop ologisls have traced shing bones and tools to 90 0 s ago tools round used for iisheries Obvious linkages to use throughout the world tl more claims to rights oi subsistence iisherie and con icts in manag em 4339 FAO UN All people eat more sh than any other type oi animal protein 15 kg per capita Most people dep endenl on sh protein are in developing worl Over 30 million people derive income irom sheries and aquaculture Fish and Fisheries From Ancient mes IIwI II39Iln Up Copper Hooks 3000 ac lukoh and Sklmlnlnz not W 6 r 232 if g k lt I wan manch 22m Flslllng VIII In Nile Perch 1400 BC Whilsl plmle m 2 s s u a 3 a d l 2 p 6 I 8 e 0 a 3 Fish sacri ce in Mesopotamia Pre hishric Rock Pin illgs Soll l Aflica 1000 BE Allynn Fltllcrl 1 IC Chinese Brnnze Fish min 300 Bc C r TI39lC Fihcrman Ebisu God of Luck and Patron of Fisherman Roots of Recreational Fishing Aryan rook 0k round in Egyptian anhh Anglers r anuent end or ho e iorebears or Christian cross as meaning b 7 one orth religions symbol is one who catches lish with a times s w nietal hooks who leaned out orwrn hoohed valuables from passer by Recreation 0 Nobles seated in comfortable chairs caught rod and line 0 Roman accounts Mark Anthony and Cleopatra 0 Middle ages Introductions of Fish for Sport 0 Middle Ages freshwater pike and carp were introduced to Britain for food and fun 0 Fly fishing reported from Macedonia in 1800 BP 0 US First formal angling club Schuylkill Fishing Company outside Philadelphia Sport Fishers 0 How many anglers 7 24 of developed nations such as Germany UK Europe 7 Scandinavian much higher 50 7 US around 10 7 Australia 10 Values and Factors Affecting Recreational Fishing Ecological Economic Social Ecological Balance Sheet positive 0 Education 0 Promotes environmental responsibility 0 Engenders support of restoration 0 Data collection 0 Aids surveillance of vandalism Ecological Balance sheet negative Fish mortality Behavioral 0 Pest species introductions 0 Native species translocations 0 Gene pool manipulations 0 Disease spread Wilderness violation Economic Balance Sheet positive Quality food Decentralization Promotes exporm ior some Economic negative Access costs Ineiiicientmetnod offood harvest Reduces commercial sheries Management and compliance costs Increase imports equipment some places Social Factors Positive W 39 iv Dangerous Relaxation E Requires cniorccmcnt xerclse Sport Anu39social Social class division Educatio n Violates Animals Rights Decentralization Commercial Interests I Before the end of the seventeenth century fishing was the primary industry of Massachusetts Bay and New England and exports went to Old England the Mediterranean and to the Caribbean I Three principal currencies in the Caribbean rum and salt cod came from New England and all were traded for slaves Values and Use of Fish in America I When Lewis and Clark traveled into the Columbia basin they wrote extensively about the fishers of the Columbia I quotSalmon and his People fish and fishing in Nez Perce Culturequot by Landeen and Pinkham 1998 importance of fish and fishing to the livelihood and religion of the tribal members The cycle of the salmon is part of the spiritual and cultural identity I Estimates of usage of salmon by native people per capita were in the range of 04 kg per capita per day Netboy 1980 Anglo Set tlers Preference for Red Meat I Bulk of the first white settlers to colonize eastern North America brought their preferences for agriculture and meat These settlers were more apt to adapt to using the Indian agricultural species of corn squash and beans than they were to increase the use of fish I However these settlers learned ways to harvest fish from the Indians and adapted this from a food gathering exercise to an export market for cash Industrial Fisheries The 193911 century meat was salt pork as it was used heavily in western explorations and southern settlements 0 Problems with preservation were likely related to the decreased dependency on fish Game and other meat could be stored longer 0 In the cities along the coast oysters were used heavily and shellfish was abundant and popular in cooking 0 Fish was plentiful and was part of the diet Cookbooks in the 183039s had several recipes for salmon and one with lobster sauce directions for pickling and smoking salmon and sturgeon 0 183039 Americans ate an average of 178 lbs of meat per year 0 Canned foods revolutionized the diet of many especially the lower classes 0 In 1819 the first cannery opened for oysters and cod in New York City 0 After this capture fisheries were exploited more heavily for trade
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'