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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amparo Schumm on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FISH 415 at University of Idaho taught by Frank Wilhelm in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/227712/fish-415-university-of-idaho in FISH at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
YOU and services that form the information CC ducational institutions Today publishers are offering l l Libraries have long provided the collections infrastructure of research and e sources to dramatically improve the prod scholarly literature and exciting new l t uctivity of researchers libraries e co ronic re faculty and students by delivering the traditional 39 39 39 walls services to computer desktops both inside the library and outSide the library to labs departmental offices dorms homes and laptops on the road Services such as Elsevier Science s ScienceDirect put thousands of iournals at the fingertips of researchers and students who can find the information they39need faster e effectively Research librarians are experienced in selecting and licensing the g the resources of the world to your institution s more than 15000 and mor best among the new offerings and bringin NEW ELSEV 39 39 39 h add More and more librarians are choosmg SCienceDirect whic rtlcles a month to its database articles wit e of all of an institution39s resources I ercom l journal a means greater productivity and better us 39 evi For more information contact newelsevrerels READER ENQUIRY no R LlBRARY YOUR GREATEST ASSET deglaciated terrain Daniel R Engstmm Sherllyn c Frilzt James E Almendinger amp Stephen Jugginst SI Cruix Watershed Research Station Science Museum ofMinnemza Marine on St Cruix Minnesota 55047 A tDepanment of Geoscienres and School of Biological Sciences University of Nebraska Lincoln Nebraska 685880340 USA t Department of Geography Universin ofNewcasrle Newcastle upon Tyne NE 7RU UK l 1 As newly formed landscapes evolve physical and biological changes occur that are collectively known as primary succession Although succession is a fundamental concept in ecology it is poorly understood in the context of aquatic environments The f prevailing view is that lakes become more enriched in nutrients as they age leading to increased biological production Here we report the opposite pattern of lake development observed from the water chemistry of lakes that termed at various times within the past 10000 years during glacial retreat at Glacier Bay Alaska The lakes have grown more dilute and acidic with time Eutrophication is often described as an acceleration of the natural ageing process of lakes based on an early ecological model in which lakes become more productive as they age This model of lake development which originated with efforts to classify European lakes by trophic status persists to the present day7 despite palacolimnological evidence that many temperateregion lakes follow the opposite trend and become more dilute and unproduc tive over timc m Although sedimentary records have advanced our understanding of lake development beyond the simple eutrophica tion model the patterns and controls of longterm limnological vhange remain poorly understood because direct observation is 7 mpossible at these timescales and because few regions exist where lakes can be studied immediately following formation In glaciated landscapes where most of the world39s lakes occur the period following ice recession saw dramatic changes in terrestrial vegeta tion soils and hydrology Yet we know little of how newly formed glacial lakes respond to these environmental forces whether there are common pathways of development within a given geographical region or how underlying differences in geology and climate affect the direction and rate of limnological change Moreover it is unclear whether changes to lakes lake trajectories are in fact driven by ecological processes set in motion by glacial retreat or whether they represent the direct forcing of a rapidly changing climate To explore more directly the environmental forces controlling ake development we studied a suite of recently formed lakes in h links to relaie j malerlals39 That i l we make V quot i b 935i 39 a Glacier Bay National Park Alaska where more than 1000 years of ate Holocene ice advance and retreat has created lakestudded V0 Puma39s m re valuame39 glacial forelands among the most extensive found anywhere in the V 39I ELSEVlER SCIENt r orld We compare limnological conditions among 33 lakes of 39liffering ages and infer patterns oflimnological change by assum that the sequence represents lakes at different developmental ages This approach has been widely used to model longterm r processes in terrestrial systems as exempli ed by the lassic studies of primary succession at Glacier Bayu Because a patial array of modem sites may not fully describe temporal patterns xhibited by a single site over its history39 quot we also reconstruct mnological trends from sediment cores from individual lakes and ATURE lvor 408 l 9 NOVEMBER 2000 l wwwnalurecom accumulated dissolved organic carbon and undergone a transient rise in nitrogen concentration all as a result of successional changes in surrounding vegetation and soils Similar trends are evident from fossil diatom stratigraphy of lake sediment cores g These results demonstrate a tight hydrologic coupling between terrestrial and aquatic environments during the colonization of newly deglaciated landscapes and provide a conceptual basis for mechanisms of primary succession in boreal lake ecosystems compare these trends with those exhibited by the chronosequence Lake histories are reconstructed from fossil diatoms by using transfer functions developed from the relationship between modern diatom assemblages and environmental variables in the Glacier Bay lakes The Glacier Bay chronosequence The studied lakes were created by a sequence of glacial advances and retreats dating from this century back to late Wisconsin time 14000 years ago All occupy small primary catchments receiving no drainage from other lakes or major streams most are small 3 16 ha and moderately deep maximum depth 3718mi Twenty one were formed by catastrophic recession oflate Holocene ice from lowelevation forelands along the Glacier Bay fjord and range in age from 10 to 220 years Fig 1 Twelve additional lakes are located on glacial forelands along the outer coast 350 2700 years and on late Wisconsin surfaces on Pleasant Island 13000 years Catchment vegetation grades from a sparse cover of early colonizers iEpilobzum Dryas Salix at the youngest sites lt50 years old to dense shrub thickets ofSitka alder Alnus sinuam closed forests ofSitka spruce Picea sitchensis and western hemlock Tsuga hetemphylluw and ultimately open pcatlands on the oldest surfaces gt 1000 years old The Glacier Bay region has a maritime climate with small annual temperature variations frequent cloud cover and treaty precipitationlm Each lake in the chronosequence was sampled for water chemistry a minimum ofthree times over a threeyear period to assess seasonal and interannual variability these data are supplemented for 17 sites by collections from three previous years The lakes exhibit a wide range of ionic strengths ion sums 01 62 mequiv l the more concentrated lakes ion sums gt1 mequiv l are dominated by Ca and HCO ions whereas the more dilute lakes have Na39 Cl and organic anions in greater proportion Concentrations of chlo rophyll a are below 12 parts per billion ppb median 03 ppb total phosphorus TP less than 105 ppb median 35 ppb l and total nitrogen TN less than 400 ppb median 215 ppb indi cating oligotrophic conditions throughout the chronosequence Most limnological parameters exhibit clear trends with lake age 161 FRANK M WlLHELM articles Chemical and biological trends during art cles Chlpln F 5 Walker L R hsue c L sr Sharman Mcdumsms nrpnrnm suucsslon Dulluwmg deglzcrauon a Glaaer Bavlxk1 I Eml 64 1497175 H994 u up n F s F Walkquot L R amp Shannan r n Pm Thmi Clanquot aquot s Sunp 1 93 rage 1995 successmml palhways nfpnmzry Alaska Ewlngv 76 1899AI9IG l 995 rower Dm H Preehrel A 5 Scarabv H w re Wise Communal ShelfWuttr and Guam Rtgvans o nlurku Vol I Guliny A In brmmon and Dan C e Arr o Faerie c L Czuses and nsvsrcm eunsequences nimntnpre succbsron a Ghilll Ba 39 Chmnnr ulu at Mr own kn vEnwmnmenml Unwenirv or Alaska Anchorage 19quot n Pm mm Glatm Ba r choragr 199 mp 1993 ed Enpnurn D R 4 54 n n a new elgenvecmr method rnr muhnnnnre duet gradrem analvm Erology67 1167 1179 Cracker R L er Malor 1 011 uruerupnrenz m rclmon 0 Vegetarian and urface age at Glaner rm Alaska I Ecol 43 427 448 l 1955 Ugolim F c in 011 Dnelnpmenl and Ewingan Sucreman m u Degmrured Am ofMuU Inlet SoulhzaxtAkxkA led erskv y 292 lnsmure of Polar szudies Ohm Sme Umvusuv Columbus 16 Hermann B T 8c Sidle R C Chmggs m producxjviry and dismbuuon of nulriems m a chronoscqucnce 2r Glacier Buy Nmoml Park Alaska Ecol 73 551 578 x mm Qonan 5 Br Ankcn R Chemisrry 2nd transport 0139 solubl humic substances m ousted watersheds of the Adrmndack Park New York Geochim mmrxhr m Am 49 16971705 new Engsrrom D R In uence arvegemion and hydmlogy on me humus budgcls ofLabradur lzkcs Carr 1 Fish Aquat S 39 44 1306 1314 lt1987L Rnsmussen I B Godboul L Jr Schallenberg M Th humiu conrenr uflakc wucr and us relationsth to watershzd and lake morphometry Limnol Octanogr 34 1536 1343 1959 Ugolim r c ar Mann D H Bruprdnlogrcal origm ofpeadznds m South Em Mash Nature 231 366 368 1979 Noble M 2 Lawrmce D B 5 Slreveler p Sphagnum nvnnun beneath m evergreen forest canopy m Sourheaslem Alzska Bryalogr sr 87 119 127 v 1934 Almen inger J E in Pmc Strand Glnner Bay Sn smp eds Mllner A M amp Wood 1 D In 133 135 National Park Servrcz Anchorage Alukz 1990 Goldman c R The contribution cfalder trees Minus Iznm ylmt to me primary productivuy oszsIle Lake Cahforma Emiogy 42 237 738 1961 Bruw n A rrul Mrneml remun39es n nurr 81yNuloluMonumenrmhlvmm uqu am xmu L39s n39 pmmrkup 73494 Le mam Engslrum DR sz C Hum mp ensnhlner 31 runou an National Park Amhongz mm s 1eBndeM s 5 Prannkurh H 0Th dxslrbuuun nr 39cpAgcwuhm mm L39S Gem uv rn n Pun Xnuml Nu l A 191 5 Olson o Mrrlmnum nfLumgrle vm Jlungrm Psnphwurlmmm mmmumn Irurru39r Lehrgh Umv new Olson O 3 Engslmm D R Sr Erin S lt m Prue Third dinner Eur D R 5471M Nanonal Park Sen rct mhonge 19 Wllmmsun C E lul Ulrnvlolcr rldmlun Ind zuoplan degllcmlon in lmer 1m Alas n a 3 ed Engurnm Jn romnmnm ummre mm Ecalu Winrhe press nn r HoloceneglacialhrslnryofrhLuuvaDIsrnclmulhmslALuks nun 12 9 28 119R Engslrom D R Hansen B c s n Wrrght H E Ir A passrble Younger nrm ecurd m oumeuhztrn as m 5013 JESHWDA inkr T 5 LiBaugh I w a Rurrnberrv D 0 The an n md use on hvdrauh omezer for dnerr measurement nfdifferencen in hydrauhc nenu betwetn grounuwner And Water Limnul Omznogr 3 12n91214r19xm Brrks H J BLrne I s StevensonA C Sileanak r I F Drammsunn pH reconnruenun Phxl Trans R Sm Lu B 327 261 2 r1990 luggms Flower R 1Barmrbcc n Palaenlrmnologiulendenrerurrerenr biologunl changes m UKAcrd Waters Mommrmg Network nm Freshwnr 81m x 0 Al Acknowledgements Ne hank B gt Cof n LA anssens M ble 30 e Izer EB Swam and H E 39r ng39m hr sisXance in the eld G stavus rcsrdems H Burd M Hervin R How and eveler for their help and NPS and uses 5mm Glacier Ba Narmnal Park for 1 grsucal uppun This wurk was supported by the late DB Lawrence and by the Nauonal crencc Foundation Ecology Program Correspondence and requests for maleri 5 should be addressed to DRE e mail dengstrom smn1org NAT REWOL 41189 NOVEMBER 2000 wwwnnuremm
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