Advanced Fishery Management
Advanced Fishery Management FISH 510
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amparo Schumm on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FISH 510 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/227714/fish-510-university-of-idaho in FISH at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
Sustainable Fisheries Management Use of EDT 0 Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment EDT 0 EDT designed to provide a practical sciencebased approach for developing and implementing watershed plans 0 Provides decision makers with the technical information needed to develop plans that will achieve their goals EDT has been used to develop fish and wildlife plans for many watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest Origins in 1995 LichatowichJL E MobrarioiL Lestelle andT Vogel 1995 Ah apprth to the diagnosis and ireaimerii of depleted Paci c sahhori populations in freshwater ecosystems Fisheries 201 1018 Mobrand to Jones and Stokes Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment 0 htgp edt j onesandstokes com Fisheries 1995 Beginnings of Development of Institutional Framework I Identify Objectives PatientTemplate Analysis and Diagnosis I Identify Treatment Alternatives I Evaluate Alternatives I Analyze Risks I Apply Treatment I Design and Implement Monitoring and Evaluation EDT Process Treatment Alternatives H Evaluation of Analyze Risks H And hypotheses What we know and don t know Most Applications Watershed and Salmonid Recovery Planning I Hydro project relicensing eg Cowlitz and Deschutes relicensing and damage assessment eg mining effecm in the Clark Fork Montana I The EDT tools currently adapted for use over the WEB I httpedtjonesandstokescom EDT Mobrand and Associates Jones and Stokes EDT a database and an expert system 0 Once baseline watershed and population information are entered into the database the expert system translates this information into population performance parameters abundance productivity and diversity Lars E Mobrand PhD 0 PhD in biomathematics from the University of Washington Sub basin Flaming 0 Sub basin planning generally occurs in two phases assessment and action plan development 0 In the assessment phase you may analyze baseline information to identify opportunities for and constraints to population restoration and protection mynnre gun 1 5dquot IIK h gum at llquot ml oHCDT m Suhlmin PlumMg Bm ogvca oajemves gmmmm 559 Amuns we Mums mm mm an w mfmanter 7 EcosysumClIarchenzanon am omm Pe nrmznce x mm mum x A Pm n WWW my w my Enmmnmeum quot3 mmw Snecwu rapw r1 mum m analysis mammmuun m WWW ummmw 7mm mam Riv1an rsmmmuu Amman rvmwml 7 mm m wle WWW y mmwmm m mm mm mm mm wnvwnwm WNW WWW Vivamerry WWW mum m Level 2 Level 3 Envuoumenml Alullmles Survival Facluvs I Eur Jam quotrquot H m vlm4 mm m mm W r v nauva nannmw mmy 39 V mu 1 i lmm mum mm mm ml All Mm Iiulndrznruxhu vullllnhnuwllnl uuhuv 1 ul 1x lluhulu1 nnmnuwn pahu pult mum in In I nmp L w hillnhuluvhmlu Mulbmvughh u plullhmuu Assessment Describe the environment Each sub basin watershed is divided into reaches Each reach is described in terms of habitat attributessuch as water quality ow and riparian function Create an accurate sub basin dataset Segments 39 Each segment or reach ofa stream is rated individually 39 Systematically examine conditions along a stream from the perspective of the s 39 Locate areas Where conditions are particularly good or bad and identify things that need to be xed 39 In particular EDT identi es the restoration value and the protection value of each reach Prioritization In an m mumu ymm miluw mu PMan Vle Raxlnmmn v1 mm mqu basin 39 Assessment Aquatic Environment n I Population Assessment Fish populations delineate I Status assessed in terms of trends viability or extinction risk I For populations listed under the Endangered Species Act the federal Technical Recovery Teams will take lead in identifying populations and their status Aquatic Environment I Habitat Assessment The potential and limitations of aquatic habitat identi ed to explore potential and to assess restoration and protection priorities I Habitat assessment describes attributes constraining sh populations and identify opportunities for improvement I Relies on habitat assessment tools such as Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Aquatic Environment I 0 Artificial Production Hatcheries are a major contributor to the abundance and status of fish populations in many subbasins and will be key componenm of many management plans 0 ln NW Columbia Basin the Council s Artificial Production Review Evaluation APRE supplies much of the information on artificial production for the assessment Terrestrial Environment 0 Wildlife Habitat Relationships This will provide descriptions of wildlifehabitat types to support a common understanding for their delineation inventory and management The Council will make these available for all subbasins in the Canadian and US portions of the Basin for current and historical conditions Terrestrial Environment I Species Richness Associated With each habitat type Will be a listing of the species found in that habitat type for both current and historical conditions This will highlight key areas for conservation I Key Ecological Functions Key Ecological Functions KEFs refer to the principal ecological roles performed by each species in the ecosystem or subbasin KEFs refer to the main Ways organisms use in uence and alter their environments Environmental Attributes Using Tools the habitat quality is rated using a set of rules that relate conditions such as Water tempemt39ure to the survival of a life stage of the focal species The rules are developed by consulting With scienti c experts in the habitat needs of the focal species and by referring to the scienti c literature Rules and Habitat Assessment EDT has rules that describe these relationships for each Environmental Attribute ie ow tempemture sediment etc for each life stage of several sh species The quantity of habitat is assessed as the total area of different stream uni types in a reach Weighted by their relative usage by a life stage Habitat Rules From Web Chinook salmon on Webs h Steelhead Trout Bull trout Available Cutthroat trout Interior rainbow redband trout Sturgeon 7 being considered Organizing Information for Assessment Watershed versus Stream Based Approaches I Watershed approach I subbasin is described in hydrologic units and a stream approach that focuses on the stream reaches I Building on the region s efforts in the Framework Project the NWPPCouncil is encouraging the use of the watershed approach in subbasin planning Watershed Approach I In the watershed approach the subbasin is divided into polygons I Each polygon represents a drainage system consisting of a ortion of the stream and the associated terrestrial drainage area I The polygon is the fundamental information repository and contains information on both aquatic and terrestrial environments Watershed Approach I Advantage Watershed approach integrates aquatic and terrestrial information I Relatively straightforward to incorporate spatial da from a Geographic Information System I A polygon could be characterized as having so many miles ofstream with some proportion of rif es and pools and some riparian condition Polygons I Also describe land use amount of terrestrial habitat types wildlife species associations road density and so on I The system readily lends itself to consideration of watershed processes that affect aquatic conditions such as runo sediment movement and land use impacm HUC code systems I Hydrologic delineation system in the Columbia Basin is the Hydrologic Unit Code HUC system developed by the Us Geological Survey I An advantage of this system is that it is inherently scaleable By this We mean that it is a simple a er to move from a largescale focus such as an entire subbasin to consideration of ner scale issues that might occur Within a small sub Watershed HUC systems I Large river such as the Columbia River is a HUC2 a tributary like the John Day River is a HUC3 the North Fork ofthe John Day is a HUC4 In seveml recent projects the HUC6 has been used as the principal unit for capturing environmental data HUC6 data can easily be aggregated to form larger scale HUCs HUCs can also be hydrologically linked With others both upstream and downstream Disadvantage Watershed 0 Available level of resolution 0 The systems at present only delineated to the HUC6 level It is possible that for some species and some issues the HUC6 level will not provide sufficient detail Finer Scale 0 While finer scale considerations are theoretically possible the process of delineating finer scale HUC units is technically complicated and is not likely in the near uture 0 However it is possible to subdivide HUC units to accommodate local situations and increase the level of resolution Other Users of HUC system 0 Power Planning Council s Framework Project in order to integrate terrestrial and aquatic systems Forest Service s Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Program ICBEMP for similar reasons Stream Approach I Information is associated with linear segments of a stream termed reaches I A reach is a geomorphically identi able segment of a stream delineated between tributaries or by major changes in valley form or land use The most elaborate system of this type is the River Reach System developed by the Environmental Protection Agency and used in NWPP Council s protected areas process Stream Approach 0 Can be linked to the HUC system and thus offers many of the same advantages 0 However biologism also frequently devise other specialpurpose reach demarcations Milebymile and pooltopool are two common examples 0 Information about the stream is associated with each reach Stream Reach Data 0 Proportion of the reach represented by riffles pools and so on as well as characteristics of the riparian zone insofar as they affect conditions in the reach 0 However other terrestrial conditions are not explicitly associated with reaches Stream Reach 0 Advantages of the stream approach are that it is relatively simple and appeals to planners and field biologism focused on specific stream habitats and fish populations 0 Reaches can be readily identified by field surveys or in some cases by the use of maps Dissection of the stream into smaller and smaller tributaries is relatively straightforward and the level of detail is always apparent Disadvantages are that it reinforces the division between aquatic and terrestrial planning and management A separate system must be developed to consider terrestrial habitats and conditions While integration with terrestrial systems is possible it must be forced and is o en not done SubB asin Flaming EDT was developed with the stream approach in mind and the reach is frequently described as the basic data repository for EDT information on the stream environment However because both reaches and HUC6s are linearly organized along the course of a stream either system can be used organize information in EDT 0 While EDT is typically used with a conventional stream approach in the Council s Framework Project Columbia Basin subbasins were divided into HUG6 units and were analyzed using EDT Sub Basin Plan A subbasin plan has two major parts an assessment and a management plan The assessment is the scientific basis for the management plan and identifies constrains problems and opportunities within a subbasin Assessment characterizes existing biological conditions within the subbasin and comparing these to the biological potential of the subbasin Development of Management Plan I The gap between current and potential forms the basis for identifying constraints problems and opportunities I The management plan is the response to the assessment The key components of the management plan are rst the identi cation of potential strategies and second an analysis of the extent to which these strategies will result in changes that ll the gap between the subbasin s existing biological conditions and its biological potential Management Plans 0 Addresses solutions at a strategic level ie it is not a laundry list of desired projects but instead is a set of strategies that indicate types of solutions 0 Actions will be proposed each year to address strategies described in the plan in response to problems identified in the assessment Bringing Data from Assessment Together 0 Many types of information relating to the status of fish and wildlife and their habitats within a subbasin 0 Focus on conditions and actions within a subbasin 0 Assessment and analysis set the subbasin in the context of conditions outside the subbasin Describing the Environment and Habitat in EDT 0 EDT distinguishes the environment in a stream from the habitat of a focal species in that environment 0 Habitat is a derivative of the environment relating to the productivity and capacity of the focal species Stream Environment I EDT starts With detailed description of the stream environment I The stream is divided into sections that are the pixel size of the picture being created I These may be stream reaches or Watershed sections such as HUC units I For each stream section the size ofthe environment is described in terms ofthe Stream Unit Types such as rif es pools Quality of Environment I The quality of the environment in each section is described With the Environmental uali Attributes Which are factors such as temperature ows sediment and so on Some ofthese like ow and temperature are shaped by month Within a year but most are single descriptive values Altogether there are eight Stream Unit Types and 35 Environmental Quality Attributes These along With some general geographic descriptors form the basic inputs to EDT Rate Habitat I To rate the quality ofthe habitat EDT employs a set of biological rules see EDT lnforrnation Sheet 3 that relate the Environmental Quality Attributes to the survival of one or more life stages of the focal species I Various combinations of the Environmental Quality Attributes are collected to form HabitatAttributes Habitat Attributes I Model has Habitat Attributes I For example the attribute of Habitat Diversity is formed by bringing together the survival relationships for a life stage eg juvenile rearing e summer Wi Environment Qu i Attributes of gradient natural and arti cial channel con nement riparian function and Woody debris I Models relate the survival of the juvenile summer rearing life stage to habitat diversity Which is a function of gradient con nement riparian function and Woody debris I To rate the quantity of habitat we sum up the amount of different stream unit types in a reach and weight them according to their potential value to a life stage For example small cobble rif es are weighted heavily for the spawning life stage whereas primary pools receive zero weight for this life stage EDT Environmental Quality Attributes Natural con nement IPollutznts in Water I Metals in Water ITemperature spatial variati I Temperature max IHatchery outplanw I Fish species introductions E b dd d I Arti cial con nement m e e ass Metals in 50 INutrient enrichment I Temperature min Turbidity 39 Harassmth IFish community richness I Bed scour EDT Environmental Quality Attributes Fine sediment Natural ow regime Water Withdrawals Predation pres sure Obstructions Regulated ow regime Salmon carcasses Benthos community richness Woody debris 39parian function IWithin year high ow IAlkalinity IWithin year loW ow IGra 39ent IDissolVed oxygen IDiel ow pattern IFish pathogens EDT Stream Unit Types General Geographic Descriptors Stream and reach name Backwater pools Subbasin nam e Beaver ponds Large cobbleboulder rif es Primary pools 6HUC Pool tailouts IChannel length for the reach IGlides IChannel Width by month for the reach IOffchannel areas I Small cobble rif es EDT Habitat Attributes I Channel stability IKey habitat I Sediment load 39FlOW Food IPredation I Competition Igbsmmons I Habitat diversity HIg51nent I Temperature Chemicals I Pathogens sahnity I Water Withdrawals IPredation Animal Protein Production Consumption and Aquaculture Humans Origins as Traditional Hunter Gathering Societies Animal Protein Production and Consumption Humans Origins as Traditional Hunter Gathering Societies Transition to Simple Agrarian Farming Societies with Domesticated Animals Animal Protein Production and Consumption Hum ans Origins as Traditional Hunter Gathering Societies Transition to Simple Agrarian Farming Societies Change in Develop ed Countries to Centralized Farm Production and Agribusiness Factory Far Land Based Animal Protein Production Environmental Economic and Social Costs Who accepts liability for animal wastes in direct production of commodity 7 Water se 7 Water Pollution of Surface and Ground water 7 Air Pollution e Chemicals and Drugs Liability in Production of Feed Sources for Animal Protein Produc ion hemical Use Water Use and Pollution Land Productivity Energy Inputs Numbers Choice of Animal Protein and Atkins Diet How Are We Calculating Imp acts Human Health and Humane Aspects of 3 Animal Protein A Production Chemical Contaminants ogen Contamination Animal Welfare of Higher Vertebrates H901 01 Wmld Mm Pradnznnn by Typa 9502002 m uquot um American Animal Production Energy Pimentel Fuel Pimintel s calculations 7 Billion livestock animals in US consume 5X as much grain consumed by population 1 million tons oi plant protein ied to livestock 7 million tons of animal protein o p on erage conversion oi 1 s 26 tons of livestock feed comes from grains and 15 irom forage crops Water Use for Agriculture and Animal Protein Us Agriculture accounts ior 37 all iresh water consumed each year Livestock use 13 directly and the rest used ior forage and 39 Kg beefproduced mkes 100000 Liters oi water grain Agriculture and Water Use Grain fed beef 100000 Broiler Chickens 3500 ean 2000 1912 Wheat Potatoes 500 Cultured shes 7 Aquaculture Production myths and truths Wild is Safer Aquaculture Causes Pollution Destroys Communities ol Commercial Fishers UsingFish for Fish Drugs and Chemicals are Used in Production Approved Drugs and Chemicals in the US 1 Chnrinnic gimarlntrnpin Chmulnnhegh used in spawning 2 nxytetracycline Terramycin antibiotic 3 smaaimeuimcine m metuprim anetril anu39himie an anesthetic 5 formalin mealian Paraeieier and FARASITEVS used in fungus and parasite treatment 5 sulfama39axinean hintic 7 Aqnanm in several claims rnnineninsis cwrl IS USING FISHMEALTO PRODUCE FISH WASTEFUL AND INEFFICIENT ENERGY TRANSFER If We Quit Using Fish Meal for Aquaculture What Would Happen I Used for other products and applications I Market production would be used elsewhere Fish Meal Production in N America Was Used ior Other Purposes Beiore Aquaculture Fish Meal Uses Prhnitive sh meal is mentioned in the Travels tur e accus om eir ca e cows sheep camels and horses to ieed upon dried sh which being regularly served to them they eat without any sign oi dislike The utilization oi herring as an industrial raw AD Norway A very prhnitive process oi pressing the oil out oi herrin by means oi wooden boards and stones was employed Types of Fish and Meal 0 Lean fish cod haddock etc oil in liver not esh and low in oil white fish meal 0 Industrial fish Menhaden anchovy pilchard sardines mackerel approx 90 of world fishmeal is this type Composition 0 Most fish have 16 protein 0 Oil component is dependent if it is removed or not Processing 0 Cooking pressing drying and grinding When oil is not removed the pressing stage is omitted 0 Cooking coagulates proteins and is critical for sterilizing 0 Press cake is protein oils refined and antioxidants added Type of Fish meal produced in US Majority iu Allanle ocean and Guii Mexico 98 is menhaden Oil is by product in this process World Fish Meal Use by Species by Diet Percent and 000 int Fishmeal Dilemma Global Fishmeai Use byLiVeslock Average quotn Fishmeai in Feed Pouhry of 5 Pigs of 5 Aquaculture Salmon 3040 m Cauish 273 Shrimp 25 Global Fish Oil and Meal is Not Growing Versus Soybean Oil and Meal Percent of Fishmeal Supply Consumed by US Livestock 1995 anultry lPigs ElFish III Ruminats I cum Recent Criticisms of Aquaculture Ignoring tradeoffs ofalternatives for animal protein Annual Growth in World Animal Protein Production 19902002 Laws of Thermodynamics Poikilotherm vs Homeotherms 0 Water Use versus Water Consumption 0 Feed sources herbivores and carnivores Conversion Ef ciency An Important Point for Meat Eating Human Societies 0 Animal Pounds of feedpound Cattle 8 Pigs 3 0 Poultry 2 0 Salmon 1012 Catfish 1520 Impact Needs to Be Put into Perspective Other Sources from Wild Populations Substitutes for Market Relative Impact of Substitutes Humane Aspects of Production Within Canada and US Highly visible issues Difficult politics Often Public Sees as an Either or Mentality Segmented Approach to Problems often with Disregard for the Total Environmental Impact from Energy Subsidy Water Alternative Protein Production US Commercial Aquaculture Growing Pains and Frustrations Relatively new for Commercial Ventures Infrastructure not Established Capture Fisheries have Dominated Subsidies Provided for Traditional Agriculture have not been Available Confusion in Regulatory Promotional Developing a Water Based Industry in Contemporary Climates Negative Issues 0 Effluents Aquaculture Introductions 0 Predation Issues Depredation Conclusions Discussion What is Sustainability Not In My Backyard Consumer OptionsAnim al Protein RisksBen e ts Tuesday 0 Pacific Fishery Management Council 0 Otherwise continue with this discussion and talk about conservation hatchery issues Goals plasticity Deendent an detect n rabab y 1 Laboratory vs d study fle a nuIs 0 n 39 ance par meter esirahlef or estimation of population size Lincoln 1896 amp Peterson 1930 W i e ahun ance Used for routesp sed 65 and Seher 1965 Introduce methods decision tree Demonstrate model eci c P If P 1 then known fate models are used 39 If Plt1 then CJS model is u Cormack 1964 Jolly 1 9 Answer this If you release a group of fish R1 and then detect ALL P1 1fish alive at the next sampling occasion How would you estimate survival S ver interval i s quotzR139 P2 Known Fate39 39 Unknown Fate Multinomial Clinical trials Markrecapture q Mi 1 Generalized Linear Models GLM s Logit and Probit Models Logistic regression 2 TimetoEvent Survival analyses Set within the context of time decay Parametric Wiebull Gamma Gompertz distributions Tag battery life studies Nonparametric KaplenMeier PL curves Evaluate fish passage times 0 Survival is treated as a function of time St There are 3 primary survival functions 1Survivor function 2 Density function death per interval width 1 3 Hazard function Jl o The presence of censored data requires a particular statistical techniques 0 With no censoring survival data are complete 0 There are 3 types of right censored data Type I End study at particular time Type II End study at particular mortality rate Type III Random censoring 0 There is a difference between uncertainty from censored data amp uncertaintyfrom Plt 1 dying in interval ll 0 l l 53 a a pJBZBH JO Amzuow 05 540 10151520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 4550 gt50 Time interval months Functions are related only need one to obtain the others Where a is the upper asymptote c is the survival or 39growlh39 rate 3 c are negative numbers Mortality decay falls exponentially with current size Where ris the survival or 39growlh39 rate SW k is an arbitrary constant VSASVcode 1 ML pnoc nun p n Em onquot t mnnmmmmmmg am mu D When P lt1 Field studies MarkRecapture39 methads The CJS madel 51 m A P1 A 53 A SaPa Interval can be time space or lifestage Should also be standardized Prch4 Pdam Sdam A 7 39Pcon WW SWquot ACon Spaired Sdam39PrcM39A I Scon39 Pcon Acon Controls are used to factor out 8 and P below dam Assumes S and P equal below dam 1 Go to Excel spreadsheet 2 Go to USER software s J r w er on unaccounted for extra var n smaller than they should be Type I error 1 Formulatea 39general39 or 39iull39 model Includes all a prior factors 2 Fit the model to the obsenred data 3 simulate data based on obsenred estimates 100 times 4 Estimate parameters for each simulated data set record Io Il e and delli ces proportion of simulated deviances gt obsenred Pvalue 1 Go to SAS program 2 Go to USER software 3 Go to GOF spreadsheet l Observed deviance 38909 100 simulations P 023 Observed ounl Deviance Iven the data and the number of parameters Does not use Pvalues o among a set of models Depends stron I on a priori Hypotheses Model can change but data set can M 2 For example evaluated downstream to upstream First detection parameters P and A survival parameters S 3 Go to Excell spreadsheet