Fundamentals of Electronics Lab
Fundamentals of Electronics Lab ECE 311
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredy Okuneva on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 311 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/227741/ece-311-university-of-idaho in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
PSpice I Introduction SPICE is short for Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis It is a general purpose circuit simulation program for linear and nonlinear dc linear and nonlinear transient and linear ac analysis It was developed at the University of California at Berkeley and it could be said that it is the most well known circuit simulator From SPICE there are at least 30 programs which were written mostly to ful ll other needs which are derived from SPICE One of these is PSpice PSpice was the rst SPICE based circuit simulator introduced for the personal computer It is a product of MicroSim Corporation We will be using the student version of PSpice The student version of PSpice has memory limitations which translates into a limitation on the number of devices that you can use in a simulation The EE Junior Lab does have copies of the full version available In order to either get you familiar or refamiliar this short tutorial will cover some of the basics with you It is by no means complete If you need further references it is suggested that you purchase quotSPICE A Guide to Circuit Simulation and Analysis Using PSpicequot by Paul W Tuinenga which is available in the bookstore The HP computer lab has a copies of the manual for PSpice as well Another SPICE based simulator which seems to be gaining local popularity is TURBOSIM TURBOSIM is a windows based program which allows you to draw your circuit on the screen and then simulate your drawn schematic The feature is termed schematic capture Also TURBOSIM has no limitations on the size of the circuit it will allow you to draw or simulate This is an advantage over PSpice A disadvantage of TURBOSIM in comparison to PSpice is that it is not quite as developed as PSpice The output capabilities are not quite as nice as PSpice and there are some other features available in PSpice which are not available in TURBOSIM It is possible to combine the positive points of TURBOS IM with the positive points of PSpice TURBOSIM can save your drawing in a quotnearlyquot PSpice compatible input file It can become PSpice compatible will a small amount of editing Finally PSpice makes an MS Windows based program with schematic capture as well The number of elements which a drawing can contain however is limited to about 20 I am not familiar with this so I will not discuss You may want to try it however I would recommend writing your own netlist In the long run at UI you will find this more useful that using the Windows version of PSpice If anyone is interested in these alternatives to PSpice see me and I will be happy to discuss them with you II Using PSpice The steps to performing a circuit simulation with PSpice are 1 Draw the circuit and number or label the nodes Create a netlist file The filename should be of the form cir where is any filename you give it N Add in control statements to the netlist le Add in title comment and end statements to the netlist le Simulate the circuit Run PSpice Evaluate the results of the output This is usually done using PROBE a post processor used to graphically display the results You may also save results to an output le 9939er The netlist contains the a list of the elements that compose the circuit as well as describe how the elements are connected It also includes the other important statements used to simulate the circuit The circuit nodes can be numbered or can be any text string but one of the nodes must be labeled 0 which is used as the ground node It is somewhat traditional to number the nodes sequentially however as you gain more experience you may want to label the nodes by meaningful names such as in or out for example Each line of the netlist may contain one element The rules governing the format of these elements are in the manual and we will discuss a few of them Examples of analog elements which can be used are resistors capacitors inductors independent voltage and current sources the four types of dependent sources transmission lines voltage and current controlled switches and ve common semiconductor devices diodes BJT s JFET s MOSFET s and GaAsFET s Two very important statements that may included in the netlist are the MODEL statement and the SUBCKT statement PSpice also contains a digital devices however that is not a topic for EE 317 A list of the elements that are allowed in PSpice will follow this discussion The list is not complete Also the elements in the list are often simpli ed versions of the actual element description As you gain experience with PSpice you may want to consult the PSpice manual for more complicated de nitions of the elements and some of the other types of elements available A Element Statements 1 Resistor Rxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltvaluegt Example R1 1 2 1k The xxx represents and any other numbers or letters which you desire and you must use at least one There is no limit the length of a component name however common sense dictates you use names with reasonable lengths which are somewhat meaningful 2 Capacitor Cxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltvaluegt C1 3 4 1e 6 Inductor Lxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltvaluegt LR541m Independent Voltage Source Independent voltage sources are speci ed in general as Vxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt DC ltvaluegt AC ltmagnitudegt phase transient speci cation The items surrounded by lt gt are musts The items surrounded by are options The items surrounded by lt gt but inside means that if the option is used the item must be speci ed Some examples are VBIAS 13 0 23mV VAC 2 3 AC 0001 VACPHS 2 3 AC 0001 90 VPULSE 1 0 PULSE 1mV 1mV 2ns 2ns 50ns 100ns V3 26 27 DC 0002 AC 1 SIN0002 0002 15MEG Note in the rst example that a value was speci ed however the type of voltage source was not In this case PSpice defaults to a DC source The transient speci cation must be one of PULSE ltparametersgt for a pulse waveform PWL ltparametersgt for a piecewise linear waveform SIN ltparametersgt for a sinusoidal waveform The general form of SIN is SIN ltvoffgt ltvamplgt ltfreqgt lttdgt ltdfgt ltphasegt ltv0ffgt dc offset voltage of the waveform ltvamplgt peak amplitude of voltage waveform ltfreqgt frequency of the sinusoidal lttdgt the waveform maintains it value at OS for a speci ed td ltdfgt the sinusoidal portion of the waveform becomes exponentially damped ltphasegt phase of the sine wave The general form of PULSE is PULSE ltv1gt ltv2gt lttdgt lttrgt lttfgt ltpwgt ltpergt ltv1 gt initial voltage ltv2gt pulsed voltage lttdgt delay lttrgt rise time ltrfgt fall time ltpwgt pulse width ltpergt period The general form of PWL is PWL ltv1gt ltt1gt ltv2gt ltt2gtltvngt lttngt Which means the voltage of the source at lttngt is ltvngt The points which specify the voltages at given times are then quotconnectedquot with a straight line approximation Independent Current Source Independent current sources are speci ed in general as Ixxx lt nodegt lt nodegt DC ltvaluegt AC ltmagnitudegt phase transient speci cation Some examples are IBIAS 13 0 23mV IAC 2 3 AC 0001 IACPHS 2 3 AC 0001 90 IPULSE 1 0 PULSE 1mV 1mV 2ns 2ns 50ns 100ns I3 26 27 DC 0002 AC 1 SIN0002 0002 15MEG Current sources descriptions are nearly identical to voltage sources Diode Semiconductor devices require a model statement Consider the diode for example Its simpli ed form is Dxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltmodel namegt Somewhere in the circuit listing you need a statement of the form MODEL ltmodel namegt D model parameters 5 There are 25 model parameters that describe the diode behavior and may be specified You can see from the model line above the you may choose to specify no model parameters If you choose this option PSpice uses default values for these parameters We will worry about 3 parameters which we are familiar with They are IS N and BV These are the same parameters which we have taught in BB 316 To make it clear how PSpice interprets these a table is presented Model Parameters Units Default Value IS saturation current amp lE l 4 N emission coefficient none 1 EV reverse breakdown quotkneequot voltage volt infinite An example of a diode listed in the netlist is D1 2 3 DMOD MODEL DMOD D IS1e 12 N08 BV80 Another example which uses the default values is D1 2 3 DMOD MODEL DMOD D Bipolar Junction Transistor BJ T The BJT may be listed in the netlist in a form shown below Qxxxx ltcollector nodegt ltbase nodegt ltemitter nodegt ltmodel namegt As with the diode a model statement is required and it has the form of MODEL ltmodel namegt ltNPN 0r PNPgt model parameters The user must specify whether the BJT is an npn or pnp The BJT has 55 model parameters that characterize its behavior The parameters we will give attention to are Model Parameters Units Default Value IS saturation current amp lE l 6 NF emission coefficient none 1 BF ideal maximum forward beta none 100 VAF forward early voltage volts infinite In relationship to BB 316 and BB 318 BF is approximately a and NF is N often 1 for us An examples of a BJT listed in a netlist is Q1 1 2 3 PNPTYPE MODEL PNPTYPE PNP IS1e 15 NF08 BF80 VAF125 or an example which uses the default values is Q1 2 3 QMOD MODEL QMOD NPN Junction Field Effect Transistor JF ET A simpli ed form of a JFET is Jxxxx ltdraz39n nodegt ltgate nodegt ltsource nodegt ltmodel namegt With a model statement somewhere in the netlist as MODEL ltmodel namegt ltNJF or PJFgt model parameters The user must specify whether or not the transistor is an nchannel JF ET or a pchannel JFET The JFET has 21 model parameters that characterize its behavior The parameters we will give attention to are Model Parameters Units Default Value VTO threshold voltage volt 20 BETA transconductance coefficient ampvolt2 lE4 LAMBDA channellength modulation volt391 0 An examples of a JP ET specified in a circuit is J1 1 2 3 NTYPE MODEL NTYPE NJF V TO 3 BETA1E 5 LAMBDA1 or an example which uses the default values is J13 2 13 18 JMOD MODEL JMOD PJF Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor MOSFET A simplified form of a MOSFET is Mxxxx ltdraz39n nodegt ltgate nodegt ltsource nodegt ltbulldsubstrate nodegt ltmodel namegt L ltvaluegt W ltvaluegt With a model statement somewhere of the form MODEL ltmodel namegt ltNM OS or PM OSgt model parameters The user must specify whether or not the transistor is an nchannel MOSFET or a pchannel MOSFET The MOSFET has 52 model parameters that characterize its behavior The parameters we will give attention to are Model Parameters Units Default Value W channel width meter lOOu L channel length meter lOOu VTO zerobias threshold voltage volt 0 KP transconductance coef cient ampvolt2 2E5 LAMBDA channellength modulation volt391 0 Additionallythere are several levels of MOSFET modeling which give 4 levels of complexity An example of a MOSFET speci ed in a circuit is M1 1 2 3 3 NTYPE MODEL NTYPE NMOS V TO 3 KP1E 5 LAMBDA1 W10U L50U This is equivalent to M1 1 2 3 3 NTYPE W10U L50U MODEL NTYPE NMOS V TO 3 KP1E 5 LAMBDA1 Note the different ways that the length and width of the MOSFET can be speci ed An example which uses the default values is Q13 2 13 18 18 PTYPE MODEL PTYPE PMOS Controlled Sources a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source A voltagecontrolled voltage source has the general form of EXXXX lt nodegt lt nodegt lt controlling nodegt lt controlling nodegt ltgaingt Example EOPAMP l 3 5 6 100000 Which means the voltage controlled voltage source is connected between nodes 1 and 3 the positive node at l with the controlling voltage being V56 with a gain of 100000 b Voltage Controlled Current Source A voltagecontrolled current source has the general form of Gxxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt lt controlling nodegt lt controlling nodegt ltgaingt Example G1 4 8 2 l 1 Which means the current ows into node 4 and out of node 8 and with the controlling voltage being V2l with a gain ofl c Current Controlled Voltage Source A currentcontrolled voltage source has the general form of Hxxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltcontrollz39ng Vdevz39ce namegt ltgaingt Example HLDR 2 10 VSENSE 10 Which means the currentcontrolled voltage source is connected between nodes 2 and 10 the positive node at 2 with the controlling current the current through the voltage source named VSENSE with a gain of 10 d Current Controlled Current Source A currentcontrolled current source has the general form of Fxxxx lt nodegt lt nodegt ltcontrollz39ng Vdevz39ce namegt ltgaingt Example Fl 4 8 VSOURCE 25 Which means the current ows into node 4 and out of node 8 and with the controlling current the current through the voltage source named VSOURCE with a gain of 25 Lastly we need to discuss a subckt statement A subckt statement can used to de ne a device or component which will be used repeatedly in the circuit under test or in future circuits The form is SUBCKT name node node components de ning subckt ENDS name Here in the ENDS statement name is optional however it is recommended Note that values can be speci ed in exponential notation as well as with poweroften suf x letters These are f femto 103915 p pico 103912 n nano 10399 u micro 10396 m milli 10393 k kilo 103 meg mega 106 g giga 109 t tera 1012 mil 0001quot 254106 Thus a capacitor for example can be speci ed as C1 3 4 In or C1 3 4 1e 6 Once the nodes of the circuit have been labeled and the netlist is created control statements should be added to tell PSpice what to do We will use control statements to tell PSpice what type of analysis to do The rst control cards to use are the fundamental types of circuit analysis an ac analysis dc analysis or transient analysis B Control Statements 1 For an ac analysis l 0 AC ltsweep typegt ltpoints valuegt ltstart frequency valuegt ltend frequency valuegt The sweep type is either LIN OCT or DEC LIN Linear sweep The frequency is swept linearly from the starting frequency to the ending frequency ltpoints valuegt is the total number of points in the sweep OCT Sweep by octaves The frequency is swept logarithmically by octaves ltpoints valuegt is the number of points per octave DEC Sweep by decades The frequency is swept logarithmically by decades ltpoints valuegt is the number of points per decade Some examples are AC LIN 101 100 200 The frequency is swept from lOOHz to 200Hz with 101 points resulting inthe sweep being 100 101 102 etc AC DEC 20 1MEG 100MEG The frequency is swept from 1MEG to 100MEG with 20 points per decade There is 2 decades between 1MEG and 100MEG resulting in a total of 40 points AC OCT 10 1k 16k The frequency is swept from lk to 16k with 10 points per octave There are 4 octaves between lk to 16k resulting in a total of 40 points 2 For a transient analysis TRAN ltprint step valuegt ltfmal time valuegt no print value step ceiling value This is a simpli ed form ltprint step valuegt is the time interval used for printing or plotting the results of the transient analysis to a speci ed output le ltfmal time valuegt is the ending value of the time interval Note that the transient analysis always starts off at 0s and ends at the time speci ed by the nal time value no print value Although PSpice begins the transient analysis at 0s a situation may occur where the user is not interested in the results from OS to a speci ed value This speci ed value is the noprint value and the results from this value are not plotted printed or given to probe Note that PSpice still does the analysis in this interval but the results are not made available to the user This may be particularly helpful if large amounts of output need to suppressed ll step ceiling value When PSpice calculates evaluates atime interval the step size taken is determined by PSpice This step size may increase or decrease depending on the rate of change of the voltages and currents in the circuit The default ceiling is ltfmal time valuegt50 This is especially helpful when viewing waveforms with probe Probe takes the data computed at the specified time and then connects these points via an interpolation scheme If the time interval between the points is to large the output may appear to be distorted Specifying a step ceiling value will reduce the maximum size of the time interval and usually will succeed in quotsmoothingquot the displayed waveform Some examples are TRAN 1U 10U 5U 1U The transient analysis begins at 0s and ends at lOuS Any plots or tables printed in the output file will be in luS intervals but will not begin until 5uS The maximum step actually used to perform the transient analysis is luS TRAN 10U 100U The transient analysis begins at 0s and ends at lOOuS The maximum time step is lOOusSO 2us Any plots or tables printed in the output file will be in lOus intervals and begin at 0s 3 Finally the control card used to perform a dc analysis has the form of DC ltsweep variable namegt ltstart valuegt lterial valuegt ltiricremerit valuegt ltsweep variable namegt is the name of the variable which is to be swept ltstart valuegt is the beginning value of the variable lterial valuegt is the ending value of the variable ltincrement valuegt is the step in which the variable is to be increased The DC statement causes a DC sweep analysis to be performed on the circuit The DC sweep analysis calculates the circuits bias point over a range of values for ltsweep variable namegt ltstart valuegt may be greater or less lterial valuegt ltiricrement valuegt must be greater than zero Some examples are DC VIN 25 25 05 The dc voltage source VIN will be swept from 25V to 25V in increments of005V The resulting sweep will be 025 020 0 15 DC IS 5M 2M 01M The dc current source IS will be swept from 5M to 2M in 12 increments of 0 lM The resulting sweep will be 5M 49M For the circuit we are simulating we would like to look at a transient response The period of the input wave form is 160 1667m and we can then choose to view 3 periods This gives a nal time value of 50m We can choose the print step value to be lu We will choose the step ceiling value to be lu This gives us the following control card TRAN 1U 50U 0 1U 4 The last control card which we need to discuss at this point is the probe statement It is simply PROBE When this statement is added to the le PSpice writes the results from DC AC and transient analysis to a data le name PROBEDAT for use by the Probe waveform analyzer Most of the time it is desirable to look at the resulting output of your circuit with probe Each input circuit le requires an additional two statements These are atitle statement and an END statement PSpice reads the rst line in the input le as the title statement regardless of what it is The very last card must contain the line END Finally comments can be added to the text as well The rst character in a line which is to be used as a comment is a quotquot An example ofa comment is this is an example of a comment statement Comments can be used to help your circuit le be more readable At this point you should be ready to simulate the circuit This concludes the short explanation of the PSpice commands 13 C A summary of commands available in PSpice 1 Standard Analyses Commands These commands are used to perform different types of circuit analyses AC DC TRAN OP TF SENS NOISE FOUR The AC statement is used to calculate the frequency response of a circuit over a range of frequencies The DC command causes a DC sweep analysis to be performed on the circuit One or more sweep variables are varied over a speci c range for speci c points At each point the DC operating point all of the DC voltages and currents in the circuit are calculated The TRAN statement causes a transient analysis to be performed on the circuit The transient analysis calculates the circuit s behavior over time always starting at TIME0s and nishing at a time speci ed by the user The OP statement causes detailed information about the bias point to be printed and place in the OUT le Normally this gives all of the DC voltages and transistor smallsignal parameters in say an AC analysis It also gives the same information for TIME OS in a transient analysis The TF statement causes the smallsignal transfer function to be calculated by linearizing the circuit around the bias point The gain from a speci ed input source to a speci ed output source with be printed as well as input and output resistances The SENS statement causes a DC sensitivity analysis to be performed The circuit is linearized about a bias point and the sensitivities to each of the output variables to all of the device and model parameters is calculated and place in the OUT le The NOISE statement causes a noise analysis of the circuit to be done Noise analysis is done in conjunction with AC analysis and requires there to be a AC statement The FOUR performs a decomposition into Fourier components of the results of a transient analysis 2 Simple Multi Run Analysis Many times the user may run into situations where they know they will want to do multiple runs varying component values or temperature for example These commands let the user make several PSpice runs while actually calling up the program only once l4 STEP The STEP statement performs a parametric sweep to be performed on a specified variable This variable can be for example a resistance capacitance temperature etc If for example you wanted to look at how a resistance affected a DC output voltage you could run the circuit change the value of resistance and run the circuit again This would be repeated over and over Or you could place the STEP statement in the PSpice input file and PSpice would do it automatically for you An added benefit is that you could display all of the results simultaneously TEMP The TEMP statements sets the temperature at which all of the analyses are done More than one temperature can be specified causes PSpice to do the analyses at each temperature 3 Statistical Analyses MC The MC statement causes a Monte Carlo analysis to be done The Monte Carlo is a special type of statistical analysis WCASE The WCASE statement causes a sensitivity and worstcase analysis to be performed 4 Initial Conditions These commands are used to help the initial bias point calculation which PSpice performs for each circuit IC The IC statement is used to set the initial conditions for both smallsignal and transient bias points NODESET The NODESET statement helps calculate the bias point by providing an initial guess for some nodes Unlike the IC statement the NODESET command provides only an initial guess it does not clamp the node to a specific value SAVEBIAS The SAVEBIAS command is used to save bias point node voltages for a specified analysis to a speci ed file LOADBIAS The LOADBIAS statement is used to load the contents of a bias point file Normally this le has been created using the SAVEBIAS command 5 Device Modeling MODEL The MODEL statement defines a set of device parameters for a specific device which can be referenced in the circuit SUBCKT The SUBCKT statement begins the definition of a subcircuit Suppose for example you were simulating a circuit which contained 3 opamps each opamp containing 15 15 components Instead of listing the 15 components at each point it was necessary to specify the opamp you can list the opamp once in a subcircuit and call that subcircuit up 3 times ENDS Marks the END of a subcircuit DISTRIBUTION The DISTRIBUTION statement is used to de ne a user distribution for tolerances and is used with Monte Carlo and sensitivityworstcase analyses only The curve described by a DISTRIBUTION statement controls the relative probability distribution of random numbers generated by PSpice 6 Output Control PLOT The PLOT statement allows the results from DC AC noise and transient analysis to be output in the form of quotline printerquotplots The resulting plot is added to the output le PRINT The PRINT statement allows results from DC AC noise and transient analysis to be output in the form of tables referred to as print tables PROBE The PROBE statement writes the results from DC AC and transient analysis to a data le named PROBE DAT It saves information for all voltages and currents This le can then be called up by the Probe waveform analyzer for graphic display of the results WATCH The WATCH statement allows results from DC AC and transient analysis to be output to the screen while the simulation is running This feature is particularly valuable for monitoring an output voltage to check that the circuit is functional If the output voltage displays nonrealistic results then the user can stop the simulation at that point instead of waiting for the entire simulation to take place WIDTH The WIDTH statement sets the width in columns of the output le out This can be set to either 80 or 132 7 Circuit File Processing FUNC The FUNC statement is used to de ne quotfunctionsquot that may be used in expressions PARAM The keyword PARAM is followed by a list of names with attached values END The END statement is the nal statement in the PSpice circuit le INC The INC statement can be used to insert the contents of another le LIB 8 Misc OPT IONS TEXT 16 The LIB statement is used to reference a model or subcircuit library in another le The options statement is used to set all the options limits and control parameters There are numerous options and it is well worth it to investigate these The keyword TEXT is followed by a list of names with text values This is currently used by the digital feature in PSpice only 17 D A summary of analog devices available in PSpice First letter of element B r 750g element type GaAsFET Capacitor Diode VoltageControlled Voltage Source CurrentControlled Current Source VoltageControlled Current Source CurrentControlled Voltage Source Independent Current Source and Stimulus Junction FET Pchannel or Nchannel Inductor Coupling transformer core Inductor MOSFET Pchannel or Nchannel Bipolar Junction Transistor PNP or NPN Resistor VoltageControlled Switch Transmission Line Independent Voltage Source and Stimulus CurrentControlled Switch Subcircuit Call l 8 E Running PSPICE The how s on running PSpice may be different from machine to machine When in doubt ask someone It usually takes only a few minutes to gure out a new system You may nd PSpice in the Junior Electronics lab and the HP lab If you like I have a copy of the student version that you can install on your home machine Here are the basics 1 Create your netlist 2 Select the PSPICE icon 3 Now select FILE then OPEN and quotopenquot your netlist PSpice automatically runs this le 4 Once the circuit is through running select FILE then quotRUN PROBEquot Once you are in PROBE you want to use ADD TRACE to view your waveform PROBE is largely self explanatory but if you do have problems don39t hesitate to let me know Sometimes you may have to call up probe manually When this occurs you need to open your data le The data le contains the same rst name as your circuit but has a quotdatquot extension 5 Sometimes in fact many times there are problems In the event that your circuit does not run properly or there are simulation errors you need to open up the output le During running of the circuit PSpice creates a out le with important information The lename is the same as your netlist but with a OUT extension To open select FILE then quotEXAMINE OUTPUTquot An example netlist is shown on the next page Figure l is the circuit the netlist describes Figures 2 and 3 show sample output from Probe 19 EXAMPLE CIRCUIT Title statement and the rst statement in the line EXAMPLECIR Transistor with the model speci ed VC Q0 2 1 3 MQO 1 MODEL MQO NPN VSINl 4 0 SIN0 35013 3 10000 0 0 AC 1 RS48600 9 Rs 513 C2 0 5 10E6 RC 6 2 5000 RE 3 5 300 RBI 5 0 2500 stm RB2 1 0 12000 RBI 6 1 26000 cs 2 7 1E6 VC 6 0 15 R12 7 0 10000 C13 8 1 1E6 b R a 12 Specifying both a transient and an ac run TRAN 1E6 400E6 0 1E6 AC DEC 20 1 100K Bias information stored OP This statement is highly recommended for transistor circuits All voltages and currents stored for the PROBE Postprocessor PROBE Must end with an end END 1m TWM m 1 EXNHEGR 1m 10 W Ell N WMMM 13951 Figure 2 Example Probe output frequency response 20 BWHEKR Twas MIMI W175 1m 4W 40 Figure 3 Example Probe output transient response 15 2m as 105 mm quotW71 Tm 21
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