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EE Senior Design I

by: Fredy Okuneva

EE Senior Design I ECE 480

Fredy Okuneva
GPA 3.81


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Class Notes
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredy Okuneva on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 480 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/227744/ece-480-university-of-idaho in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at University of Idaho.

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Date Created: 10/22/15
J Intellimouse Explorer MicroMouse Design Viola Fucsko Bijan Houle Henis Mitro Mikel Olson KW Overview Introduction Objectives Functional Diagram Microcontroller Sensors Motors Chassis Batteries Budget Design Flow Schedule 99999 Intro What is a MicroMouse 0 An autonomous maze navigating mouse 0 IEEE APEC MicroMouse Contest Rules Mouse must fit in 25 cm square Maze is 16 X 16 array of 18 cm square blocks Maze Examples W m 39r IIIIE 1 1HIII 1 Objectives Be able to move in a specified direction upon command 0 Detect remember and optimize possible paths to the goal 39 Recover from accidents 0 Complete a run from start to goal in under 10 minutes Functional Diagram DISTANCE SENSORS PROXIMITY SENSORS r K Z measure path length ahead and to the sides of micromouse Z indicate presencedistance from side walls Z indicate presence of walls BATTERIES Z provide power to all components in adjacent cells 8bit digital signal MICROCONTROLLER Z receive sensor inputs 2 determine next path 2 store maze and traveled path information Z control drive motors signaling appropriate steps for centering straightline motion and steering Z crash recovery l STEPPER MOTORS Z move the micromouse J The Microcontroller Microcontroller Purposes 39 Receive sensor data Calculate path through maze Move the mouse Recover from crashes Microcontroller Requirements 39 Smaller than 25X25cm Battery powered Easy to program The Ha ndyboa rd Q Motorola 6811 microprocessor with 2 MHz system clock 9 Two L293D chips capable of driving four DC motors or two steppers 16x2 character LCD Powered inputs for seven analog inputs and nine digital 96V battery with builtin recharging capability 1 1x8cm Supports C for programming 6 O 6 O Ha ndyboa rd Hand 2mm mm a an em CFU 3rd Mm 39y cm Ex arsmn Ens mm mm lelcn mam mums pm au pu LCD nnum m nmmw m mum saw v a MW Wm 59m a 3 Ma Edm me w um mmquot 4 m eau mummy 5a 1995 Maze solving methods 39 Random Wall Following 0 Bellman Flooding 39 Tremaux Tarry Wall Following Follow a wall left or right until it leads to the exit 0 Advantages Simple Most Human o Disadvantages Only complete if the exit is on the outside of the maze Bellman Flooding Imagine water flooding through the maze The water all flows out the exit eventually 0 Advantages Complete Optimal 0 Disadvantages Requires knowledge of whole maze Bellman flooding example 9 20 11 22 23 29 73a 22 29 725 za m 37 3537 25E L J 261713 3 32 34 39 tan 2725 29 an 31 33 34 41 mrm39az 35 A F1323 Fae u 2 3934 E37 A4 As An 4 Tan AF 37 38 a T37 AA E35 43 134 35 42 27W35 W741 213 V 7quot 39 II 1 25 30 293uaw 38 373539 Tremaux e Draw a line on one wall of the maze as you move When a junction is reached take a random path At a dead end or a junction previously reached turn around and return to the last junction and take another random path 0 Never take a path that is marked on both walls 0 Advantages Complete o Disadvantages Not optimal Ta rry 6990 Upon entering a cell stones are placed at entrances If it is the first time to enter this cell place three stones If it is a new path but an old cell place only one stone Choose an exit in the following order I0 stones Have not taken this path drop two stones at that exit and eave 1 stones Have come in from this path before drop one stone at that exit and leave 3 stones Originally entered cell from this path Only take this path if all others are exhausted 2 stones Have left from this path before do not take again Advantages Complete Disadvantages Not optimal Tarry example Which Algorithm 39 A combination Tarry for navigating the maze Bellman Flooding for optimizing a path J Sensors Requirements Provide maximum possible information about maze navigation centering Reliable under varying maze conditions 0 Low power amp low cost Easy to interface Sensor Placement amp Function 0 Distance Sensorsfront and sides Detect path length Verify distance traveled calculated by microcontroller 0 Proximity Sensors wings extend above mouse and wall on each side Six sensors on each wing Each return true or false value used to o Detect presence of side wall o Center mouse Map environment in adjacent cells Proximiw Sensors micromouse Parts Chosen Contains IR emitter detector optics and timing logic 8bit digital output Reliable and easy to use Combination of infrared emitting diode and an NPN silicon phototransistor 0 Sharp GP2D02 Range 10 cm 80 cm 0 QRBll34 Reflective Object Sensor Sensing distance 02 Sharp GP2D02 Data Sheet Compacwigh Sensitive Dlslance r W M MeasuringSensor a L I l I o Ilme Dvmens n5 mmmmm mum mm m 1 mm mm nwm m WWW m mum Ummnmv umuvl Calibration Curve Fig 1 Distance Distance to Distance measming output DEC Distance in re ective objecl L cm Goals Verify performance curves 39 Test in different environments O Interface to microcontroller 0 Test in completed micromouse Possible Challenges Varying ambient conditions 39 Varying reflectivity of maze walls Nonlinear response 0 Measure of distance affected by angle of sensors 0 Outside interference Camera flashes J Motors Possibilities 0 DC Motors 0 Servo Motors 0 Stepper Motors Pros amp Cons DC Motor Highly versatile lower power Complex control system Servo Easier to control Stepper Easiest control direct hookup to board Type Selection Motor Type Selected Stepper Motor 39 Easy control is crucial l g i l A I l I A iL A 1 a L K m5 39 Jquot 77 l 1 l 1 v 39 l v a Jquot 39 A Specifications o Lots of stop amp go behavior therefore acceleration is the I most important aspect HW a 1 ms2 is reasonable therefore T gt 15 Ncm 9 Must be less than 9 cm wide 9 Unipolar better than bipolar aimM AnnWWW finer control XO 0 Motor Selection 0 Reliapro 57BYG084 distributed by Jameco 0 Holding Torque 588 Ncm 0 508 cm X 508 cm 0 Unipolar low phase inductance and resistance max current is 600mA Controlling the Motor 0 The Handyboard can control 2 stepper motors with no modifications using built in L293D circuitry 0 The board can be modified to accept any motor voltage and current using a separate battery pack Chassis amp Batteries Chassis 7 Specifications Low Center of Gravity Able to Allow 3600 Turn Inside Square Able to Serve as a Heat Sink Three Wheel Design Front Wheel Drive back Wheel Used for Support Resistive Material in Case Chassis Design Left Motor Fight Motor Lou09 A 39 LULuOOI LULUZE SI i 15mm U 100mm Batteries External Set of Rechargeable Batteries to Power Sensors Stepper Motors IOther Interfacing Hardware System Specifications The system will be powered for maximum of 15 minutes 0 Each Motor will operate at 12V and draw 600 mAmps Sensors will operate at 5V and draw 225 mAmps while active Battery Selection Criteria 39 Capacity Power 39 Price 0 Useful Life Time Safety 39 Size r Energizer NickelMetal Hydride AA 0 Super Energy Density Double the Energy Capacity vs NiCd Range between 2100mAh2500mAh 12 Voltscell 281 grams 0 Price 7974pack Depending on Capacity 11974pack 0 Durability A 2500mAh can last approximately for 1 hour and 45 min Energizer NH15 ZSOOmAh NiMH Typice Perfer39rnance at 210C U GF Cell Vantage 10 L5 20 25 Hours of Discharge Budget Microprocessor Motorola 68HC11 3 50 Stepper Motors 45 Sensors Sharp GP2D02 QRB114 60 Mouse Chassis 20 12 Pack NiMH Rechargeable Batteries 35 Battery Charger 20 Maze 60 Passive Components 100 Active Components 100 Printed Circuit Board 200 Posters amp Report Copies 25 Total Component Cost 1015 Salary Viola Fucsko 2500 Salary Bijan Houle 2500 Salary Henis Mitro 2500 Salary Mikel Olson 2500 Total Salary 10015 Total 11015 Design Flow Basic motion 39 Straightline movement Turning movement 0 Max speed and acceleration testing Sensor data acquisition 0 Complete integration inmaze testing Schedule


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