STControl Systems and Critical Infrastructures
STControl Systems and Critical Infrastructures ECE 504
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredy Okuneva on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 504 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/227740/ece-504-university-of-idaho in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
9 39OU NOISSEIS NOLLDELLOEId SWELLSAS HEMOd CEDNVACIV LLS dVbOS EDS bx osmviobwmbzcn E Distance Elements Work Together Zone 1 elements protect 60 of the line Remaining 40 of line is X protected in zone 2 time Faster Fault Clearing Required IZt damage too high System stabiliw jeopardized Line too shOrt to allow zone 1 reach setting Multlterminal line would cause sequential tripping Seq u e nti al Trip ping On a three terminal line it may not be possible for one terminal to detect all faults while all breakers are closed Zome EA I T 1 7 LA Li a l O E Sequential Tripping When one or two of the other terminals open the remaining relay can detect the fault ML mg B C Communication Aided Tripping Transfer tripping schemes Blocking schemes Hybrid schemes Channel considerations Communication Channels Traditional communication aided schemes send one signal from each end Logic at each end plays to the strengths of the channel used Newer channels make more complex hybrid schemes practical Communication Channels Power line carrier DCB DCUB Analog microwave various transfer trip Digital microwave various transfer trip Multiplexed fiber optic various transfer trip Direct fiber optic peer peer schemes Spread speCtrum radio limited use Transfer Tripping Direct Receipt of the direct transfer trip signal from remote end causes immediate local trip Permissive Receipt of the permissive transfer trip causes immediate local if some additional local condition is true Direct Underreaching Transfer Trip E E 1 Zone 1A y I 1 ZO e 1B Twp A Twp B Zome lA wH F Zome 1B Permissive Underreeching Transfer Trip PUT Zone 1B Zone EB V Zone EA Zone 1A H Tr Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip E E Zone 1A l A Zone EA Zone EA Zone 1A Directional Comparison Unblocking POTT vs DCUB DCUB lossof guard signal improves scheme dependability vs POTT Lossofguard tripping window slightly degrades Dt jUB securiw vs POTT b Schemes have identical sensitiviw and nearly identical tripping speed given identical channel delays 3wa 9 390quot NOISSEIS All39IISVlS SWELSAS HEMOd 51 Sd39VOQ 333 f Universityor Idaho known From Vlugl sis H lz di j 0339 7 AV 13 u 7 U Fma w euww nw w v bu t 5 in 9v v m 032 53652 WWW a 1 l ih II m mtg w ww em v3 032 53ng MW amemuwmmn
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