STControl Systems and Critical Infrastructures
STControl Systems and Critical Infrastructures ECE 504
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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredy Okuneva on Thursday October 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 504 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/227740/ece-504-university-of-idaho in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/22/15
A 390 NOISSBS II AiI lI VLS SWELLSAS EBAOd 1709 393 32 Universityof Idaho 4 4w 5 ah 456 21 371 39 K5135 945quot 5 3 60 Awr M1 36 7 wr t a we 0 C 65 3 fatd4 S W WV cudf 8ch rel XL 46 J Cfa we 0 moo PK Qmm aquot Etunmmov i ii ATWW 86x U 3 H m A h LNMI 03m N n SaT MM v Ea h u a 939 Nzcbenub 3 th W I 05mg 53552 MW 95 Universityof Idaho b E Jabta 40v 0quot 60C 7 k0 whf q sep W lad1 566 Sec 123 SingleMachine Infinite Bus System 731 Synchronizing torque component I K 29 A8 Damping torque component KS synchronizing torque coef cient in pu torquerad 0 damping torque coef cient in pu torquepu speed deviation g H inertia constant in MWsMVA Awr speed deviation in pu oar woycoo A8 rotor angle deviation in elec rad s Laplace operator m0 rated speed in elec rads 21tf0 377 for a 60 Hz system Figure 125 Block diagram of a singlemachine in nite bus system with classical generator model Nihcrcfore the undamped natural frequency is w on 2 K53 rads 12 81 mt damping ratio is 1282 33 Universityof Idaho Jul 0 J61 2 A310 2 lt t 1 ZH 3 93 Universityor Idaho K a c 0 gt M53 2 A fzwD SW ZH O 2H Z gt 25 wf390 Universityof Idaho can 7 ha lLonl feluacr 3 U X Cmfl y l r 33 Universityof Idaho 4 UtaW J mfv gnrau KSQNSV0 A A 932 BREEZE WWW 31 Universityof Idaho k 3 u Wm Ac H W q me Ex I 122 F w A fakefl 439CowJew Heplwsmun O I 36 Universityof Idaho 5 6 Pied Qymw a I39Jkoag rmgel w6 95 M va 965444 uni 66 54 7 GearM71 C0 7f n1 gs Universityof Idaho 4 u ATMquot IQAJ 94ij ZHS 4w W9 409 9 2H5 39 Kbuv ATM Ks f I W 39 AT quotquot K 0 f 2H5 Kb 6 h 5 333 Universityof Idaho i 5 STL K w N V Awr 2H5 31 AJ Bag 53202 NW oqep JUMSJeAlun 36 N I vvq kc w 3amp6 V g k3 i 6 Ban 52552 NW qup JUMSJSAMn amp 73 7 Jew5 7 3 quot7 f7quot 791 7 7 5 26 Cra Wt397 2 KW 7397 WW 3 Guam loAusjaAgun 3 z Universityof Idaho 45 550 3 JAM 4m m mare amp ZHsPKD fff a 600 Ace ouepl JOMgSJeAgun 2 gs Universityof Idaho 45394 1 43255 493 A f39 6 5454 o o v Q 3 xq E kw mm x t 67 3 932 BEEQED luv Mm as 932 Bammgt MW N it i K3 A Vfd 1 s1r3 2 Field circuit Figure Block diagram representation with constant Efd a q if f quotF W x a r 39 quot 39 A 39OU NOISSEIS NOLLDELLOEId SNELLSAS HEIMOd CEDNVACIV 3JS dVbOS EDEI r4 g m 9 ML gtmE SE mq 50mg S E a 3 PO39lT amp DCUB Element Guide a Phase distance elements Ground distance elements Ground directional overcurrent elements Using dissimilar relays Phase Distance Elements Local Reverse zone 3 must overreach remote zone 2 to ensure current reversal security Zone 2 should overreach remote end by a significant margin to increase overall scheme sensitivity Communication aided zone 2 and timedelayed backup zone 2 may need different reach settings can 2 bawmata j I B g a r 720 2 DWM U V 2 i m Wm 3W z l h away aye raw 3943 W l w z wwmmer agm pabm m cz E L7 51 Ground Distance Elements Guidelines similar to phase distance Verify coordination using fault study data for all single contingencies Verify sensitivity is not limited by directional sensitivity or fault detector settings L7 on Ground Directional Overcurrent Set 67N2 pickup 23 times 67N3 reverse pickup 1 Fww Typically Set67N3 pickup NW secondary ememl Typically do not use tirnedelayed QZNZ for backup protection use 51N instead Verify directional element sensitivity Verify zerosequence mutual issues L7 Using Dissimilar Relays Using dissimilar relays at oppositeed discouraged to prevent misoperation due to miscoordination Can be done if relay performance for various faults is well known and settings compensate for differences in sensitivity POTT amp DCUB Complications Current reversals Open breaker conditions Weak infeed conditions Current Reversal Initial Conditions PT Send 39 PT Receive L7 mfg2 Current Reversal Misoperation PT Se d Resefg Wsoperatkwwi Zone 8 Aggartg Beore PT Regetg C I i E Current Reversal Prevention Use reverse zone 3 element to detect initial fault condition Pick up zone 3 reverse block Z3RB for settable time after zone 3 element deasserts Set dropout delay longer than Bkr C opening plus zone 2 reset delay plus channel reset delay Block zone 2 permissive trips until Z3RB deasserts L7 121 Current Reversal Prevention Cure works for both POTT and DCUB schemes Relay requires zone 3 elements be set reverse reaching when communication aided protection is enabled Typical Z3RBD delays 4 8 cycles Open Breaker Conditions When local breaker is open the local relay cannot detect line faults Since Zone 2 does not assert the local relay does not send permissive trip signal Remote relay trips in Zone 2 time rather communication aided time L 147 Open Breaker Conditions Continuous openbreaker keying Permissivetrip echokeying Echo Keying Echo block delay EBLKD Echo timedelay pickup ETDPU and Echo duration EDURD timers define performance PT can be echoed if Z3RB is reset the relay has not recently tripped due to communication scheme action and the PT signal is received for a short time L7 1 Echo Logic Delay Settings Typical EBLKD is on the order of 10 cycles to prevent echo operation following fault clearance by normal scheme operation c ETDPU of 2 cycles prevents short channel noise bursts from causing an echo key EDURD should allow enough signal duration to operate remote relay 4 cycles typical Weak Infeed Conditions Similar to open breaker condition except breaker is closed and source is too weak to allow a zone 2 element to pick up Echo keying can be enabled in these situations with performance results and settings as described above Echo Conversion to Trip Undr wek ineed iion he echo key signal can also generate a local trip when enabled 0 Trip is supervised by phase undervoltage 27L and residual overvoltage 59N elements ECTF relay word bit is added to MTU control equation Directional Comparison Blocking Originally based on power line carrier channel Sends block trip if reverse zone 3 element detects fault Zone 2 trips with very short delay unless block trip is received Directional Comparison Blocking iZone 3A l i Zone EA Zone EB I Zone 3B U i V M Zone 3A TX Rx f Zone EAETrp A i Zone 38 o Trm E Zone EB i DCB Complications Zone 23 coordination Carrier coordination delay Nondirectional carrier start Current reversals Carrier holes DCB Zone 23 Coordination Local reverse zone 3 must be more sensitive reach further than remote forward zone 2 elements under all conditions Nearly always requires identical relays at each terminal for security Carrier Coordination Delay Zone 2 prevented from tripping for a short time Delay should be equal to channel time plus small margin for difference in distance element operating times Typical 075 15 cycles depending on channel L 390 NOISSES ALHISVLS SWELSAS EBMOd 318 Sd39VOS 333
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