Pollution Prevention ENVS 428
Popular in Course
Popular in Environmental Science
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gerry Spinka on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 428 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/227754/envs-428-university-of-idaho in Environmental Science at University of Idaho.
Reviews for Pollution Prevention
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/23/15
Module 24 Pollution Prevention Pollution Prevention for Hazardous Waste CURRENT HAZARDOUS WASTE STREAM IN US Over 40 million tons of hazardous waste is produced in the United States each year Hazardous waste is one of the most important areas for P2 efforts Some people spend their entire career only working on hazardous waste issues CURRENT HAZARDOUS WASTE STREAM IN US A good website to review current information on hazardous waste minimization efforts in the US is htt wwwe a ov wastemin Look at this site and others either now or after you review this lecture History of Hazardous Waste Hazardous wastes are defined in various ways The Resources Conservation and Recovew Ac RCRA defines wastes as being hazardous if they quotcause or significantly contribute to an increase 39 mortality or an increase in serious irreversible inca acitating reversible illness or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environm hen improperly eated stored transported or disposed of or herwise mana quot History of Hazardous Waste More specifically under RCRA hazardous wastes are one of the following Listed on the EPA list of hazardous substances Characmristic exhibts any of the following measurable characteris ics nita le camhes fire easily bases Toxc causes illness or is poisonous to humans Egtlt pestcldes solvents History of Hazardous Waste oOther waste which is also hazardous and is regulated under other laws include wastes which are Radioactive Infectious The Pollution Prevention Hierarchy As always the pollution prevention hierarchy gives a rank ordered list of activities from most desirable to least 0 Reduce at the source 0 Reuse whenever possible 0 Recycle 0 Treat o Dispose as a last resort only Waste Minimization Plans Under RCRA hazardous waste generators need to develop and implement a waste minimization plan Waste Minimization Plans EPA39s guidance on the elements of a waste minimization program is intended to a ist companies and individuals to properly certify that they have implemented a pro ram to re uce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste to the extent quoteconomica ly practicablequot The guidance is directly applicable to generators who genera e 0 or more kilo rams er month treatment storage or disposal facilities who manage their own hazardous waste onsite Waste Minimization Plans Small quantity generators who generate greater than 100 kilograms but less than 1000 kilograms of hazardous waste per month are not subject to the same quotprogram in placell certification requirement as large quantify generators Instead they must certify on their hazardous waste manifests that they have quotmade a good faith effort to minimizell their waste generator Waste Minimization Plans For hazardous waste waste minimization includes 0 source reduction through elimination or reuse o environmentally sound recycling Source ReductionReuse of Material Source reduction is defined in the Pollution Prevention Act as any practice which 0 Reduces the amount ofany hazardous substance pollutant or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment including fugitive emissions prior to recycling treatment or disposal and o Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with t e release of such substances pollutants or contaminants Source ReductionReuse of Material Source reduction may involve o substitution of raw materials 0 equipment or technology modifications 0 process or procedure modifications 0 reformulation or redesign of products 0 improvements in housekeeping maintenance training or inventory control Procurement Purchasing procedures can be important39 pollution prevention of hazardous waste si ce many pro ucts have limited shelf lives and can expire before use An expired product is typically disposed of unused Therefore waste minimization may include trol Product sharing Purchasing only quantities that are needed in the near future Careful recordkeeping Recycling Many types of products contain hazardous components that can be se a ro the remainder of the material and recycled This both removes the hazard from the waste stream and conserves resources Examples include 0 Using hazardous materials such as used oil or solvents as a fuel in an wastetoenergy incinerator o Separating out metals such as gold silver platinum and others and recycling them Recycling Recycling of hazardous materials has to be done carefully to ensure that the environment is In the past there has been concern about Sham Recyclin quot and about using recycling to dispose of hazardous waste in a less expensive manor An example would be to declare that a hazardous waste was safe for use as a fertilizer road ed material or fill Examine recycling of hazardous waste products carefully to ensure that human health and the environment are protec e Treatment Treatment is much more important for hazardous waste than solid waste since proper treatment may result in a waste form that is 0 Less hazardous neutralize an acid or base for example 0 Less mobile in the environment solidify a liquid for example 0 More safely and easily disposed 0 Lower volume etc Treatment Examples of treatments include Neutralization Biological Treatment Chemical Treatments such as Oxidation or Reduction 0 Incineration o Encapsulation Filtration o Distillation 0 And so on Treatment The treatment that would be used for a particular type of waste would be determined by the characteristics of the waste the type of hazard posed and the engineering requirements A great deal of information exists about treatments and can be accessed through EPA the State Engineering textbooks Manufacturing Associations and so forth Disposal Hazardous waste must be disposed of in a manor that minimizes current and future risk to people the env39ronment The Resource Consenation and Recovery Act R RA manages the treatment storage and disposal of hazardous w Hazardous waste is disposed of by I Placement in a hazardous waste landfill Burning in a hazardous waste incinerator In 1984 Congress created EPA39s Land Disposal Restrictions LDR program to manage t e disposal of hazardous waste in landfills Disposal The LDR program ensures that toxic constituents present in hazar ous waste are properly treated before hazardous waste is land disposed Since then the LDR team has developed mandatory technologybased treatment standards that must be met before hazardous waste is placed in a land ill These standards help minimize short and long term t reats to human health and the environment which directly benefits local communities where hazardous waste landfills are located Implementing P2 for Hazardous Waste The Office of Solid Waste OSW manages two major national in ormation systems to support the RCRA Hazardous Waste progra 39 f0 is EPA39s comprehensive information sysmm prov ing access m data supporting the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA of 1976 and the Hazardous and Sol d Waste Amendments HSWA of 1984 Biennial Report The last completed report that is available is from 1999 Data were collecmd in 2001 but the report is not available on the we i e It seems that EPA is redesigning this reporting requirement Implementing P2 for Hazardous Waste The elements of a pollution Prevention Pro ram for hazardous waste are similar to t ose for solid waste To implement a program 0 Research the hazardous waste stream purchasing records Disposal hazardous waste manifests and bills rand air emiss ons s 390 Q 3 9 m ocess mass balances 0 Tie the waste type to the generation point 0 Think replacereducereuse first Implementing P2 for Hazardous Waste Identify opportunities Involve everyone affected 0 Process engineer may be key to process c an es 0 Janitorial staff may be key to cleaning fluid c anges Calculate economic payback periods Publicize success Consider employee morale and community relations Implementing P2 for Hazardous Waste Keep good records so that successes can be documented and publicized Share the success internally and externally Often a change at one location or unit can lead to changes across an organization
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'