Principles of Horticulture
Principles of Horticulture PLSC 201
Popular in Course
Popular in Plant Science
This 121 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katarina Bosco on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC 201 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/227770/plsc-201-university-of-idaho in Plant Science at University of Idaho.
Reviews for Principles of Horticulture
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/23/15
Lecture objectives Define the following pomology winter chilling and dormancy List the three major types of fruits and briefly discuss each What are the four factors which should be considered when selecting the proper fruit cultivar What are the major factors should be considered when establishing an orchard Give three reasons why rootstocks are commonly used What is the soil pH range best for fruit crops What are three important reasons for pruning What are three benefits which can be gained from fruit thinning Understand the factors which should be considered in the proper care and maintenance of fruit crops Pomology Fruit Production Is the branch of horticulture dealing with the production storage processing and marketing of fruits and nuts Commercial production Fresh market Processed canned dried or frozen Types of fruits Simple fruits developed from a single pistil Fleshy Berry endocarp mesocarp and exocarp are soft Grapes tomato peppers Drupe stone fruit endocarp is very hard Plum cherry peach apricot nectarine mango olive Pome endocarp is papery or leathery Apple and pear Pepo exocarp is a tough hard rind when mature Pumpkin squash cantaloupe zucchini Dry when finished ripening walnuts acorn peanuts brazil nuts Indehiscent do not open Achene sunflower family sedges Caryopsis grain grasses Nut walnuts chestnuts acorns Dehiscent split open along one or more sutures Capsule poppy Legumes peas beans locust trees lupine alfalfa Types of fruits Aggregated fruits formed from a flower with numerous simple pistils Blackberries raspberries and strawberries Multiple fruits formed from a cluster of flowers Pineapple mulberry fig Why eat fruits Nutrients vitamins and minerals lt Fiber reduce colon cancer eeeee Fruit pectins reduce dietary cholesterol Phytochemicals reduce the risk of cancer Major production areas in USA California 50 production All fruits and nuts Pacific Northwest All fruits and some nuts Great Lakes Region Apples tart cherries berries Eastern Side of Appalachians Apples peaches berries Warmer South Pecans peaches some berries Pomology fruit and nut production Value of cash receipts in the US Fruits Fruit and berry production generated 112 billion in 2000 and a 19 increase since 1995 Grapes 31 billion oranges 21 billion apples 14 billion strawberries 1 billion and avocados 489 million Nuts Generated 15 billion in 2000 Almonds walnuts pecans and pistachio account for 97 of sales Pomology fruit and nut production Production acreage in the US Total cropland in the US is 455 million acres 20 of total land 2 of total cropland is used for fruits vegetables and nuts California 48 fruits vegetables and nuts Florida 24 Washington 8 Michigan 4 New York 3 Important aspects for establishing an orchard Cultivar selection Must be adapted to the climate Chilling requirements dictate that apples are grown better in the Northwest and Northeast over Florida High fungal diseases in the East due to more humid conditions Disease resistant Produce high yield and quality fruit Ripen in the correct market window ROOtStOCk selection is the root system and base of the tree on which the fruiting top or scion cultivar is grafted Controls plant size Improve plant vigor Resistance to certain soil pests and diseases Enable plants to tolerate poorly drained soil condition Important aspects for establishing an orchard Soils The soil should be well drained for most fruit crops while having a good waterholding capacity Stone fruits are the most susceptible to poor drainage Sandy loams or loamy soils are best for growing fruit crops Fruits grow best with a soil pH in the range of 6 to 65 with 65 considered near optimum lt a pH 6 nutrient availability decreases like calcium and magnesium deficiency increase Dolomitic limestone supplies both calcium and magnesium and used to increase soil pH in orchards gt a pH 7 iron and zinc deficiency can occur Sulfur is added to reduce the soil pH Important aspects of fruit production Wateringirrigation A constant moderate soil moisture is needed from flowering through harvest to ensure good fruit set and good sized quality fruits Watering of a fruit or nut tree varies with species time of year and plant size Most sustainable option is trickle or drip irrigation Overirrigation constitutes a leaching potential for N fertilizers Overhead irrigation could complicate pest management by triggering disease infection or removing protectant pesticide too soon after application Important aspects for establishing an orchard Amount of sunlight As much sun as possible to bear heavily and ripen their crops Needed for photosynthesis and color formation Six hours of direct sun per day is considered minimum for average fruit production Daylength determines when some fruit crops flower Poor light flavor color flesh quality Important aspects for establishing an orchard Temperature Winter temperatures Winter hardiness or how low a temperature the flower buds and plant can withstand without damage In North America winter freezes present a significant hazard in fruit production Use USDA hardiness zone map as a quid to determine what species can be grown Spring freezes Spring frost near blooming are a serious hazard Gentle southern slopes or areas near large bodies of water are often good for fruit crops Cropsvarieties Differ in Cold Hardiness Hardy Apple Pear Plum Moderate Peach Apricot Grapes Almond Pecan Not Hardy Persimmon Fig Winter Chilling Vary With Cropsvarieties 32 45 F0 Apple cherry 800 to 1600 Peach Japanese plum 400 to 1200 Persimmon peach pecan 100 to 600 Grape apricot 100 to 1000 Raspberry 800 to 1800 Length of Growing Season Apples pears gt130 days Peach plum lt150 days Pecans 180220 days Small fruit lt90 days Climate and Fruit Quality Rain and humidity During harvest cracking and poor flavor Diseases Apple scab Fire blight on pears Brown rot stone fruits Black rot on grapes Summer heat Red color in apples Pit burn in stone fruits Fruit doubling in stone fruits Maintenance of fruit crops Proper management of nutrients Tree crops are normally fertilized yearly on precautionary basis Rate is based on soil and tissue analysis Use of OM cover crops and green manure Irrigation Should be watered based on demand Crop demands differ with the species time of the year and plant growth stage more water is required during fruit development ripening and flowering Drip irrigation is the preferred method of water application Maintenance of fruit crops Pruning expensive and labor intensive m Pruning control plant size Pruning increases fruit quality Color by allowing more light and air movement Reduce disease problems Pruning increases fruit size The three main pruning styles are the central leader modified leader and vase shape Espalier training styles are less commonly used aw header nhrancha W P 2 3 TEE l iii 5 New leader ind ya Pruning amp Air Movement Maintenance of fruit crops Fruit thinning Can be done by hand or using chemical thinning agents Thinning can eliminate biennial bearing which is when trees fruit on alternate years Reduce the physical damage to the tree excessive fruit load may weaken the tree Enhances the fruit size shape color and overall quality The number of fruits that should be left on the tree depends on the species apples 68 inches apricots 112 2 inches The largest healthiest fruits should always be left on the tree Maintenance of fruit crops Pest control IPM is increasingly utilized Maintain good plant vigor and health to minimize damage Release of beneficial insects Manage nearby natural vegetation and onsite cover crops to provide a favorable habitat for beneficial organisms Use natural or biological pesticides organic fungicides such as copper or sulfur based products Keeping fruit crops properly pruned to reduce moisture conditions favorable for bacterial and fungal diseases Sanitation practices that remove fallen leaves and fruits to reduce the overwintering of diseases Good soil drainage to reduce the potential of various soil borne pathogens Maintenance of fruit crops Crop maturation Timely harvesting of fruits are critical in order for them to be at peak color flavor and overall quality Can be harvested at different stages of maturity for different uses and markets Fresh market Local market at peak maturity Distant market before peak maturity Processing Close to peak maturity based on acid sugar and color levels Harvested both by hand and mechanically fruits forfresh markets are still harvested by hand Washing waxing precooling grading prepackaging and shipping A Still Air B ForcedAil Cooling 0 Hydraconlling 4 m Maintenance of fruit crops Tern pe ratu re TI B Coalllng Fruit cooling and storage 4 i 9 39s Jo Relative Time A harvested fruit is still a living organism and continue the biochemical and physiological changes The first step is rapidly remove field heat and to place the fruit under the appropriate storage conditions apple 30400F 9095 humidity and Forcedair cooling and Hydrocooling are preferred immuniz L1 kall giii l aiiuauaas Lngy39 5 Maintenance of fruit crops Marketing Direct marketing Farmer s market road side stand internetcatalog sales retail food stores food service firms Whole sale merchant broker commission salespeople cooperatives Growers association must be a member Selling the fruit on the tree to a buyer Niche marketing target a very specific segment of the market Geographic area a special industry demographic gender or ethnic group other special group of people Know your customer Research and identify your marketing options prior to making planting decisions develop a well defined market strategy Consistent high quality products is essential to a successful operation State of US crop 3year trend 3900 3902 Washington 0 N 12 New York 35 Michigan 38 California 26 Pennsylvania 18 Virginia 22 N Carolina 16 Oregon 10 West Virginia 12 Idaho JANNWUIUIODW 43 Total 19 D Chile D China France D Iran D Russia D Turkey 1 Ukraine l US Cultivar US Production x 1000 boxes 199397 1997 change 199697 Red Delicious 105722 95709 8 Golden Delicious 36710 35725 0 Granny Smith 16598 16607 3 Rome 15978 14720 3 Fuji 10648 16205 McIntosh 12647 13253 Gala 7036 9870 Jonathan 6519 5748 ldared 4899 5097 Empire 4127 4964 All others 35184 35645 Apples are seldom grown on their own roots Instead clones cultivars with desirable characteristics are grafted onto rootstocks Many rootstocks are available each having its own advantages Primary considerations are gt dwar ng gt compatibility with scions gt vigor gt precocity gtgt yields gt disease resistance 3 adaptability to various growing conditions gcion g Rootstock lt 3 M lt1 lnterstem Scions grafted onto rootstocks in nursery bed Rootstock Dwarfing of seedling Precocity lnduc on M27 25 High Budagovsky 9 30 High WIS 35 High M26 40 High Mark 40 High Ottawa 3 40 High NJ 65 Medium MM106 75 Medium MM111 85 Low Domestic Seed ng Low Apples in Idaho Nationally apple production totaled 101 billion pounds up 4 from 2005 Idaho s 2006 apple production totaled 60 million pounds a 10 million pound decrease from 2005 Down in acreage Apples are the leading commercial fruit crop 62 of total fruit acreage Mostly located in southwestern Idaho Canyon 1 Gem Owyhee Payette 2 and Washington counties Cultivars Red Delicious 36 Rome 19 Fuji and Gala increasing Apples in Idaho Most apples produced in Idaho are packed and sold fresh Domestic sale continue to be the main market for Idaho apples 58 of Idaho apple trees are on dwarfing or semidwarfing rootstocks leaving 42 with standard rootstock Trees are pruned in the winter while they are dormant The most common fertilizer used in Idaho apples is N the rate is based on soil and tissue analysis Zinc is a micronutrient that should be applied foliarly in the delayed dormantdormancy period every year Deficiency cause rosette or little leaf Apples in Idaho Insect pest management Codling moth is the most economically important insect pest in Idaho All apples are susceptible wormy apple Leafrollers are also a major persistent pest in Idaho but not an economic problem in all locations Other pests which vary in their occurrence from year to year are Western tentiform leafminer Green fruitworm European red mite Spider mites Aphids Lygus bug and etc Chemicals used Azinphosmethyl Guthion most commonly used Phosmet lmiddan an alternative to Guthion where pest pressure is low to moderate Chlorpyrifos Lorsban 50 WP moderately effective cannot make post bloom application on apples EPA A key component to any apple pest control program is a dormant spray Dormant oil organophosphate insecticides and in certain cases a fungicide Most pest targeted European red mite green apple aphid leafroller spp scab powdery mildew and fire blight Cherries Both sweet and tart cherries Michigan leads in tart cherry production followed by UT WA and Wl WA leads in sweet cherry followed by CA OR MI and ID 5th Mostly cherries are mechanically harvested and sold for processing 1 China Germany B Iran Russia E Turkey D US World Tart Cherry Production X 1000 metric tons D Germany B Hungary D Russia I US Sweet Cherries Hardy to about 20 F Trees on standard rootstocks grow 15 to 25 feet tall Plant them at least 20 feet apa Trees on Gisela rootstocks grow 10 to 15 feet tall Sweet Cherries Bing Lambert Napoleon and Rainier are the main commercial sweet cherry cultivars North America Most sweet cherries require cross pollination but many cultivars are not compatible Stella is self fruitful but is not reliably hardy in Idaho and is a relatively poor cultivar Sweet Cherries for Idaho Dark bing Van most cold hardy Chapman Lanan Hartland Sam pollinate with Van Napoleon Royal Ann Hedemngen Hudson Starkrimson self fruitful Tart Cherries Fruit is used for pastries Cultivars ripen July amp August Trees are small 15 ft and more cold hardy than sweet cherries Meteor most cold hardy and North Star are self fruitful i macomon Peaches amp Nectarines Nectarines are simply bald peaches Least cold hardy deciduous tree fruit Commercial production in at least 29 states CA leads production followed by SC GA NJ MI and WA ID produces 1 of the US crop China 3 Greece D Mexico E Spain 13 US Peaches and nectarines least adapted Suited only to the warmest regions of the state Climate Zone 3 Hardiness Zone 6 Freezing injury 10 to 15F CLIMATE ZONES 1 m r 3 Scale in Miles 0 20 40 50 County Border tiunamth Slime f sf MONTANA Li Cucada 391 J g leI 4 4 L r ml I 1 sun J 1 Ir39 Lima 39 quotKEIwa Hm Rum ff S v I P 1 mimi l ll turny quotW AI 1 FALLS M Li a 391 Tl AmmanIL l 39 WM F39ll nrlgP jB FI cal kl Lair f Rfmmi I VVV39AGIHE quotL 1 Because of early blooming spring frost injury is a concern Trees grow to 20 feet tall but are generally kept smaller by pruning Avoid genetic dwarfs as they are short lived and produce poorly Peaches grow best on welldrained light textured slightly acid soils They do not perform well on heavy or poorlydrained soils Peaches and nectarines are self fruitful It is not necessary to plant two or more cultivars for crosspollination Peaches require more pruning than most other fruit trees f U 39gtStra vl5 rries CAj39fl l lf gtCranberries 4 gt 5 quot gt Blueberries 39 gtBlackberries 739 3 Blackberry o Blueberry I Huckleberry O Raspberry v Strawberry A Table Grapes 3 Wine Grapes z a No Small Fruits Grown amp in County Www JL v 7 LA 39 BLANK y l FREMONT I x a HiliTE r 39 39 BlNGHAM lNCDLll lei L a A VQ Ji CARIBUU I e ap JEROME Lu39 POWER a quoti 46 7 I cf i I r w BEAR 5M mam LAKE J Small Fruits Grown in Idaho Counties Native to North America Blueberries require acid soils soil pH 4552 Among the most coldhardy fruits 20 to 250F Do not tolerate drought Hundred of cultivars like Earliblue Duke Spartan Northland gt Raspberries and Blackberries are grown for home use and local sales in ID gt Most BB amp RB take three years from planting to reach maturity and remain productive for 8 to 12 years gt Raspberries come in four colors red yellow black and purple gt Red and yellow raspberries are the most cold hardy of the brambles 20 to f30F7 l L Strawbries are one of the most adapted fruit crops in the world grown from tropics to near Arctic Circle Grown both for local and commercial sales Strawberries are among the easiest to grow Vegetable Production Olericulture Vegetable growing gt Objectives What are the major categories used to classify vegetable crops by edible parts What are two major categories that commercial vegetable production can be divided into What state produces almost half of the vegetables grown in the US Know what are cool and warm season vegetable crops Explain the growing requirements for cool and warm season vegetables Understand vegetable crop establishment including cultivar selection seedbed preparation and establishment of vegetable crops by seed and transplant maintenance and care Define post harvest handling and steps that it includes What factors should be considered when preparing for a home garden for growing vegetables What are two major benefits of eating vegetables Olericulture Vegetable growing gt Introduction Pomology fruit growing includes production and marketing of all fruits and nuts Grape cultivation viticulture is a specialized branch of pomology Olericulture vegetable growing deals with the production storage processing and marketing of non woody herbaceous plants for food Floriculture flower growing deals primarily with production and marketing of herbaceous flowering plants and house plants Ornamental horticulture includes the growth of trees and shrubs for use in landscape gardens parks and recreational areas Classification of vegetable crops Classification by edible plant parts Root crops beets carrots turnips radishes Tuber crops potatoes yam Bulb crops leek onion garlic Corm Taro Flowers cauliflower broccoli Leafgreens spinach collards lettuce cabbage Brussels sprouts Stemspetioles asparagus kohlrabi rhubarb celery Fruit melons squash cucumber tomatoes peppers sweet corn gt gt gt gt gt gt gt gt gt Seeds dry beans peas chickpeas CD J i fc 131 1E 1 WEDECDQ Igt f q m 1171 I frng 9 7 o mmmmk a br Uit u a Haggai L k quot o nmm U bco acg gg Q fl l 2 glgmwggmgg U a ft rm 103a 1373 Diimm fa 7 o W Mfamm 1 m mnjpm 5 r ff3 Kl a it m io a f mg i fml 1 Eh ijaai wg f WWm m J Rmm m MVWn hj m l h i buff m lE 1 IWC EJ laugh 1mlfi gl ihmm E 3 rmpxa mm quot39 k 7 L umbrgtr LlJ l Ccpm 2 bl lt iL rgpw i bwagm 1 m a H rtgwm quot Ema m 7 vi bio 3 4 a gums agpamngusa i mng urn nr g J gwars 209 J The V39 41 1 f 2999 sagsgm Us 39rjewg J39J y higher thaw then 91 wam rm 39ii gt 139ru mnaps mid pear 131 W E D MJ ufi m gtgt mmm 1 EJJ m o Fr l ma k cg mxei lucgi m o x r o V hmgsm Jb CB S Tmch E IDEEQCQDEF waggjg b c s 1IQDFf lt JM j Em o Imff m ia Um mw Ihjc hm F mj lg A zcgma Tm mc T a W DM rfu Ems gs amrrt imam le Eos i arm wmxmw l y 321mgva lfc l f gj 17 m f 1an am k Em LU UE Wimxy m 39mc a wf I 323 immp p tawt 291 Vif i j jgg f il gf l j ma fiber whfj e 9593ijth new at 21m Qdi jumn Leacling Fresh Market 39lul39egetaIJIe Producing States Eli r Acreage Average tetal acreage quotLEE rnillien acreefyear I I 7 h 3939I 35 3U quotxi TIEItal 25 acreage 3915 391EIEITr 1D 1995 5 quotnquotear 1 EIEIS III CA 391 ElElEI FL GA TJHC State 391 SEE Root and Tuber Vegetables Grown in Idaho Counties Fruiting Vegetables Grown in Idaho Counties Potatoes I Hot Sweet Peppers Sugarbee39 9 Greenhouse Tomatoes I magam JEEFEESUNEiPLSU ll 39 among sums BGMNEMLLE A N 1 a 63 BlNEIiSM x w o unicom l H J I i 39r 39 Lg mnlmu 57 7 JEROME paw maxi 439 LF 1 1 39V UWYHEE TWN 4 5 399 L L mus quot 5 h ONEIDA 9 LAKE Bu39b vegetables Grown in Idaho Cucurbits Grown in Idaho Counties Cucumber O Cantaloupe Garrmc o 3 me 9 Dry Buhb Onion Pumpkin A Green Onion 4 LAnLH 5 CLEAWATEN Squash as 4amp2 No Bulb Vegetables Grown P531215 in County I1 J IDAHO IA WASH I NGTDNr39 39 as 1 mamas 39 B A36 gg m Iquot r o 6 wjxam I DDOUDDD 50000000 50000000 40000000 30000000 20000000 ml uolnnpmd 1 0000000 IMO alawplam 31316101ng E10161 wmmb 5 0333 1 algammam 013 l lau 3 t lh o 030 032343 6 o DUWmJgj o o quota eh a J jm m quot39J PJLJ J u 3 0 U5 g lJ Jd39L 3 1 11 3139 79 5 L DU Vita 31123ft1m O Qulhby JmQD O wmccta Wach 13295331 191K919 1w ii m1 PDa Wi mggj 9 1m cijmggj i lff 1 j 3fjlam t mg MEL IJCEQE JEMJ EMT came Q lhmmcism Cultivar selection gt Climate Tem peratu re Cool season vegetables 50 65 F broccoli lettuce asparagus cabbage celery garlic onion pea carrot spinach Warm season vegetables 65 90 F tomato cucumber peppers eggplant melons sweet potato The greatest single factor determining a crops suitability for a particular climate is the length of the growing season required to mature before frost damage To count the of days from planting to the time when crop is ready for harvest Degree days heat units way to measure the time to maturity maximum minimum daily temperature2 base temperature Frost free period of days from the last spring frost to the first fall frost and define the period of growing warm season crops Cultivar selection gt Climate Moisture Vegetable crops need a consistent supply of water even minor water stress will result in reduction in yields and quality Irrigation is important for getting a good uniform stand which insure high yield Most vegetables are shallow rooted For good yield and high quality irrigation is essential Soil moisture requirements differ with the crop and stage of g rowth CD Cultivar selection gt Climate Light it is important that vegetable crops have the proper light intensity quality and duration Leaf and many root vegetables can be grown in semi shady area Fruit producing vegetables require full sun in order to photosynthesize carbohydrates for flowering and fruiting Photoperiod impacts flowering amp fruiting Air movement Less wind less evaporation less water requirement Adequate air movement is required for good growth lf excessive Planting trees or tall grasses and hedgerows as windbreaks CD CEEQJDE W IT D j gt L e yl o L kcg HU p gm vcssgcgb gg f r mmw a qwaagh va 1E a lb Igtgg QMU QWTEQ is mmm m QmWQMQ mhwbpz lmb o M it Wy9 1 r Wm g mmuia gs LLB E 1 3L o th l lt ki o 19mg gt w mwal Enng o W hx g f io gs DX W ZG Wh l ic g wa 7 ViaQM o i wags gvt m gg C n 393 U 1f 3 M WEQL D w g gaieis i D lhmm mfc r2 A 12 931 1px 1 i m O ccymihm o itva img lt2 rmmem mn I H o ma gf wi mcc bwwa 0 TM ith a mm mf 1z o 939 aq ibm f i ibr mi ngm gm m m mco w l 0 f f gs co w g o lMi l m ll i t l1 If D 11s1ggj U1 i i f 1 iis1it m O 5 4 lyii w N17 2 mg m f 5 J 39 quotu H NH 2 t v H0 r w a r WME m C m i g 5M ME g M E FEM Ea x r m v x J Maintaining soil organic matter is a significant challenge in the production of annual vegetable crops because Many vegetables are short season low residue crops that return small amounts of organic material to the soil after harvest gt Vegetable cropping systems often involve intensive tillage and cultivation which promote rapid depletion of soil organic matter CD Practices to Help Maintain or Improve Soil Quality Reduce tillage and minimize cultivation Do not drive on or work wet soil Diversify and lengthen rotations Grow cover crops Use living and plant residue mulches Apply organic amendments Use a controlled traffic system C I gw wg 33 D m IPIJci39ami m lmm 1T J f y F mi mcgmgm r I g mm O a Sigma l11m mz Ult J M EID23 amquot ifqlhc Jpwa glma o lt 1Y J smm Hag ltltl 113 l 751 WWQEJ EWE wagg bm rm 1f f lg Ncgw Fff bmk E J Vegetable crop establishment gt Sowing seeds Manually by hand Precision seeding using seeders The main objective is to achieve optimal plant population Spacing depends upon the crop and it s usage Low enough to prevent competition and high enough to produce a canopy to cover the ground After seeding it is important to keep the surface of the soil moist gt Transplanting Transfer of seedling to the field Assure a good stand and extend the growing season Watering before removing them from the pack and after transplanting is important Cost more and transplant shock Q 1 VE 1L D ssit os hmcgm 321me 5385 m9 o N gm r i mmmmrm z o F U l ama yg g mm wm O Hf gm zcgr g MW i k CO wm z g Wang 5 a air MUH ftaam M E agm o L y with Mmmh m i zgr O w i h N o m mg 0 91 i p gu tgd gt n uj r ludjeir gondi tigns or with 3wngerngrrtaj irrigation 393 11quot l J Pm m INJ gtgt W 1t V o Um gg mm m m mf g1 U ll y g Ul f gjg i m a VQji 1p gt 1u3 i Mwa a y w iwgr i i i walmwg o lMJ t M i mg ghzgm w 539 J N l f Elm 1M if f m m J Fm wm gm d 5 Q wvafraf 7 a gh g J xii wa waif u J m 39739 J s r91 4 EFL1quot Elf lgki Water gt Important times J J J 4 After seeding and transplanting Flawean and fruiting Head develapment During harvest and 23 weeks before harvest gt Leafy Vegembles J J J Constant water availability field capacity Water relates directly to foliage expansion Sensitive to water stress during head formation through harvest Water de cit cause growth cracks and tough small leaves Too much water burst heads O Mm fgmgjm bij R 9 Mb Ta thIJE 1L U Q fm ia mgxdj gwggsa i a m mg Y ea cd A x B r r A I n A A 5 A may r v II39 39 I j o pimwgiwm m 1E1 T l r a 2 j ao mb y 1ra ce9 fif f f 3f Ef quot i quot quot39 i iii MUIIQ 0 Wk f M b y Wl l W I m argg mggj 11 a s uwrviltvltia W me mb W gj Q mccyummlqa ga m V Vx nl l q lbfg ll i a p E i f bm li ji ic g D Mla s mjg3Ji i i W wx m mjgj lt JWUgmm lmw i m 3MUipim ft P 1r 13 lm 3 321m mggm Qc g FD W W WWI 3WQ 39i m v igs Wi l I 021 mi mng jm J at o pmm am c 3 4quot x k g 1 gauge racking W wait 4g owrmrewmxd rcpt am mum Jr rm at can stem M jmj lggj rmgg ivjw tmgm wj D Cc wgwig GN IKltQ3 1 K vs Bw ba jk 393 h ghagzr f N Q EM with JJT1UQJWE a m r 391 Jultihuf mg J h hz ild WEE Tm 7 2quot water Emde wmgme 39 39 QQmJtrQ J W Jaam ag mggj wiafcrgm V7 Im1m m jagj iirgm lawnQB up grab m gtwrr lt6 63w wag W l Fireamm s Equot m g m Uh ngj mwt rm s m fbo mm D mi f a gmcd o Rcacoimcgg mm o 291 M I QW 1 U V WU h w mwm j N V I p WQQ QFEEELQW J U igwrr pv r 1lttxurgs i osr pua pg rgwth fl Mealjmaacg mggj gumsuns 3 m jga m gj l m o m high m mag Mltg lb Um ga gg 3303 wmgm m3 slfy W m o S W m m UmE EF WC o Lmd gmw w Ce ga 9mm g i y Q Emgm m gg Ui l ei mc Maui2 Mam ff mj m J g w g Jifq y DU g 4 J waitgr campt iti gm Maintenance and care gt Pest control Use IPM strategy cultural weed control sanitation OM biological resistant cultivars Spraying for insects and diseases is essential sometimes gt Crop rotation Minimize pest and disease build up CD Maintenance and care gt Crop maturation Peak color flavor and overall quality Harvest at different stages of maturity for different uses and markets fresh market processing distant transportation gt Harvesting By hand or machine Fresh market must be hand harvested Most vegetables for processing is harvested by machine Large vegetables such as watermelons are still harvested by hand Q Maintenance and care gt Post harvesting Is the treatment of crop after it leaves the field but before it is shipped for sale Washing Waxing to prevent wilting before sale Sorting which may be mechanized Cooling 0 Removal of the field heat is an important post harvest handling 0 Cooling can be done by a process known as hydrocooling in which blocks of ice are floated in the wash water 0 Vacuum cooling takes place in refrigerated storage Humidity and ventilatb f5also need to be controlled 1M l i ram 0 gtgtgt Um lmlng i jl jgj F gl mlt m 3 W JIT KE S o 333 39fj f mm ff Wgasn 1 j H 7 o U ltWl lf g amid Wagi i mrgm g Q U ll f l f ll it wage WW ELJJJE ff J l t wg Wjii 1 mw lkgm 3de 1521 O n9 0 lM1 k mmJ 11 m 3 lh1ul baa mmf 1 lt Ua t mgj iid mlp i 7 Home vegetable garden gt Planning Choosing the location Should have good drainage and full sun Prepare the area when soil is not too wet Determining the size and layout A matter of personal choice and convenience Plant in rows to maximize the amount of sunlight east to west What should be planted 0 Have to be what you like Choose what g ll in your location Home vegetable garden gt Similar principle as commercial vegetable production 0 Soil preparation Tilling weed control OM sand Sowingtransplanting Use quality seed and transplants Hill plating grouping several plants together squash cucumbers Interplanting eg slow germinating carrot and fast germinating radish Succession cropping stagger the sowing Watering Start as soon as planted Avoid too wet or dry Fertilizing Incorporate OM compost manures Thinning Quality crop and reduce competition Pest control 0 Use IPM realt oesticide label and follow the instruction Hlnzaptmcg Wil aquEm a W mg MUHEWQ B h lmgga mwm mg thg mam firm Ln mmW mg U gm a amlmmfa m mgj Tmig m1 g mwmm i l l QD king il g nlmmgwg 7ng o Mw glm tmg ms man m g wa mww him 3mg mita 1mg W lgg a g ng mMIEngga m a TL QDL Q 13 fnj Ww fgh mg mtg i tm d tr I gjmi m W m cgtyj gr m39Q cB IEJaoamjc lgfdng 2 At miggj ch jMQU Eya itf as jt wruc J iJ39Jlt r Emmi of 3339th 2 djzgarnv c 1 QUQFE S hm wufg i MfV xg ihg mm 93 Some garden vegetables in Idaho Vegetable Coolwarm season Annual or perennial Edible portion Distance between plants Asparagus cool perennial new shoots 8quot 1 2quot Rhubarb cool perennial petioles 339 439 Spinach cool annual leaves 3quot Chard cool annual leaves 1 8quot Kale cool annual leaves 1 8quot 24quot Lettuce cool annual leaves 1 2quot Parsley cool biennial leaves Beets cool annual leaves root Carrots cool annual root Parsnips cool annual root Potato cool annual tubers Radish cool annual root Turnip cool annual root Watermelon warm annual fruit Cucumbers warm annual fruit Pumpkins warm annual fruit Squash warm annual fruit Beans warm annual fruit Peas cool annual pods seeds Broccoli cool annual ower buds Cabbage cool annual leaves Onion cool annual bulb Pepper warm annual fruit Tomato warm fruit Eggplants warm l fruit Sweet corn warm seeds w 3 a gtmm11 F wg VQ 1b a mm mJC MWlt lf 1 msfw an U m1 SU l j rnumr F UU MV my ma E ngs ll 1 1m m ft LCODITUQ T gmgj vm gt frng 3 m Ibit gt 114 1 721 m1 l JIidJ han i WV Jwquot j it rm 1E Fi 03 m gsa tm a Lg W ail i f mdl lEgBCOD FLEECQIJ S mfltd f dig ag g G quot cgixl39v KasafeSWKesw g H W 36 1 ud w QV39Ciid jb Lg J LA V y H ltCgtgtgt j lmlt9gtLg 53132 Weekly transplanting and weeding by hand intensive physical labor 3 K biyj ll 39 7 ma mwr ngs Mvahlt39iia haimy wgit gh mmpn W gl gdca rm ll l l foj p0 fm j i r wa agjh V 72 ma 1 1123 mg ith cgmp m m gj m f f m ii I UC L C c l cm M r 39b B 1 m a gh Si mmwlu m IE 1wJ m m MQMW th g j Cm m L x k BU 1IBTlt3 E 1mg g FW 9 m wkcg gs r ft L r a x A o MVQf i l jlp39i fam gya egs f L 1quot L W 9 1mwwm m gt Demands special skill time and labor Must have high quality produce Producer captures more of the consumer dollar gt It s spring time l IIu k MEI y quot r 7 39 quot39339 n A Fquot 7 A OPERATION Greenhouse A structure with a transparent covering that is used for growing plants under controllable environmental conditions The Environment The Environment Temperature Nutrients Light 002 Water Growing Medium 233 MERCER BTREEY NEW YORK CURVJLINEAR PALM HOUSE memes a m INTERIO or SEN Conservatories mW Arched Frame or Quonset lazing Polyethylene Film Shortterm use Inexpensive Lightweight Additives crackresistant anti static UV amp condensation inhibitors Rigid Plastic Polycarbonate Du r39abje Long Lasting Ex ensiv e e C n e B Tmpratu re g Average day time temperature 65 70 degrees Average night time temperature 55 60 degrees