Bio 102 Unit 3 Week 1 Notes (Free Preview)
Bio 102 Unit 3 Week 1 Notes (Free Preview) Bio 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by l_welden on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Bio 102 Unit 3 Week 1 Notes I. What is Ecology? 1. Ecology often begins with an observation 2. Population: group of organisms of same species living in the same geographical location 3. Ecology is: multidisciplinary science (Biology, Geography, and Meteorology, Mathematics) 4. Ecology is meshed with and influenced by: Genetics, Behavior and Physiology, and Evolution II. Nomenclature of Data: Variables 1. Independent variable: variable that stands alone and is not influenced by other variables (IV) 2. Dependent variable: depends on other factors (usually Independent Variable) (DV) 3. IV causes change in DV (usually) 4. Hypothesis Testing: If your hypothesis is not supported you accept the null hypothesis 5. Correlation does not mean or prove causation III. Observational/Discovery Science 1. Most experiments begin with an observation 2. Makes guesses about observations to form a testable hypothesis IV. Brood Parasitism 1. Bird steals eggs from a nest and put own eggs in instead 2. Ex. Cuckoo Bird 3. Could accidently throw out own child --- fixes with increasing egg design complexities to solve this problem 4. Parasitism rates are variable so actual relationship is more complex--- some birds are pickier than others (Social calls---alerts that a cuckoo is in the area) V. Levels of Ecology 1. Individual level: how an individual organism fares in his environment and interacts with it 2. Population level: how a group of individuals in the same species live and interact in the same region (ex. Pack of wolves) 3. Community: interacting populations of different species (ex. Tick infects moose) 4. Ecosystem: species interacting with other species and environment (ex. Moose eat trees and change landscape for other animals) 5. Biome: equivalent ecosystems throughout the world (ex. Rainforest) 6. Biosphere: all biomes together (essentially entire planet) Note: “Isle Royale, Canada” – track wolves and moose for many years to understand dynamic fluctuations between these populations VI. Population Ecology A. Distribution pattern 1. Distribution of organisms amongst a region important to study 2. Some distribution is random – max access to resources 3. Clumped distribution – protection and can get food easier (move around and hunt) 4. Uniform Distribution: Individuals max space by being uniformly spaced – results from territorial behavior (seen in large brooding colonies) B. Population Growth 1. Difference between the birth rate and the death rate 2. Influenced by: i. Immigration: movement of individuals into a population ii. Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population iii. Exponential Growth: unrestricted growth of a pop. At a constant growth rate iv. Logistical growth a. Starts off fast and then levels off b. Environmental factors will limit an organism’s ability to reproduce c. Ex. Access to habitat—physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted d. Liebig’s Barrel/ Law of the minimum: Growth rate is limited by a single limiting resource v. Population Growth: a. Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of individuals an environment can support given available resources b. Influenced by: annual reproduction, weather, human development, loss of habitat, old age, starvation and accidents, predators/prey, death rates, disease, climate change c. Size may fluctuate: 1. Boom or bust due to above infuences 2. Anything that affects the size of a population can have a substantial effect on them d. Population Health a. Ecologists use a variety of data to monitor the health of populations (scat, bones, urine, etc.) …) e. Population Density: a. Density-dependent – (depends on size of population) ex. predation b. Density-independent – ex. weather VII. Community Ecology – interacting populations of different species in a certain area A. Herbivore exclosures : 1. Long-term impacts of deer browsing 2. Changes for forest composition 3. Lower productivity/Diversity (outside exsclosures) B. Ecosystem Engineer: an organism that either directly or indirectly shapes its habitat significantly (deer, beaver, etc. direct, wolves indirect) C. Role of Bees a. Pollinators/associated with evolution of flowering plants b. Pollination—dependent of insect pollination (75%) c. Keystone species: species on which other species depend on; hold community together---if they are left out, system collapses d. Flowering Plants: i. Male: stamen --- stem-like filament topped with pollen saturated anther ii. Female: pistil: sticky landing pad, then goes to ovary and becomes an embryo containing a seed, surrounding ovary becomes a fruit D. Food Chains: linked sequences of feeding relationships a. Producers b. Herbivores c. Predators d. Higher up on the food chain needs to eat more because they get less calories e. Trophic Energy Flow/Cycling of Nutrients E. Symbiotic Relationships 1. Parasitism: (+/-) symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits at the expense of the other (ex. Varmoa mite) a. In human host, the parasites form tissue cysts, most likely in skeletal muscles, myocardium, brain, and eyes---may last throughout life of host b. Mind Control: Mice affected with low virulence strains of Toxoplasma gondii lose aversion to cat urine 2. Mutualism: (+/+) symbiotic relationship in which both members benefit a. Ex. Lichen – algae or cyanobacteria live among filaments of a fungus b. Obese organisms and lean organisms have different gut microbacteria---different flora in intestines can influence weight (ex. Clostridium difficile) Commensalism : (+/0) symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and one is unharme