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Introduction to Civil Engineering

by: Savanna Cruickshank

Introduction to Civil Engineering CE 115

Marketplace > University of Idaho > Civil Engineering > CE 115 > Introduction to Civil Engineering
Savanna Cruickshank
GPA 3.54


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savanna Cruickshank on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CE 115 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/227779/ce-115-university-of-idaho in Civil Engineering at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
CE 115 Introduction to Civil Engineering Graphics and Data Presentation Application in CE Materials Dr Fouad M Bayomy PE Professor of Civil Engineering University of Idaho Moscow ID 83 8441022 Graphics and Data Presentation Application in CE Materials Objective The objective of this module is to introduce the basics of data presentation using MSExcel Some prior knowledge of MSExcel spreadsheet software is required Why Do Engineers Need to Present Data A Picture is better than a thousand words it is that simple Let me take an engineering example where a CE material engineer may need to understand the effect of age on the increase of strength of Portland cement concrete PCC mixtures All of us know that when you pour concrete to build a driveway you will have to block the driveway until you make sure that the concrete of the driveway has gained sufficient strength to support vehicles Let us investigate the gain of strength with time The following table Table 1 shows strength data for a PCC mix Table 1 Gain of Strength with Looking at the numbers in Table 1 one can see that ime strength does 1ncrease w1th t1me But that 1s all To understand better the rate of strength increase and the Tclere rtehsswsei critical times that may have more profound effect on 1 y 6 9 39 p strength it would be better to plot the data to be able to 3 137 4 visualize the information The following graph Figure 1 7 21 1 1 shows same information on a graphical form 14 2642 28 3022 5000 56 3256 1333 quot 84 3342 3500 ii 112 3387 E1 3000 W 140 3415 g 3383 180 3439 2 1500 f 200 3448 E 1000 7 500 W 0 1 1 1 0 50 100 150 200 Tim e day Figure 1 Gain of Compressive Strength with Time From the graph an engineer can predict that after about 90 days the concrete does not gain as much strength as it does in the first three weeks Ifthe vehicles operating on the driveway will impose stresses about 2500 psi then the engineer may recommend that at least the driveway shall blocked to traffic until at least lOdays to allow the concrete to gain such level of minimum required strength This simple example signifies the importance of presenting the data in a graphical form While the table and the graph represent the same data the graph makes it more Visual and allows the engineer to Visually interpolate between the tabulated values Types of Graphs There are several types of graphs that engineers use for data presentation The following is a list of most common forms List other graph found in the Excel Chart option next to empty bullets Bar Column graphs Line graphs X y plots 3D effects Bar l Column Plots In Excel create the data table as shown in Figure 2 Steps 1 Open the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software 2 In columns A and B insert the data entry in columns A and B as shown in Figure 2 3 Select the data range by highlighting the range A1 B7 as shown in Figure 3 4 With range selected click on the chart wizard icon or by selecting the chart fro the Insert menu 5 Follow the windows instructions to create a column chart as shown in Figure 4 What is missing in the table and chart shown in Figure 4 Now try to present the data in another graphical form After spending some time trying to present the data in Figure 2 in other forms answer the following questions Q What are other types of charts that you can use to present the data A Q Can you use the Xy scatter plot to present the data in Figure 2 Yes or No Why A Mauser Excel Buol 33953 Eile Edit Eiew insert Fglmat luols Qata window elp lll u m A um 0 a m n1 rug 01mmquot l l tl li g v mlvil lxllli G a B jl I 7U A I B C I D I E I F LMixType Strength LA 3500 lg 5300 it 5000 it 4500 LE 2000 T I B Figure 2 Strength Data in an Excel sheet Ma39osoft Excel Baal SE Eile Edit Eiew insert Fgrmat luals Qata window e ll39gil l all at lllln39 llil lE J d I10 j lll Hi QJIAII A39 uv wvl MHIU 3xlll cgt GllE A1 I Mi Type c D E Figure 3 Selecting the Data Range Ml SHE gull yew lnsell Fglmal Tools gale Wwouw ew amp179 0 nm2fu lnnz A 1 A a l o151 W 11 thhl H A heul AlalclnlElFlGlHlllJ MlXTypE Sherlng A 35mm 3 53mm 0 5mm Sum o D 45m u E 28mm m Mur type 7n rigummar clumurvhenamnnangausm XY Plats Th l H tholataauu For example the rhorease ofstrength wrth tune as presehteol uh Flgure l ls ah XY plot The rhorease of a p H l th w r l l ll wrth the weather temperature In the Example ofFlgure 2 the strength ofeach le ls totally molepeholeht of other rhures Thus the bar or oolurhh graph was useolto oleprotthe varlous ltu u tulattl Thu th M td wt olepehol on the orolerwhere to replaoe the le name on the X axls nor the value The Excel ll 615th35an u u l whetheryou oall rt A or any thrhg else rt wlll hot affectthe plot you get Let us now work wrth the example that was presehteol uh Flgure l y r r L 4 A2B14 l r L Lul Table l m r lumu quotAR Fl m ll bth Chartwlzard Tlme Icon relauohshrp as shown m Flgure 5 The plot shown is done using linear scale on both x and y axes Sometimes this form may not be convenient since the change of strength is so rapid in the early days To expand that period we may choose to use Log scale on the x axis instead This will allow us to atten the curve in the early days as shown in Figure 6 533 gm yew 1m ngmal 1cm gala wmuw slp 5 1 343mme a o m Herm Dawn euwiggggzav m ultlulElAlil 1 1 4 ladVal i lDlElFlGlHlllJlKl runway Cumpvzssw L 5quotquot9 415 cammesswesvenmmsi i 543 i 4374 L 7 2444 i 14 254 a i 23 any mm L as 3256 sun 1 3342 gm 9 442 3397 5 E 440 3445 25 11 150 3439 2 200 3443 15m 3m 3475 mun 355 3434 u Sn mu 4m 2m 25m 3m 35m 4m mde 71444 kmklikmkr krill 11 L t n DuublEcllck chart in m M l 131mm PegasusMau WMlcvusuanv XMlnmsu Exquot untmeuwamt MEEEQQ Figure 5 XY Plot for StrengthTime Results gs L44 Mew lnsevl ngmal 1m Data mm new 421211 D H amp 1 l lllliiinlmlzl lh lg mm gavel 1 3 r 2 nlzlglelA l 1l IfaEl l ml 43 mil lWHWH1luomcsl1x1 4 ultilnlsal lrtzlalull mz j illAlBllDlElFlGlHlllJlKl rm 44y nnmpwm Shena h FS Campvesswe Sivenglh Psi El 3 1374 7 2111 M 2542 28 3El22 SE 3253 E4 3342 g 112 3387 E MEI 3415 E an 3439 i ZUU 3448 3UE 3475 335 3484 1 m mu mm mm W Qt Duublerchck than in Edll l l 315ml pegasusmau WM EVDSDHWDY unuueuwami l Figure 6 XY Plot of the StrengthTime Results semilog plot Data Fitting and Regression Analysis With XY plots we can t and model physical or mechanical behavior as represented by the data by a mathematical equation Fitting a function to empirical data results in aregression model or regression equation This helps engineers to determine experimentally material properties that describe certain phenomenon of material behavior The following example is for modeling the creep behavior of an engineering materi m is a very slow process in which a material continues to deform with time under constant stress Creep deformation is timedependent The equation that represents the progress of creep deformation EC with time of loading t can be written in the form ac octli 1 Where 06 and B are the parameters of the equation This is known as a power function Once the engineer determines the parameters for a given material he can predict the creep deformation at any time The data in columns A and Bin the Excel sheet shown in Figure 7 are obtained from a creep test performed on a polymer material The deformation is represented in creep strain deformation per unit length mmmm The chart in Figure 7 shows the relationship on alinear scale The gure shows the creep deformation progress is fast at initial times and slows down until it reaches a steady state development Data mm 92in 431251 D 5 Egg vi xi l l llelolvl miml zl mlal mm gavel v l lllulelAl aslxMtnsiwrl ml 415 755 lmvlhllwlltrNu ohial 1 Diul i zi i ial li haul Li l iAiaiciDiEiFiGiHiliJiKiL Time 0525 1 Sec Demymanun U U U Cveep Datamater i AUUEI 5 592 in 555m 2 an 5552 5mm 5m 7392 5 121 9212 5 mm E717 E155 3m 9411 2 5mm im 2 E mm mm 12313 a 35mm 13552 3 35mm 19299 a 5mm 95mm 22uu5 5 u 2uuuu mum suuuu auuuu iuuuuu mum 7 7 i1 fa gti Wham Duublerchck cm in m H mun mpegasus MMicmsu xmmmumm2m Figure 7 Creep Deformation with Time The data can be represented on a loglog scale in which the power relationship is transformed to a linear relationship by taking the logarithms of both sides of the equation In this case Equation 1 can be written in the form Log SEL0gOL BLog t 2 n r A I M i 39 39 39 emi 5 where at is determined from the intercept ofthe yaxis at t1 and B is the slope ofthat linear relation on loglog scale chart as shown in Fi From the shown ned data it is found that the creep parameters for this material are at 400 rummm 5015 in Elle Edll Mew lnsell Fglmal laals Mndaw Help DEquot aeav W l l l nml zlnlleEl AQQQK M El ll r ltrilquotil ml oil quotmlvl ilnlzlu DlA lA ltilvllullelvl ll olNlcsllM nlmlulialiailrtilglull Axlsl ll l AlalchlElFlGlHlIlJlKlL Tlme CYEEp 1 Sec Delulmallun U U U Cveep Delmrllallun l AUUEI 5 snaz lEI 555m 2 an 5552 E 5m 7392 i lZEI Eznz E lEEI E717 5 3mm 94M 3 menu Bun lu442 g lEEIEI 12313 g 35mm 13552 e 35mm lBZBE a 85mm 22nn5 5 l in me mun luuuu lEIEIEIEIEI nme5ee n 7 l ll le eell Ready ll amen peeesesllall WMlElDSD WDr ngerx umltledrPalm liming Figure 8 Creep Deformation with Time s emiLog Assignment Complete this assignment and submit as instructed Purpose Problem Data Required Hints Questions Synthesizing how to use graphics to support your engineering decisions A civil engineering material engineer designed a concrete mix to be used in a oor of an industrial store house where heavy machinery is to be transported Due to the expected heavy loads the engineer decided to modify the concrete mixture by adding steel bers to it One of the main challenges to design the mix was to determine how much steel ber should be added to achieve the required increased strength without detrimental effect on the mix too much may reduce strength Therefore a laboratory program was established to test mixes with different steel ber contents to answer this question Results are listed below Compressive Strength of Concrete Mixes PSI Present the data in a suitable format so that you are able to reach an engineering decision on how much steel ber you should add if the minimum required 28day strength is 5000 psi Compare the 28day strength of all mixes How does the time affect the increase in strength of these different mixes To answer the main question plot the 28day strength versus steel ber content for all mixes To determine the effect of time plot the strength versus time for all mixes Contact Dr Fouad Bayomy BEL 131


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