Conservation Management and Planning II
Conservation Management and Planning II CSS 386
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Water Rm on Opportunity Spectrum Users Guidebook N July 2004 ummmmuuulm mumm Frequently Asked Questions N Will WROS help managers and local government officials n1ake better decisions Yes WROS is a framework and procedure to help make better decisions and it can be used by agency planners and managers county planning commissions city councils and stakeholder groups It is not intended to make decisions or to take the place of sound professional judgment It is intended to help yield decisions that are principled reasoned systematic deliberate trackable and legally defensible N Does WROS give n1anagers exibility WROS is exible WROS recognizes that there will be special circumstances and situations in which exibility and adaptation is necessary There may be instances where the mapping criteria or certain standards will not work That is acceptable On the other hand maintaining the integrity of WROS as a professional tool is very important Changes and adaptations to WROS should be made only with reasonable care and clear justification LN Will WROS constrain reservoir operations WROS will not constrain any resource use purpose or public or private priorities ofwater resources but rather will help to optimize the net public benefits for reservoir operations It is a tool that helps to integrate recreation considerations into complex water use allocation decisions and helps to recognize and assess the tradeoffs and consequences ofproposed alternatives r Will water drawdown or flows affect WROS Water drawdown and flows can affect the type and amount of recreation opportunities on a water resource and the WROS classification For example the water surface acres classified as rural naturalquot in early spring high water level may change to rural developedquot in the late summer For many reservoirs it would be useful to have two or more WROS maps eg early middle and late season to help understand change in recreation opportunities The reservoir drawdown effect on WROS should not be viewed as a constraint or limitation but rather as one of many factors that contributes to the diversity of WROS 5 Can WROS change by season Yes WROS can change by season Features such as ice snow road closures wildlife migration and special activity seasons eg waterfowl hunting can affect WROS For many water bodies there is considerable change and difference from season to season or even within a season Having a WROS map for each of the primary seasons ofinterest would help to understand the recreation situation Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum xi xii l 0 Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum How does WROS help protect important natural and cultural resources Early in the mapping of the WROS classifications areas of known or suspected important natural and cultural resources are identi ed These areas are provided special deliberation in terms of the types and amounts if any of recreation opportunities that may be appropriate Special management and mitigation measures along with heightened monitoring may be required It is important to understand that the loss of an important natural or cultural resource is also in effect the loss ofa recreation opportunity It is the loss of an opportunity to experience and enjoy these very special or unique features Can the public understand WROS The public can understand that there is a range or spectrum of recreation settings from urban cities to remote primitive settings Most can also relate to participating in a favorite activity in a specific setting and being rewarded with a memorable experience Perhaps most importantly water resources can be mapped with the six WROS classifications providing a very effective visual presentation for public review and discussion or a visitor information tool at a boat ramp On the other hand WROS is a tool for agency professionals and there may be situations where the WROS class names eg primitive may not be understood by the general visiting public How does WROS relate to tourism While academic distinctions label people fishing in streams next to their homes as recreationists and people who travel 50 miles or more as tourists these distinctions serve little purpose in the WROS system Tourists pursuing outdoor recreation opportunities are recreationists and in this guidebook the words are used interchangeably Thus WROS is in effect a water based tourism opportunity spectrum system Can recreationists and tourists use WROS Yes WROS can provide an informative map for the public indicating the supply of available recreation opportunities in an area A major problem in managing public lands and waters is that recreationists and tourists do not have adequate visitor information and are not aware ofwhat recreation opportunities are available and where While many maps show facilities and transportation few convey the type of experience available or how the area is being managed Often a visitor capacity problem is really a visitor distribution problem caused by the visitor s lack of awareness of alternative locations and times to visit WROS can help to show the diversity of water recreation opportunities for a single water resource or better still for a large region or watershed 10 Can a WROS classification be subdivided into subclasses or zones WROS reflects a national spectrum of opportunities from urban cities to remote primitive areas Each of the six classifications can be viewed as a small spectrum within a larger national spectrum There may be situations where it is advantageous to subdivide one of the WROS classifications to more effectively deal with a particular field situation Division ofa WROS class is acceptable as long as the new subclass or zone is compatible with the overall WROS How does WROS dead with exceptions or unique field situations WROS recognizes that it is not practical or desirable for a national system to try to address every field situation WROS is not intended to replace sound professional judgment and reasonable decisions On the other hand WROS provides a framework for analyzing special situations and for making good decisions It would be advisable to document the circumstances and rationale used in the administrative record How does WROS interface with sitelevel planning WROS is a landscape level tool that applies to water resources WROS provides guidance for the entire spectrum of opportunities in its management guidelines yet recognizes that another planning level might be necessary to make site specific decisions about the type location design or appropriateness offacilities or actions Site design plans interpretive plans monitoring plans and engineering and architectural plans can tier off WROS and provide the necessary detail How does WROS accommodate special areas or management units WROS is a landscape level tool that applies to large water resources yet recognizes and accommodates special circumstances at the site level There will be instances where areas within a WROS zone will need additional site specific management direction to accommodate the special needs circumstances or opportunities associated with the area WROS encourages managers to tier downquot and provide additional management direction Examples of such special areas or management units include I Security areas I Con ict mitigation areas I Wildlife protection areas I Overnight areas I No wake zones I Administrative sites I Seasonal resource closures I Destination areas I No motor zones I Cultural resource areas I Special recreation use areas I Hazard areas I Travel corridors I Recreation day use areas Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum xiii 14 Does WROS require a special planning process WROS does not require a special planning process By analogy if the main stem ofa tree is considered the agency planning process WROS is part of the recreation branch that brings recreation information into the main stem WROS is a tool that helps to integrate recreation considerations into a larger comprehensive planning effort Where rnu1np1e uses and allocation decisions are necessary Alt ough the Bureau of Reclamation has taken the lead in developing WROS the system has been designed to interface with any local State or Federal agency planning process JI Can WROS help make daily management decisions Yes WROS can Some recreation Meg Such 55 help make daily management decisions The WROS ma representing quot9 are VW 59550 the desired recreation opportunities or the preferred alternative can help remind managers of the appropriate activities setting attributes and experiences for each WRO zone Invariably there are requests and appeals for special exceptions that may not be appropriate for a specific time or location An understanding ofWROS can hel managers make better decisions and can provide a logical and defensible explanation for the decision Furthermore the management guidelines are very useful for daily or annual operation and maintenance activities budget planning and justification assigning volunteer work crews responding to media and local tourism boards dealing with visitor capacity and conflict issues and mitigating unforeseen impacts 0 How does WROS help justify budgets and personnel A key component ofWROS is a set ofmanagement guidelines for many of the components requiring time or effort eg budget and personnel For example the maintenance and patrol standards wi l 39 er between a semi primitive and a rural developed WROS class While many of the guidelines are ofa qualitative nature continuing research and professional experience with WROS will help in developing more quantitative standards that can be more easily expressed as cost items in a budget or personnel request What if Current Conditions are not Consistent With the WROS uidelines WROS helps to determine where inconsistencies might exist that is locations or situations where the current conditions are not consistent with the WROS management guidelines Inconsistencies are often found in the initial application ofWR to an area and over a number ofyears they would be expected to decline as management makes adjustments Inconsistencies can be mapped and prioritized on a scale of xiv Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum negligible minor moderate or major consequence WROS does not obligate and direct any action but rather helps to identify the type and location ofinconsistencies and helps to mitigate them over time What size river stream inlet or other Water resource is practical for WROS WROS can be applied to any water resource although its practicality on very small areas should be limited Use ofWROS would be justified when the planning area has Watetttelated recreation use that is a value to the public The water resources are a dominant natural resource feature or water management is a significant public issue management concern or future opportunity Sound professional judgmentis the standard to make this decision Should WROS be used on streams and rivers above and below a lake or reservoir Recreationists visit a geographic area called a visitation range analogous to an animal s home range or a river s watershed From their overnight locations visitors take short excursions to experience different locations throughout the visitation range For example a family might camp for several days at a full service State park campground on a large lake but also spend one day fishing10 miles downstream and another day hiking upstream into the headwaters to visit a popular vista Thus a recreation management decision in one location may affect the quality or nature of the recreation opportunity in another location within the visitation range The answer to this question is answered by another question What is the visitation range for the most of the recreationists and tourists visiting the area Of course the final decision must also consider other factors such as the practicality of the size of the study area and the number o other agencies that would need to collaborate How does WROS blend With ROS ROS Recreation Opportunity Spectrum was developed for land areas managed by the United States Forest Service and Bureau ofLand Management WROS builds upon ROS an provides more detailed guidance for water resources such as lakes reservoirs rivers coastal zones bays estuaries inlets and marine protected areas d use a similar type and number of classifications or zones names mapping criteria descriptions of recreation experiences and steps In cases where large land areas eg wilderness and national forest are adjacent to the water resources under consideration ROS can be used and blended with the WROS classes In Fishing is a recreational activity possibie in virtually all areas Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum xv xvi Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum cases Where the planning area contains a relatively small terrestrial area and the primary visitation is Water based recreation WROS can be used for the land and Water resources How does WROS interface with ROS in dealing with streams rivers and wetlands ROS was developed for large terrestrial landscapes and provides a small amount of management direction for some Water resources eg Wild and scenic rivers WROS is a logical extension of ROS and has greatly expanded the Water recreation management guidelines A reasonable rule of thumb is that if the stream river or other Water resource is incidental to the primary recreation opportunities in the planning area ROS may be the preferred tool Conversely WROS may be the preferred tool where the water recreation opportunities are significant not incidental distinct from adjacent land based recreation and highly valued by the visitors and local communities Can WROS be applied to water resources in other countries and international protected areas Yes WROS is a tool with universal appeal Its overarching goal is to provide planners and managers with a framework and procedure for making better decisions for conserving a spectrum of high quality and diverse Water recreation opportunities WROS improves our understanding of the complexity of outdoor recreation and tourism judgment and enables a manager to make better and more defensible decisions rrpnarhpn sound 1 For example many international protected areas have significant marine coastal zone reef lake and river resources These areas are very popular for tourists and adventure travelers and can be both a bane and blessing for a local community and a nation s welfare The management challenges and opportunities associated with visitors to the world s protected areas be they called recreationists or tourists are basically the same The underlying foundation and strategy employed by WROS to conserve Water resources and recreation opportunities have universal application They also have the exibility and adaptability for managers to tailor parts ofWROS eg some terms pictures descriptions standards to more closely reflect their local social cultural and environmental situation A special note of thanks goes to all the staff and outdoor enthusiasts who spent time with the team testing and re ning WROS at lake Cumberland Kentucky Allegheny Reservoir Pennsylvania lake Rathbun Iowa Iake Sakakawea North Dakota Clark Canyon Reservoir Montana Iake Amis tad Texas Salt River Project Arizona Iake Havasu ArizonaNevada New Melones Reservoir California Millerton Reservoir California Iake Berryessa California San Luis Reservoir California Iake Texoma OklahomaTexas Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum WROS Users Guidebook Prepared by Dr RobertAukerman and Dr Glenn Haas Aukerman Haas and Associates LLC in cooperation with Mr Vernon Lovejoy and Mr Darrell Welch United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Guidebook Citation Haas G Aukerman R Lovejoy V and Welch D Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum VVROS Users Guidebook United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Office of Program and Policy Services Denver Federal Center Lakewood Colorado July 2004 WROS is designed to be dynamic and adaptive As WROS is applied by more people agencies and in different locations and circumstances we will collectively learn from experience and be able to improve WROS Your comments questions and suggestions are encouraged The author39s contact information is provided in Appendix B This guidebook is also intended to be dynamic reflecting the input from professionals and stakeholders over time The most recent version of this guidebook including a listing of those sections where improvements have been made will be maintained on Reclamation s website httpwwwusbr gov Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum iii Contents iv N What are you Thinking vii Executive Sumn1ary viii Frequently Asked Questions xi Acknowledgments xvii Chapter 1 Introduction 1 The Foundation of WROS 3 The average visitor does not exist 3 Don39t try to be all things to all people 3 Managers provide recreation opportunities 4 A seamless system of Water recreation opportunities 5 An Overview of WROS 5 The goal of WROS 5 The WROS classifications 5 The planning and management value ofWROS 22 Design Criteria Used in Developing WROS 23 The Standard for WROS Decision Making 23 Sound professional judgment 24 Preponderance of the evidence 24 Rule of reasonableness 25 Sliding scale rule of analysis 25 Scale of degree 27 Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 29 Defining the Scope 30 Develop a comprehensive base map 30 Define the geographic location or planning area for the 31 WROS inventory Decide the level of resolution or appropriate scale of the 31 base map Decide the time period for applying WROS 32 Decide if WROS Will be used in a resource management 32 planning process Determine the effective WROS area under consideration 32 Identify other important planning consideration that Will 33 affect WROS Develop a basic profile of the planning area 33 Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum The WROS Inventory Attributes and Protocol Mapping the Current Supply of Recreation Opportunities Delineation of Current Overall WROS Class Inconsistency Mitigation 4O 44 48 Chapter 3 WROS Planning Scoping Planning Criteria Inventorying Formulating Alternatives Evaluating Alternatives Implementing and Monitoring Evaluating and Adapting Chapter 4 WROS Management Management Guidelines Boating Capacity Reasonable Recreation Boating Capacity Coefficients Appendices A Glossary of Key Terms B A Directory of Related Systems and Sources of Information Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum v List of Figures vi H DJ 4 O 2 H 2 N 23 m A 2 Ll Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum N A Recreation Opportunity The Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum A Generalized Representation of Recreation Activities by WROS Class Examples of Recreation Setting Attributes A Generalized Description of Recreation Settings by WROS Class Examples of Recreation Experiences Across WROS A Generalized Description of Recreation Experiences by WROS Class Examples of Recreation Benefits Three Levels of WROS Analysis The Scale of Degree used in WROS An Example ofa Basic Water Resource Profile Tool The WROS Inventory Protocol WROS Physical Inventory WROS Social Inventory WROS Management Inventory A Tool for Displaying the Setting Attribute Ratings and Overall WROS Classification A WROS Inconsistency Resolution Tool A Recreation Demand Measurement Matrix Measuring Recreation Demand Involves Different Types of Tools A Comparison of Reservoirs Based on the Estimated Percent of Water Surface Acres by WROS Class An Example Evaluation Matrix for Comparing Management Alternatives Using WROS A Bar Graph Comparison of Four Alternatives Based on the Percent of Water Surface Acres for each WROS Class An Example of Using WROS to Compare Alternatives A Range of Reasonable Boating Capacity Coefficients A Boating Capacity Range Decision Tool 4 What are You Thinkin N Short Cuts to Use the WROS Users Guidebook I don39t want to read this Whole thing give me the short version go to the Executive Summary I don39t understand how this thing is organized refer to the Contents page I am not familiar with WROS but need to be read this Users39 Guidebook These terms are confusing to me go to the Glossary of Key Terms in Appendix A I am familiar with WROS but have lots of questions go to the Frequently Asked Questions FAQs I need some examples of recreation opportunities read Chapter 1 I want to do a plan for my area Where do I start go to Chapters 2 and 3 I don39t want to make a plan but need advice on how to handle a management issue I have in a particular area go to the Management Guidelines section in Chapter 4 My big problem is the number of boats on my lake go to the Boating Capacity section in Chapter 4 There is a lot of good information here Where can I nd more go to the list ofinformation sources in Appendix B Who can I talk to about this stuff the author s contact information is in Appendix B Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum vii 1 1 Introduction Special facilities Below reasonable access is an l mporlanl lSSue 2 Chapter 1 Introduction Above some visitors need N The outdoor recreation profession has become much more sophisticated in the 41 years since the government s first comprehensive assessment in 1962 entitled the Outdanr Rerreafinn Remarres Review Cmmnissinn Wter is a fatal paint nfnatrlnnr rerrealinn Urban nr rural water 39 et Wberever tbey live people sbnw a strung argefnr water nrienteil rerrealinn are many ntber reamns purposes fur water remarre prngrams and rerrealinn me nften is inrirlental and unplanned Tn say ibis bumever is in nnte 190w great are tbe nppartanities isama Today the Bureau ofReclamation Reclamation recognizes that water recreation management is no longer a matter of simply building a boat ramp dock parking area and restroom Water recreation managementinvolves a thorough understanding of the water resource and its capability current and future visitors the type of experiences sought regional recreation demand and supply resour e manage aluation visitor capacity and other dimensions ment planning economic and nonreconomi39c The Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum WROS is a tool that planners and managers can use to make better decisions It is modeled after t e Recreation Opportunity Spectrum ROS system yet tailored to water resources such as reservoirs lakes rivers bays estuaries wetlands coastal zones and marine protected areas This guidebook provides operational guidance on how to implement WROS in inventorying planning and managing recreation opportunities on and adjacent to water resources It is intended to e adaptive given changing public recreation use new information from monitoring or science and the practical field experience gained by its application This guidebook contains four chapters Cbapter 1 Intrndarlinn provides important background information on the system Cbapter 2 LVROS Inventm39y describes the procedural steps to map the current water recreation opportunities that an area is providing and identifies inconsistencies Where appropriate Cbapter 3 IVROS Planning ment action might be W on can interface with a resource overviews how ROS inventory informau managementplanning process And Cbapter 4 IVROS Management provides a set ofmanagementguidelines for Iecreadonrrelated elements in each oft e WROS classes The appendix contains important supporting information and references to other sources ofinformation The Foundation of WROS Several popular concepts in the outdoor recreation profession serve as the foundation for WROS The average Visitor does not exist Recreation science has revealed the great diversity in what outdoor recreationists desire for a recreation experience expect upon arriving at a recreation site and perceive and enjoy while recreating Not only is there diversity among different recreation activity participants such as boaters anglers and campers but there is also diversity among participants in each of these activities For example the recreation experience of sailing on a ZOOracre urban reservoir for a few hours is certainly different from that of sailing on a Sormile long rural reservoir for several days In much the same way as consumers can be segmented into groups by retailers based on some shared buying preferences outdoor recreationists can be segmented into groups based on the recreation experiences they desire Recreationists also differ in other characteristics such as their place of residence travel distance recreational equipment socioeconomic situation racial an ethnic background education and knowledge of available opportunities The implication is that to plan and manage for a mythical average user is not appropriate because such diversity o t e public interested in water resources The conservation of recreation diversity is a fundamental purpose of the WROS system an approach will leave out or not accommodate the Don t try to be all things to all people A specific lake reservoir or other body ofwater is a single resource within a regional and national system of water recreation opportunities Each water resource can have special capabilities and opportunities to make an important contribution to the integrity of the larger system Any individual lake river or reservoir cannot e all things to all peop e Therefore managers musti enti the recreational role or niche of the water resource within the context of local regional and in some cases national interests The implication is that it is not practical to plan and manage each water resource so that it provides all opportunities for all visitors Each water resource should serve aparticular recreational role or fill a niche within a larger Do t try to be all tbz39 gs to allpeople A specz c lake reservoir or other body of water is a sz39 gle resource uitbz39 a regio al ami atz39o al system of water recreatio opportum39tz39es leferent boats have dlfferent fequ meme Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Managers provide opportunities for visitors to participate in a type of recreation activity in a specific setting which is defined by its important physical social and management attributes to realize a particular type of experience and subsequent benefits system of diverse Water recreation opportunities The conservation of recreation diversity across a larger system Will bene t the public and increase management effectiveness and efficiency for each specific Water resource Managers provide recreation opportunities The concept of recreation continues to evolve Four decades ago recreation Was viewed principally as an activity such as boating or skiing However in the 1970s recreation science determined that recreationists are motivated by seeking a particular type of recreation experience and that a recreation activity is a means to an experiential end It also determined that the conditions of the resource and how the recreation setting is managed can influence the kind of experience a person is likely to have In the 1990s recreation science further determined that recreation experiences lead to benefits for individuals families and communities and provide benefits to the economy and the environment Today it is professionally accepted that recreation managers provide recreation opportunities That is managers provide opportunities for visitors to participate in a type of recreation activity in a specific setting Which is defined by its important physical social and management attributes to realize a particular type of experience and subsequent benefits Figure 1 depicts the key components of a recreation opportunity and how they are linked to one another Figure l A Recreation Opportunity Recreation Activity Setting anJerience gtgtgt Benefits many activities physical attributes many dimensions individual managerial attributes multiple senses community social attributes economic environmental Managers Manage Recreationists Society Consume Gains 4 Chapter 1 Introduction As conveyed in figure 1 managers manage recreation activities and settings so that recreationists can consume a high quality safe and enjoyable recreation experience Managers have the ability to change the activities and settings in an area to enhance the visitor s experience and maximize public benefits The activities and setting attributes are the inputs and the outputs are the experiences and subsequent benefits A seamless system of water recreation opportunities The American public is much more interested in enjoying high quality recreation opportunities than in understanding the names and missions of each local State and Federal agency that manages water resources While public respect and understanding for an agency mission is desired and important agencies should also strive to collaborate and contribute to the conservation ofa larger system or network of water recreation opportunities The implication is that planning and managing for a seamless system of water recreation opportunities requires a set of recreation terms concepts and tools that is understood by all water recreation providers This does not suggest that agencies need to change or replace existing approaches to planning or managing water recreation but this does recognize the advantage of also employing a shared or common system ie terms concepts and tools to inventory plan and manage water recreation opportunities across agency jurisdictions WROS is intended to be such an interagency tool for the conservation of recreation diversity and for ensuring a seamless delivery system of opportunities An Overview of WROS This section provides an overview of the important aspects of the WROS system The goal of WROS As indicated in the preceding section there is diversity among recreationists water resource settings and the agencies that manage these resources This diversity is good and should be conserved Likewise recreation managers recognize that each specific water resource eg lake river reservoir bay has a niche and contributes to a larger system of diverse recreation opportunities Thus the overarching goal ofIVROS ix to provide plannerx and managerx with a framework and procedure for making better decixionx for conxerzing a xpectrum of high quality and diverxe water recreation opportunitiex The WROS classifications WROS is a spectrum of siX classifications of water recreation opportunities that is siX integrated packages containing appropriate activities settings experiences and benefits for each WROS class Figure 2 identifies the classifications and the components ofa recreation opportunity The implication ix that planning and managing for a xeamlexx xyxtem of water recreation opportunitiex requirex a xet of recreation termx conceptx and toolx that ix anderxtood by all water recreation providerx IVROS ix a xpectram of xix claxxificationx of water recreation opportunitiex that ix xix integrated packagex containing appropriate activitiex xettingx experiencex and henefitx for each WROS claxx Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Figure 2 The Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum A Spectrum of Six WROS Classi cations Rural Rural Semi Urban suburban Developed Natural Primitive anmve 4 Integrated Packages gt Recreation B ene ts Recreatim39l activities are the leisure pursuits most commonly understood and referred to in the literature There are hundreds of examples of recreation activities and the list continues to grow because of new technology and changing public interests Of course not all activities can be provided in the same location an a manager must decide which activities are appropriate for an area WROS helps managers decide the appropriateness ofvarious recreation activities by offering a general illustration of those that may be appropriate in each WROS class See ure 3 It is important to note that figure 3 illustrates the general framework ofWROS There will be situations where a particular activity may or may not be appropriate Sound professional judgment and due consideration ofthe local situation is needed to decide what are appropriate recreation activities Levi Wiiotite contribute to a Vigitora expenen Right dramatic and expansive VieWS are attractive to oeopie 6 Chapter 1 Introduction Figure 3 A Generalized Representation of Recreation Activities by WROS Class Ur ban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive WaterBased Activities water skiingwake boarding jet boating personal water craft lowspeed motor boating shing houseboating rafting canoeing kayaking swimming diVing snorkeling parasailing WaterRelated Land Activities J A A A developed rustic campgrounds backpacking offhighway vehicles horseback riding wildlife Viewing hunting gol ng swim beaches snowmobiling picnicking interpretive programs hiking Chapter 1 Introducti on 7 A recreatian setting is composed of physical social and managerial attributes It is the combination of attributes that shapes or molds a specific activity into a particular experience Managers spend most of their time and effort managing the recreation setting The management guidelines in Chapter 4 WROS Management provide more detailed guidance for achieving optimum results Figure 4 illustrates various physical social and managerial attributes that can affect the desired recreation experience for an area Figure 4 is not intended to be an exhaustive list nor is it intended to suggest that each of these attributes must be considered Furthermore some attributes could be listed in more than one column eg historic resources Figure 4 Examples of Recreation Setting Attributes Physical Attributes Social Attributes Managerial Attributes aquatic vegetation recreationists type number recreation facilities water quality visitor expectations water storage facilities soilsrockscliffs patterns of visitation water delivery systems topographyslope visitor behaviors rulesregulations sh and wildlife visitor safety issues interpretation natural sounds visitor con icts fees and charges visual resources vandalism and litter site desi water ows automobiles and trains health and safety closures water elevations historic sites length of season lightscapes cultural resources recreation maintenance terrestrial vegetation adjacent private land uses recreation programs endangered species special uses or permits law enforcement security human development special values signage industrialcommercial municipalresidential manmade structures infrastructure water surface acreage river length width gradient natural hazards air quality natural beauty geologic formations climate and winds density of use types size and speed of boats shoreline activity airplanes commercial shipping type and level of unnatural sounds noise nuisance behavior unlawful activities restoration activities administrative sites reservoir drawdown water safety lightsmarkers timed ow releases shery management vegetative management access roadslaunches accessible facilities personnel and volunteers level of patrol 8 Chapter 1 Introduction In the context ofWROS it is the totality of these setting attributes that converts a recreation activity into a recreation experience and subsequent benefits Figure 5 provides a short paragraph describing the general nature of the setting attributes for each class for the purpose of introducing WROS While Chapter 4 WROS Management provides the guidelines for some 115 setting attributes Figure 5 A Generalized Description of the Recreation Setting by WROS Class Urban Setting An urban WROS area may be found in extensively developed and populated cities and metropolitan spaces where virtually the entire landscape contains humanbuilt structures Municipal industrial commercial and residential land uses dominate and the sights sounds and smells are typical of a city environment Natural features may be found in small neighborhood parks commercial courtyards streetscapes riverways residential gardens or landscaping The water resources tend to be highly channelized manipulated or altered to contain large uctuations in water ow and for the protection of public safety and property There is a great deal of management presence e g personnel rules facilities signs services conveniences and security Recreation use is very extensive there is a great deal of diversity socialization and concentration and there is a sense of security and conveniences The sights sounds and smells of recreation and nonrecreation use eg municipal industrial commercial are dominant in an urban setting Examples of an urban WROS class may include the San Antonio Riverwalk Denver s South Platte River the Potomac River in the District of Columbia Tampa Bay Baltimore Harbor San Francisco Bay the Chicago waterfront on Lake Michigan and the Colorado River as it ows past Laughlin Nevada Suburban Setting Asuburban WROS area is on the fringe of the urban area The sights sounds and smells of development and built structures are widespread The built environment tends to be commercial and residential The sights sounds and smells of commerce and everyday living are very obvious and prevalent while naturally appearing settings may be found in community parks greenways trails open space natural areas wetlands estuaries and tidal marshes The water resources tend to be highly channelized manipulated or altered to contain large uctuations in water ow and for the protection of public safety and property Recreation management is very prevalent e g personnel rules facilities signs services conveniences security Recreation use diversity socialization concentration sense of security and conveniences are very prevalent and obvious The sights sounds and smells of recreation and nonrecreation use eg municipal industrial residential are obvious but not dominant in a suburban setting Examples of suburban WROS areas can be found on the outer edges of most metropolitan areas in the United States Rural Developed Setting Arural developed WROS area is beyond a metropolitan area and the suburban ring of development Rural developed areas may serve as bedroom communities for urban areas and may contain working farms and ranches and towns and primary road networks are common Development will be prevalent and common yet the setting has a pastoral sense because of an interspersing of forests water resources hills valleys canyons wetlands open spaces and agricultural land uses Natural appearing shoreline edges are common although various water controls or other structures are also common Recreation management is prevalent and common but not as extensive as in an urban setting e g personnel rules facilities signs services conveniences security Recreation use diversity socialization concentration sense of security and conveniences are common but less so than in a developed suburban or urban setting The sights sounds and Chapter 1 Introduction 9 Figure 5 Continued A Generalized Description of the Recreation Setting by WROS Class smells of recreation and nonrecreation use are common yet interspersed with locations and times when a sense of tranquility and escape from everyday challenges may be experienced by the urbanized visitor Examples of rural developed areas may include areas with country estates second homes and cabins dams power stations primary and secondary roads communication lines resorts marinas small communities fullservice campgrounds county and State parks farms ranches and small commercial and industrial establishments Rural Natural Setting A rural natural WROS area is a considerable distance from metropolitan areas and communities Natural features are predominant on the landscape and the presence of development is occasional or infrequent Agriculture tourism and outdoor recreation are often primary industries Rural natural areas are often large enclaves of public lands and waters Natural resources dominate the landscape The sights sounds and smells of development are infrequent The water resources are bordered by natural appearing settings Water controls or other structures are occasional along the shoreline Management is occasionally noticeable in the form of patrols facilities signage conveniences and full services Visitors desire a sense of tranquility and escape from their daily routine Opportunity for visitors to see hear and smell nature is prevalent and common as are occasions to enjoy periods of solitude Recreation use diversity socialization concentration sense of security and conveniences are periodic and occasional Examples of a rural natural area might include unincorporated rural areas with occasional secondary and unpaved roads small cabins single residences farms and ranches rustic campgrounds rural county and State parks power lines small stores and fuel services and areas often bordering or surrounded by large expanses of public lands and waters Semi Primitive Setting A semi primitive WROS area is a large expanse of natural resources that is far from any city or metropolitan area and a considerable distance from small communities subdivisions or developments Natural resources dominate the landscape Development is minor and the sights and sounds of human activity are few but may include such evidence of human activity as distant farming operations power lines livestock small buildings old roadways historic structures and historic logging or mining These water resources are often within large expanses of public lands and waters Management in the form of patrols facilities and signage is seldom noticeable and the visitors are expected to have the equipment and skills to be able to navigate and enjoy this setting Visitors desire a sense of tranquility and escape from their daily routine Facilities are rustic and blend well into the setting Resource protection is very important Opportunity for visitors to see hear and smell nature is wide spread Visitors sense solitude and remoteness Examples of semi primitive settings are large expanses of State and Federal lands and waters that are commonly designated as a wild and scenic river wilderness backcountry lake headwater marine reserve roadless area or other type of State Federal or international protected area Primitive Setting A primitive WROS area is a very large expanse of natural resources very far from development and settlement Any sights sounds or smells of human activity are rare and very minor The water resources and shorelines appear natural and show very little if any evidence of past human use such as historic homesteads and roadways Management relies on visitor cooperation and stewardship and activities often focus on resource protection restoration and monitoring Asense of remoteness wildness solitude and selfreliance is dominant among visitors Visitor comforts conveniences and concentrations are not appropriate Examples of primitive settings are large expanses of Federal lands and waters that are miles from development and settlement The settings are commonly designated as a wild and scenic river wilderness backcountry lake headwater marine reserve roadless area or other type of Federal or intemational protected area 10 Chapter 1 Introduction A recreation experience is the psychological and physiological response to participating in a particular recreation activity and setting The experience is utput ofmanagement s efforts and represents what is consumed y t e recreationist WROS helps planners and managers to focus on the recreation experience that is being provided and provides a general description o recreation experience for each WROS class Recreation science has contributed to identifying the important dimensions of a recreation experience often referred to as motivations psychological outcomes or multiple satisfactions Recreation science also recognizes that humans use all five senses to perceive or experience a situation that is a recreation experience can be affected by what one sees eg wildlife and litter hears eg natural sounds and loud engine noises smells eg grasses and trees barbecue and pollution touches eg water temperature beach sand and broken glass and tastes eg water food and exhaust fumes Figures 6 and 7 provide a general description of the important dimensions and senses that define the recreation experience in each WROS class It is important to bear in mind that these generalizations are just generalizations andmay need to be adapted to more accurately reflect aparticular local situation WROS encourages exibility and adaptability based on sound professional judgment A recreatio experie ce is the psychological 471d pkya39ologz39cal response to particzj atz39 g 139 a particular reweatz39o aetiw39tfy ami setti g The Speed Wake a can aiter recreation Setting can aiter a recreation Selling important Chapter 1 Introduction 11 Figure 6 Examples of Recreation Experiences by WROS Class WROS Spectrum Rural Rural Semi Urban su burban DEVEIOPEd Natural Primitive Primitive Often Common Across Spectrum DUDEnjoy the outdoors DDDGet refreshed DUDHave fun and pleasure DDDEnjoy friends and family DDDChange of pace DDDGet away from usual demands of life DDDReduce stress DDDChance to think and ponder DUDEnjoy physical exercise DDDBond with family and friends DDDHelp others develop skills Important in all Settings Often Varies Across Spectrum DDDExperience the sights sounds and ature DDDLeam about nature and culture DDDChance to dream and re ec DDDGense of adventure and challenge DDDGense of awe wonder humility DDDUiew wildlife and natural wonders DDDExperience challenge and risks DDDGense of self reliance freedom choice DDDExperience tranquility and peace ilness DDDExperience solitude DDDExperience new and different things DDDGense of physical exertion DUDFeel inspired r Less 1 4 More Important Often Varies Across Spectrum DDDChance to watch and be around other peop e DDDOpportunity to socialize DDDOpportunity to meet new people DDDGense of competition with others DDDExhilaration of speed and thrills DDDEI est one39s skills and equipment DUDFeel safe and secure in the outdoors DDDEnjoy comforts and conveniences in the DDDOpportunity for a brief respite from 39fe r 1 More I 1 Less 12 Chapter 1 Introduction Figure 7 A Generalized Description of the Recreation Experiences by WROS Class Urban Recreation Experience Area provides very limited opportunities to see hear or smell the natural resources e g forests wildlife aesthetics because of the extensive level of development human activity and natural resource modification watching and meeting other visitors is expected and desired large group activities such as guided shing tour boat sightseeing and beach sports are popular opportunity to brie y relieve stress and to alter everyday routines is important socializing with family and friends is important large groups and families are common a high sense of safety security comfort and convenience is central and dominant the mix of recreation activities may be diverse ranging from those of relaxation and contemplation eg sunbathing reading nature walking to those of physical exertion thrills excitement and challenge e g para sailing jet boating water skiing area often attractive to short time visitors large af nity groups tours school groups area may serve as a transportation corridor for transient visitors or as a staging area for others traveling to nonurban settings area is popular with local urban residents as well as nonresident rsttime tourists Suburban Recreation Experience Area provides little opportunity to see hear or smell the natural resources eg forests wildlife aesthetics because of the widespread and very prevalent level of development human activity and natural resource modi cation watching and meeting other visitors is expected and desired opportunity to brie y relieve stress and to alter everyday routines is important socializing with family and friends is important large groups and families are common a high sense of safety security comfort and convenience is central and dominant the mix of recreation activities may be diverse ranging from relaxation and contemplation eg sunbathing reading and nature walking to physical exertion thrills excitement and challenge e g para sailing jet boating and water skiing learning about natural or cultural history ecology and reservoir and river operations are important to some area is popular with local suburban residents Rural Developed Recreation Experience Area provides occasional or periodic opportunities to see hear or smell the natural resources eg forests wildlife aesthetics because development human activity and natural resource modi cation are common and frequently encountered area is less developed and more tranquil than a suburban setting opportunity to experience brief periods of solitude and change from everyday sights and sounds is important socialization within and outside one s group is typical and the presence of other visitors is expected opportunity to relieve stress and to alter everyday routines is important a moderate level of comfort and convenience is important a sense of safety and security is important the array of recreation activities may be diverse ranging from relaxation and contemplation eg sunbathing sailboating shoreline shing to physical exertion and challenge e g competing in shoreline and water sports tournament shing ice fishing water skiing and kayaking area is typically attractive for dayuse and weekend visitors from local metropolitan areas or nearby communities shortterm campers recreation vehicle users large groups and adventure tourists within a day s drive Rural Natural Recreation Experience Area provides frequent opportunities to see hear or smell the natural resources e g forests wildlife and aesthetics because development human activity and natural resource modi cations may be occasional and infrequent noticeably more natural less developed and more tranquil than an urban setting socialization with others outside one s group is not very important although the presence of others is expected and tolerated opportunity to relieve stress and to get away from built environment is important a high sense of safety security comfort and convenience is not important or expected a sense of independence and freedom with a moderate level of management presence is important moments of solitude tranquility and Chapter 1 Introduction 13 Figure 7 Continued A Generalized Description of the Recreation Experiences by WROS Class nature appreciation are important experiences tend to be more resource dependent although they may be diverse including relaxation and contemplation eg camping sunbathing canoeing sailing and boat shing socialization physical exertion and challenge e g competitive tournament shing kayaking waterskiing hunting and belly boat shing area is typically attractive to extended weekend and longerterm visitors desiring to experience the outdoors and to be away from large numbers of other people popular with overnight visitors using recreation vehicles tents and rustic cabins Semi Primitive Recreation Experience Area provides widespread and very prevalent opportunities to see hear or smell the natural resources e g forests wildlife and aesthetics because development human activity and natural resource modi cations are seldom encountered opportunity to experience a natural ecosystem wi little human imprint is important a sense of challenge adventure risk and selfreliance is important solitude and lack of contact with other visitors managers and management is important on the water and at destination sites the recreation experiences tend to be more resourcebased a sense of independence freedom tranquility relaxation nature appreciation and wonderment testing skills and stewardship is typical opportunity often requires more trip planning and preparation travel distance of one or more days physical effort and duration area provides opportunities for the more adventurebased enthusiasts eg y and oat shing hunting backcountry camping canoeing rafting and nature viewing Overnight visits are typically with tents in settings with few conveniences and facilities Extended stays may be accommodated Adventure recreationists and ecotourists are attracted to this setting Inexperienced recreationists or visitors new to the area may be uncomfortable with the remoteness and the need to be selfreliant Primitive Recreation Experience Area provides a great deal of opportunities to see hear or smell the natural resources eg forests wildlife and aesthetics because development human activity and natural resource modifications are rare opportunity to experience natural ecosystems with very little and no apparent human imprint is paramount natural views sounds and smells dominate a sense of solitude peacefulness tranquility challenge adventure risk and selfreliance is important solitude and the lack of the sight sound and smells of others is very important a sense of freedom tranquility humility relaxation nature appreciation and wonderment and stewardship is central and dominant area provides opportunities for human powered activities such as canoeing kayaking y shing hunting oating and backpacking the high speed and noise of motorized conveyances is typically inappropriate for this area visitation often requires considerable trip planning and preparation travel distance physical exertion and duration overnight visitors use tents in settings with no conveniences and facilities adventure travelers and ecotourists from distant locations are often attracted to the undisturbed wildland setting 14 Chapter 1 Introduction Recreation benefit are improvements resulting from participating in quality outdoor recreation and tourism These improvements or bene ts may accrue to the individual recreationist and family or to the workplace community economy or environment WROS does not explicitly include a step to measure or inventory recreation benefits but does encourage managers to l engage local communities in identifying important recreation bene ts in the planning process 2 include a description of the important benefits in the management plan and 3 reference benefits in various public education and community communications It is expected that the recreation benefits section will be strengthened in the future as WROS is used field tested and further refined Figure 8 lists some of the benefits that accrue from recreation and tourism Recreation henefitx are improvemen tx rexulting from participating in quality outdoor recreation and tourixm Thexe improvemen tx or henefitx may accrue to the individual recreationixt and family or to the workplace community economy or environment Figure 3 Examples of Recreation Bene ts Individual or Personal Bene ts physical exercise family togetherness self con dence skill development re ectioncontemplation increased wellnesshappiness increased quality of life Economic Bene ts support of local merchants economic stimulation more money from outside the area increased property values increased tax revenue increased investor appeal Community Bene ts sense of place improved work performance community pride and spirit community attraction app eal youth development increased quality of life Environmental Bene ts increased knowledge of resources increased respect for environment increased stewardship involvement increased collaboration increased politicalsocial support increased conservation of nature To further envision the six WROS classes the following photo collages provide examples of recreation activities and setting attributes by WROS class Chapter 1 Introduction 15 Urban WROS Class Photo Examples Physical Social Managerial 16 Chapter 1 Intmduction Suburban WROS Class Photo Examples Activity Physical Social Managerial Chapter 1 Introduction 17 Rural Developed WROS Class Photo Examples Physical Social Mana gerial 18 Chapter 1 Introduction Rural Natural WROS Class Photo Example 5 Activity Phy sical Social Managerial Chapcerl Introduction 19 Semi Primitive WROS Class Photo Examples Activity Physical Social Mana gerial 20 Chapter 1 Introduction Primitive WROS Class Photo Examples Activity Physical Social Managerial 1 it t PACK rr IN 1 PACK IT our cl Chapter 1 Introduction 21 WROS ix an inventory planning and management tool 22 Chapter I Introduction The planning and management value of WROS WROS is an inventory planning and management tool As such it is valuable to the managing agencies local communities recreationists and the private sector eg tourism industry for those tasks listed below Inventory and map Water recreation opportunities Integrate recreation into the agency planning process Compare recreation demand to the recreation supply of available opportunities Provide a visual map GIS compatible of proposed planning alternatives Evaluate the benefits and costs of proposed alternatives Identify and manage a tourism niche for communities and the private sector Plan and manage a regional system ofWater recreation opportunities Identify and protect important natural and cultural resources Increase public awareness of recreation choices and available opportunities Decide type and location of visitor management activities Prioritize design and locate facilities Develop visitor capacities Justify budget and personnel needs Legally justify planning and management decisions Provide interagency communication consistency collaboration and coordination Conserve a diversity of Water recreation opportunities Ensure high quality recreation experiences and benefits for current and future visitors and the local community Design Criteria Used in Developing WROS Avariety ofimportant considerations were identified early in the development ofWROS D be efficient effective and ofvalue to Water resource planners and managers esign criteria were developed to help ensure that WROS would e design criteria include 0 Interface with Reclamation s Resource Management Planning process and ther EPArcomphant planning processes used by other agencies Interface with the ROS system used by the USFS and BLM 0 Be consistent with the prevailing expert opinion in the recreation profession 0 Be relatively easy and inexpensive to use 0 Be able to integrate with other planning tools data bases andprocesses 0 Be appealing and understandable to recreating publics communities stakeholders and private sector businesses 0 Provide objective criteria for reasoned and deliberate decision making 0 Accommodate exibility and adaptation to special field situations 0 Use best available social and biophysical science 0 Accommodate change and adaptation through monitoring research and experience 0 Be reasonably applicable to a variety ofwater resource settings Help ensure a high quality safe and enjoyable recreation experience The Standard for WROS Decision Making WROS is a framework that is flexible and adaptable to specific field situations WROS does not replace management discretion and decision making but rather is a tool to hel make decisions that are principled reasoned systematic logical tractable and defensible While local planners and managers are empowered to adapt WROS to the local situation it is important that these decisions be carefully considered so as to maintain the integrity ofWROS This section provides guidance on Parks and beaches provide for multiple recreation uses Chapter 1 Introduction 23 Sound professional judgment is defined as a reasonable decision that has given full and fair consideration to the appropriate information is based on principled and reasoned analysis and the best available science and expertise and complies with applicable laws 24 Chapter 1 Introduction decision making based on several fundamental principles found in decision science and State and Federal law eg Administrative Procedure Act and the National Environmental Policy Act and applied by the judicial system in the United States The standard for WROS decision making incorporates 1 sound professional judgment 2 preponderance of the evidence 3 a rule of reasonableness 4 a sliding scale rule of analysis and 5 a scale of degree I I I Sound Soundj 39 judgment is defined as a 0 reasonable decision that has given full and fair consideration to the appropriate information is based on principled and reasoned analysis and the best available science and expertise and complies with applicable laws The terms in the definition take advantage ofjudicial doctrine and legal terminology A reasonable decision is one that is fit and appropriate under the circumstances It is a decision that natural resource decision makers of ordinary prudence and competence would not view as excessive or immoderate under similar circumstances It is important to remember that the judiciary does not compare a manager s decision against some single absolute right decision conceived by the court that is the court s function is not to make administrative decisions but rather to judge the reasonableness of an agency decision using such judicial doctrine as reasonable care due diligence and sufficient evidence Fall and fair consideration of the appropriate information is the condition of considering the whole situation and making a sound decision Principled and reasoned analysis is the condition of not being arbitrary and capricious Being arbitrary and capricious is one of the most frequent allegations in natural resource related litigation Best available science and expertise is the condition of using the best information and experience that is reasonably available to improve certainty Complies with applicable laws is the expectation that a decision maker duly considers and is in conformance with relevant laws and regulations eg NEPA Preponderance of the evidence Preponderance of the evidence is defined as a condition whereby most of the information data trends professional opinion and other facts and circumstances of a situation support the reasonableness ofa particular decision or course of action more than another decision or course of action It is a situation where the weight of evidence of one course of action is greater than the weight of evidence of another course of action Rule of reasonableness The rule ofreasonableness is defined as a decision that professional recreation managers of ordinary prudence and competence would not view as excessive or immoderate under similar circumstances Ma agerx weed exibility Sliding scale rule of analysis This sliding scale rule states that the level of to make dedg39o s based 0 analysis used to implementWROS should be commensurate with the a level of maly k that 1 potential consequences of the decision that is managers need exibility to comme surate mtb the purpose and potential consequences of the decision For example the greater P1017059 a dpotm al the possibility that a decision may significantly alter natural or heritage comeque ce oftbe resource conditions local economies water operations or the type or quality of decz39 39o make decisions based on a level of analysis that is commensurate with the the water recreation opportunity the greater the level of analysis an deliberation A sli 39ng scale rule of analysis see figure 9 can range from slight to ordinary to extraordinary and can vary by the 1 level and type of information necessary 2 tools and techniques used 3 time and effort required 4 level of certainty and risk and 5 level of scientific input WROS uses a tnreelevel sliding scale of analysis see figure 9 that parallels the judiciary s interpretation of due diligence by a responsible official slight ordinary and extraordinary levels of analysis The sliding scale should serve as a guide for managers zones can No Wake 5 mph orslow contribute to a quality experience service to the pubic to make decisions Chapter 1 Introduction 25 Figure 9 Three Levels of WROS Analysis Sliding scale of WROS analysis Level 1 Course Filter Type of use for the WROS analysis General administrative inventory visitor brochures routine visitor resource an maintenance decisions etc Level of detail and precision Slight or low level of detail intensity effort data time and precision Description ofthe WROS inventory Level 1 can be done by a knowledgeable recreation staff person with available information no original data collection or eld inventory and in a relatively short period of time eg 172 days of effort Level 2 Moderate Filter Regional inventories and plans environmental assessments assessments of impacts from proposed small to moderate scale changes in facilities land and water uses visitor regulations etc Ordinary or moderate level of detail intensity effort data time and precision Level 2 should involve a small interdisciplinary team 0 recreation experts a eld inventory using the WROS inventory protocol development of a current and comprehensive water resource base map and possibly some original data collection Level 2 can be completed with a modest effort e g 241 days of effort after selecting and training the team Level 3 Fine Filter NEPAcompliant planning resource management plans general management plans assessments of impacts from proposed moderate to large scale changes in facilities resource use visitor management etc Extraordinary or high level of detail intensity effort data time and precision Level 3 should involve a larger interdisciplinary team of recreation experts and several longtime visitors to the area an intensive eld inventory using the WROS inventory protocol a detailed and current base map visitor survey information and possibly some resource data collection Level 3 requires substantial effort eg 1F20 days of effort after selecting and training the team and excluding the visitor survey task 26 Chapter 1 Introduction Scale of degree The scale of degree in WROS is analogous to a yardstick used to measure inches and feet For the yardstick to be effective society needed to agree on or standardize the measurement of an inch and foot In much the same Way the scale of degree in WROS is intended to help standardize the measurement of attributes for each WROS class The scale of degree contains several qualitative terms and a quantitative expression The terms listed under the six WROS classes in figure 10 are synonymous and are used interchangeably in the WROS inventory protocol chapter 2 and in the management guidelines chapter 4 In the WROS inventory stage a series ofinventory sites on the Water body are selected and inventoried by a team of experts At each inventory site the expert team is asked to circle the degree extent 0r magnitude that the fallawing attributes arepresent at this site In response each team member circles the set of terms along the scale of degree in figure 8 that best represents his or her view For example structures and human activity in an urban setting are characterized as daminant extensive a great deal extreme 0r apparent in 80percent or mare of the setting Conversely evidence of other recreation use in a primitive setting is characterized as very minor rare very little or apparent on 3percent 0r less of the area Use of the scale of degree in the WROS Inventory Protocol is described in Chapter 2 WROS Inventary Figure 10 The Scale of Degree Used in WROS Rural Rural Semi Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive 80100 5080 2050 1020 310 03 Dominant Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Extensive Widespread Common Infrequent Little Very little A great deal Very obvious Apparent Periodic Seldom are Extremely Very Moderately Somewhat Slightly Not at all Chapter 1 Introduction 27 In Cbapter 4 lVROS Management the scale of degree is used in the guidelines to indicate the degree extent or magnitude that an attribute is 39qte in each WROS class For examp e the presence offull service bath facilities in an urban setting is characterized as being extensive and conversely7 at at all appmprz39qte in a primitive setting Note that there are a few attributes in chapter 4 and in the WROS Inventory Protocol eg degree of solitude7 degree of natural ambiance Where the scale has been reversed to ensure logic and integrity of the recreation opportunity Accesalble facllmes are lmporlanl leferenllypea offlahmg aclwmea Popularrecreallon SlleS ollen 28 Chapter 1 Introduction WROS Invento o e and center expedleams are important W the recreation inventory Below SignS are often needed butcan c hange the Visual Setting 30 Chapter 2 W39ROS Invenwry N This chapter provides operational details of how to conduct a WROS inventory to map the current supply of recreation opportunities based upon measurement of the current physical social and managerial attributes in the area Chapter 2 has three sections that 1 define the scope of the inventory 2 describe the attributes and protocol used in the WROS inventory an 3 detail the inventory steps to mapping the current supply ofrecreation opportunities De ning the Scope A variety ofimportant decisions should be made and actions taken early to define the scope of the e ort to be undertaken and what level of analysis will be required Listed below are key questions and actions that are precursors to the actual WROS inventory Develop a comprehensive base map The WROS inventory requires a quality base map and a compilation of all related documents and materials Developing a comprehensive base map will define the study area as well as assist managers in understanding the level of effort that may be required Some of the features that may be important include Waterrsurface area water operation facilities seasonal water levels special resources or values water dept s pri ate land and rights ofway navigational lights markers primary and secondary roads su 39 ons communities power transmission lines buildings and structures aquatic and terrestrial vegetation recreation facilities hazards and s a ows cultural and historic structures important fish and wildlife habitat diversions channels riprap s 39 area public health and safety areas The various documents and materials that might be collected include Laws regulations policies 0 Maps air photos pictures videos 0 Management and other operational plans 0 Special use permits concession agreements leases 0 Relevant scientific studies inventories and monitoring reports I Visitor use statistics trends studies road counts surveys I Regional map showing the location of other Water recreation opportunities I Reports studies trends or other materials from county State or Federal partners I List of important contacts eg local State and Federal agencies local communities tourism offices special interest groups universities Define the geographic location or study area for the WROS inventory While agencies have jurisdictional boundaries the visiting public often enjoys multiple local State and Federal areas on a single visit The public s visitation rangequot is often larger than a single agency s jurisdiction and includes adjacent lands and Waters Where visitors spend time traveling recreating or viewing Thus the question is how large should the study area be to make good management decisions on the lands and Waters Within a manager s jurisdiction A reasonable rule of thumb is to define the study area for the WROS inventory to include those lands and Waters that may affect the quality of the Water recreation opportunity It might also be helpful to think from the perspective of the visitor 1 What is the visitation range ie analogous to a Wildlife s home range or area that most visitors also visit When they are visiting the general area 2 Where do visitors go and What do they do beyond the primary Water resource in question 3 Are there land uses adjacent to or Within the study area that may affect the recreation opportunities Detailed WROS inventory planning and management Will only occur Within the study area and Within the jurisdiction of the managing agency Yet it may be necessary and beneficial to consider particularly during WROS inventory and planning stages the larger area ofinfluence beyond the study area in order to help decide how to manage the recreation opportunities in the study area Decide the level of resolution or appropriate scale of the base map In theory one could conduct a WROS inventory on any size area eg 50 square miles 10000 acres 1 acre The real question is What scale is practical usable and compatible With other resource inventories and accommodates a GIS interface A reasonable scale for WROS inventory mapping is a minimum of 160 acres or 14 ofa section that is a WROS zone should be at least 160 acres to be mapped as a separate and distinct WROS class Furthermore maps ofa 150000 scale have been found to be reasonable although a 124000 scale might be better for small study areas Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 31 The e rective WROS area conxixtx of tboxe acrex that are available and xaitalale for recreation parpoxex 32 Chapter 2 WROS Inventory A reasonable rule of thumb is that the minimum size or acreage for an area should be practical and useful for planning and management purposes and should be compatible with other inventory and mapping efforts Decide the time period for applying WROS Water recreation opportunities and management direction change during the year because of weather water uses type and pattern of visitation facility closures water operations personnel staffing and many other factors Thus an important decision relates to the period of time to which WROS is being applied It is reasonable to develop WROS inventory maps for the major recreation seasons for the high and low water periods or for periods when major changes are anticipated A reasonable rule of thumb is that the time period will be defined by the important public concerns and management issues that are driving the analysis or planning process Decide if WROS will be used in a resource management planning process The WROS inventory can be used either as input to a comprehensive resource management planning process or directly by managers to implement recreation management direction for the area If the inventory will be used in a resource management planning process it is important to anticipate and to be consistent with other criteria being used in the process eg scale planning horizon public process timetable and level of analysis The WROS inventory will describe the type and location of current water recreation opportunities and identify inconsistencies that may be affecting the quality of the current opportunities Thus ifa planning process is not to be implemented in the near future WROS can directly and immediately help manage the current recreation situation by dealing with those inconsistencies of consequence or by changing the current situation to another desired water recreation opportunity Determine the effective WROS area under consideration The effective WROS area consists of those acres that are available and suitable for recreation purposes Identifying and demarking on the base map all the areas that are not suitable for recreational purposes is important early in the inventory process For example unsuitable lands and waters could include security areas water storage and power facilities private inholdings municipal or industrial operations commercial shipping or barge lanes ecologically sensitive areas public hazard areas cultural and historic sites wildlife nesting areas shallows and wetlands or locations that are undesirable because of smells sounds and views Water operanon areas oten remove an area from patterns should be consldered m early m WROS recreallon use WROS The effective supply ofrecreation opportunities can change weekly eg no commercial transport on weekends or seasonally because offish and wildlife migration hunting seasons facility closure reservoir drawdown weather and many other factors Identify any other important planning Considerations that may affect WROS The application ofWROS will be affected by other considerations in defining the scope Examples include What are the primary uses an co mitments of the water resources What are the major forces or interests driving the application ofWROS at this time What is the level ofpublic concern or controversy What is the timetable and schedule ofmajor activities Howmany person days and dollars are allocated to the effort Who constitutes the WROS team and what is the responsibility of each mem er o is the decision maker or the responsible official What criteria will be used to arrive at a decision What is the planning horizon or the number ofyears into the future that should be targeted What will be the nature of external collaboration with the visitors community private sector and other stakeholders What external experts will be used if any and what will be their role What changes to the current water operations recreation opportunities adjacent land use or other considerations are not reasonable or are beyond the scope ofthe planning effort Develop a basic pro le of the planning area Figure 11 is an example ofa profile tool to assemble and recordimportant recreation and water resource information useful in WROS Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 33 Figure 11 An Example of a Basic Water Resources Pro le Tool Name of Water Resource CountyState Man aging AgencyOf ce Estimate the average river flows cfs or water elevation for each season over the last 5 years Spring Summer Winter Fall River Flow if applicable Current cubic feet per second Check the item below that best describes the river ow Very high ow Very fast moving deep water some very big rapids water very high or over the banks a few exposed large rocks Hi h ow Fast moving moderately deep water many big rapids water close to top of bank a number of big exposed rocks Medium ow Steady moving moderately deep water many large exposed rocks in rapids water slightly down from high water line Low ow Slow moving water many exposed rocks river bottom exposed for a few feet out from the high water line Very Zow ow Very slow moving shallow water exposed mud flats river rocks and bottom often exposed water barely covering bottom in rapids must choose floatable areas bottom exposed for several feet out from high water shoreline Lake or Reservoir Elevation if applicable Current water elevation Check the item below that best describes the lake or reservoir Very high water Reservoir full to overfull Some flooding occurring Trees and bushes in the water Water high on boat ramps Water oftenmuddy and carrying sticks and other debris High water Reservoir full to nearly full Medium water Reservoir below full High water line exposed Some sand bars and mud areas exposed ow water Lots of exposed shoreline area mud ats and sand bars Some exposed rocks stumps and other hazards near the water surface Trees and bushes that are submerged during very high water are now out of water Water low on the boat ramps low water Lots of exposed shoreline mudflats rocks and stumps Water very low on the boat ramps Sometimes ramps and docks are out of the water and unusable Difficult if not impossible to get to the water from the shore Sometimes coves are dry and a good part of the reservoir bottom is dry with only a stream showing Most Popular Recreation Activities by Season FALL W lTER 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Figure 11 Continued An Example of a Basic Water Resources Pro le Tool Total Annual Visitation Number of annual visitors Number of annual visitor days of visitors who are dayusers Average length of stay Visitation Percentages by Season Spring of annual visitors of spring visitors who are dayusers Summer of annual visitors of summer visitors who are dayusers Fall of annual visitors of fall visitors who are dayusers Winter of annual visitors of winter visitors who are dayusers Most Important Recreation Related Management Concerns Public Issues or Opportunities ie what where when who why how 1 Number supply or capacity ofavailable overnight recreation sites e g developed campsites designated backcountry sites rental cabins hotel rooms overnight houseboat rentals Number of overnight accommodations Average occupancy rate 00 for overnight recreation sites by season Spring Weekdays lliTh occupancy rate occupied of total available Weekends F 7 S occupancy rate occupied of total available Summer Weekdays lliTh occupancy rate occupied of total available Weekends Ff S occupancy rate occupied of total available Fall Weekdays lliTh occupancy rate occupied of total available Weekends F7 S occupancy rate occupied of total available Winter Weekdays lliTh occupancy rate occupied of total available Weekends F7 S occupancy rate occupied of total available Evaluator 5 Name Phone Date The WROS Inventoxy Attributes and Pmtoeol nus WROS tuyum my ptmtmss a map asltusmtug the type and 1mmtuu msus utmsus mos lssses sum ts smsp that sums thermmt supply at mtlsbls tsmsmtsu nppunumus set us he WROS tuysmmy ptmmul and us sunbutes usm tu us tuyummy and dasds us nqas umsssmy u Fig 12 A WROS nvu nry humml mm mumm As ptmusly dmmbm tu hspta 1 s t ys WROS Inventory Protocol smut stud muuugsust mutttmm that eff 31 11 Eu 5 53 symy pussttls smuug sunbu Mapplrtg The Supplyvo39f as b E b Recreahon Opportunmzs datusmtug tustyps stud 1mmtm mtus t Ensan mos lssses Ftys phyarsl s 31 sndfwur mausgmusm deltbmmtmt mud lusu rsunn there alss rusty be stutmtuus mums muuugms add m aslms sunbutes m the tuysmmy Name ofWanzv Risoumz Dam wde Your Name and Ii tz mutuysusmy mutttmm are pmksgm Inwmovy Ma No Local Name tut a he WROS Iuysm my Pm urnl Pmmml The Prmnml ts Sn 5 WWW tuysmmy bank s urnplszed by emu Fxgure 12 dsptussus mus page anus Pmm m smu anus phystutl smtsl and tuuusgmtsl mutttmss thmm 15 14ysnd1 shew the three pages tu the Pmmul 11515 tuysmmy mutttmm used m asltusmssus was less su the srale m degree prmuusly atsutssmt tu Adapter 1 Nme sum 11 amtssptsssusm tu gme 1o ts tsymsmt m We sunbutes and ts tsplmmt mu suttlssgs mmmrmm m the atsutuus mutttmu d 35 cusptm 2t WROS tut mmy Figure 13 WROS Physical Inventory Physical attributes are features that are relatively permanent or fixed Within the landscape and are not likely to change soon Field Notes Circle the degree extent or magnitude that the following attributes are present at this site Degree of Developm ent Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degree that dthSv major bridges marinas dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little Fna irrijo 39cg rnvg l23213233 133139 Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare presem 39 80100 5080 2050 1020 310 03 Sense of Closeness to a Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Communi dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little Degree that visitors sense that they are close Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare to the sights sounds and smells typical of a 80100 5080 2050 1020 310 03 community Degree of Natural Resource Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Modi cation dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little Degree that the Visitors ar e aWaI e that the Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare natural resources have been altered by 804 00 5080 2050 1020 310 06 human activity technology or development Distance from Development on or Less than 052 Mles 25 Mles 58 Miles 810 Mles More than Adjacent to the Water Resource 05 mile 10 miles Mileage from dams major bridges marinas resorts or other municipal industrial commercial or residential areas Degree that Natural Ambiance Very minor Minor Occasional Prevalent Very Extensive Dominates the Area very little little or infrequent common or prevalent or dominant Degree that there is a sense at tranquility and or rare seldom or periodic apparent Widespread opportunity to see hear and smell nature 06 310 1020 2050 50 80 80100 Circle the number that best 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 represents youI OVel39a11 JUdgm ent 0f Urban Suburban Rural Rural Semi Primitive the area Scores With one decimal Developed Natural Primitive point such as 55 are acceptable Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 37 Figure 14 WROS Social Inventory Social attributes are features associated With visitor s activities behaviors and perceptions of the area Field Notes Circle the degree extent or magnitude that the following attributes are present at this site Degree of Visitor Presence Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degreethat the sights eehhdsv and wells at dominant prevalent or comm on or infrequent little or very little g iag r i rtgrgggi equ pmenh the mpms39 Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 39 80100 5080 2050 1020 3lO 03 Degree of Visitor Concentration Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional ino Very minor Degree that Visitors congregate 0quot the Shor e dominan prevalent or comm on or infrequent little or very little g tgeithzt egg quot covfs39 1mm Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 39g g SP 539 amp ms 80100 5080 20 50 10 20 340 06 Degree of Recreation Diversity Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degree that ther e is a miXtUFe at recreation dominant prevalent or comm on or infrequent little or very little Scetigugegemg pmmpmd m or eqmpment Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 80100 5080 2050 1020 3lO 03 Degree of Visitor Comforts Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degree that ViSitorS know that conveniences dominant prevalent or comm on or infrequent little or very little comfort safety d security 3 Why Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 80100 5080 2050 1020 3lO 03 Degree of Solitude and Very minor Minor Occasional Prevalent Very Extensive Remoteness very little little or infrequent common or prevalent or dominant Degree that ViSitOFS View themSe1Ves a5 or rare seldom or periodic apparent Widespread behg 310 a a my hmquot V l zatmquot 1quot 0 3 340 10 20 20 50 5080 80100 aWild and remote place Degree of NonRecreational Use Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional inor Very minor if dominant prevalent or comm on or infrequent little or very little Degree thatthe Sights sounds and smells of Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare hm39rmeahma use 5 are present 80 100 5080 2050 1020 31 0 03 ie actiVities associated With commerce Work places industry roads airplanes agriculture or communications Circle the number that best 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 represents your overall Judgment of Urban Suburban Rural Rural Semi Primitive the area Scores With one decimal Developed Natural P m ive point such as 55 are acceptable 38 Chapter 2 WROS Inventory Figure 15 WROS Management Inventory Management attributes are those features that are provided for managed and can be changed by the managing agency or its partners Field Notes Circle the degree extent or magnitude that the following attributes are present at this site Degree of Management Presence Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degree that managemth Personnel boat dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little rugg lesrvss gg ggevEPh 39eviater Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare zones closures speed zones regulations 8039100 503980 20 50 10 20 33910 06 security lighting administrative of ces and compounds or interpretive programs are present Degree of Public Access Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Degree that developed access facilities ar e dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little agingi fbizagnpi paved roads and Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 39 39 80100 5080 2050 1020 310 03 Degree of Developed Recreation Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor FaCilities and Sites dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little 15312126 i vggvgx g in g f lgzgump Widespread apparent or periodic seldom or rare 7 v 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 picnic sites play areas nature trails ush 80 100A 50 80 20 50 10 20 310 06 toilets showers docks piers visitor centers marinas or resorts are present Degree of Visitor Services and Extensive Very Prevalent Occasional ino Very minor Conveniences dominant prevalent or common or infrequent little or very little Degree thet resttfmrg ttsv fuelv bgatglentalsv Widespread apparen or periodic seldom or rare ng1 C SCWICCS 00 S ores me C SCerCCS o o o o o o utilities lighting telephones or fax 80 100A 50 80 20 50 10 20 310 03 A machines are Within afeW miles Circle the number that best 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 represents youI OVel39e11 Judgm ent 0f Urban Suburban Rural Rural Semi Primitive the area Scores W1th one dec1m al Developed Natural Primitive point such as 55 are acceptable Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 39 Usmg collaborative expert opmrons to conduct an mvemory Team members evaluatmg the settmg The team needs to prepare forthe WROS memory 40 Chapter 2 W39ROS Inventory Mapping the Current Supply of Recreation Opportunities Mapping the current supply ofrecreation opportunities in the study area means determining what supplying The following steps are recomm WROS c ass or classes the area is currently ended for Levels 2 and 3 WROS analysis See figure 9 in chapter 1 Level 1 analysis is typically conducted in the office by a recreation staffperson and many of these steps do not apply N 9 Assemble a small core team ie four to six members of experienced professionals representing different staff functions eg recreation management natural and cultural resources maintenance law enforcement or interpretation These members would probably be the agency experts most familiar with the recreation phenomena over the years Having several professionals from another area private rm that have had experience with applying WROS is highly recommended Because the purpose of the inventory is to describe and agency or map the nature of the current recreation opportunities there may be an advantage to having several local and longrterm recreation users participate The total team might range in size from 6 to 12 members or a Level 2 or 3 WROS analysis Introduce the team to the planning area base map WROS s stem time ofyear under consideration an the inventory protocol used for mapping the supply of current recreation opportunities Thorough understanding of the descriptions of the recreation experiences for each WROS class see figures 6 and 7 in chapter 1 is important early in the process particularly for those inexperienced with WROS The LVROS Users Guidebank would be a valuable training tool Once familiar with WROS the team should prepare for the field inventory The field inventory requires accessing a boat large enough for the team to experience the inventory sites and comfortably discuss their observations and ratings Pontoons patio boats and houseboats workwell for this task While maps air photos reports 315 analyses and other office information are very helpful for Level 1 analysis they apping It is vital that the team literally experience the recreation phenomenon and ambiance are not suf cient for level 2 and 3 WROS m eg sights sounds and smells of the inventory setting r v F The eld inventory typically begins in the vicinity of the most highly developed portion of the water resource eg marina subdivision industrial activity or developed park complex At each inventory site the boat should be stopped the engine turned off and t e team shou the setting After a few minutes the team members familiar with the ke a few minutes to experience location have a chance to present their views of the type and nature of the recreation use for the planning period in question eg describe and the type and amount ofmanagement an w o the recreationists are Team how when and why recreationists use the area members can ask questions or offer information that might be important It is also important for the team to have a common understanding of the area under consideration at the inventory site For example the inventory site might include the water and land resources within a 27 mile radius of the boat or the area within the cove or the area within the viewshed It is also important to remind the team of the period that is under consideration eg weekend May summer Each team member is provided a copy of the WROS Inventory Protocol The attributes listed on the left side of the Protocol are considered the important characteristics of the setting Each rater is asked to circle tbe degree extent 0r magnitude tmt tbefnllnwing 39 tes represent at tbis site To the right of each attribute is the scale of degree previously discussed in chapter 1 and displayed in attnbu gure 10 There will be instances when a listed attribute is not considered relevant or when some other attribute should be a de consideration As described in chapter 1 WROS is exible and o erates on the standards of the rule ofreasonableness and sound professional judgment Working individually each rater completes the WROS physical inventory page in the Protocol see figure 13 by considering each attribute in the left column and then circling or checking the cell that 7 Long time lake users can help if the men ory best describes the attributes presence at that site Note that on the physical inventory the distancerum develnpment attribute is measured in miles and the degree nfnqtunzl ambiance reverses the scale of degree from very mimr on the left to dnmimmt on the right Chapter 2 W39ROS Inventory 41 Local groups know a great deal about the expe sto be included m WROS mvenlo 42 Chapter 2 W39ROS Invenlory akeS recreation use The ar e he W m 0 After each attribute is checked or circled on the scale of degree each rater is asked at the bottom of the page to circle tbe numberw 139 best represents ynur were judgment nftbe area Each person individually circles a number ranging from 1 to 11 that best WROS class at the numbers represent the six WROS classes while the even numbers represent the midpoint between two WROS classes represents his or her overall judgment of the inventory site The odd This decision should be based on the sound professional judgment of the raters preponderance ofthe evidence an t e attributes were circled in the cells above There is no formula or mathematical calculation to arrive at this overall judgment for the area After all raters complete their physical inventory a straw vote is ch person states the overall number at the bottom After all raters have a chance to express what factors in uenced their scores a second straw vote is taken and duly recorded on a master form Typically the results of the second vote ie the overall numbers expressed after some discussion will converge and there will be team consensus Recording the average score to one decimal pointis acceptable taken and ea In cases where there is signi cant divergence more discussion is advised until team consensus is approached In some cases it ma helpful to dismiss the two extreme outliers or revisit the inventory site after the other sites on the water resource have been inventoried or make a final deci the office on after more information is made available back in It is important for the team leader to keep asking the team wbz39cb nf tbe six IVROS recreqlim39l experiences best describes tbe type 0f experience a visitm39 is being war 11211 at ibis lunzlim l It is important during the inventory process particularly for those inexperienced with WROS to periodically reread the descriptions of the recreation experiences for each WROS class See figures 6 and 7 in chapter 1 The process used for completing the physical inventory is repeated for the social and managerial inventory see figures 14 and 15 contained within the protocol 11 The results of these efforts are three numbers for each inventory site that is a number from 1 to 11 for the physical setting social setting and managerial setting These numbers are recor e on a master map that is maintained during the field inventory and the team forms are collected and filed for the administrative record The first site inventoried may take 30 to 45 minutes with inexperienced peop e he time at each subsequent inventory site will shorten to perhaps 15 minutes after a halfrdozen trials by the am The first three or four inventory sites should be viewed as practice tests or trials Thus it is advisable to return to these sites after the entire water resource has been surveyed to see if adjustments would be appropriate 12 After the initial site inventory is complete the team travels by boat to the next inventory site Two strategies have worked well One the next inventory site can be chosen when there is an apparent change in the physical social or management attributes of the setting or when the team has traveled a significant distance eg several miles from the previous site Two the next inventory site might e t e location with the least development compared to the first inventory site and in the most remote part of the water resource This al ows the team to get a sense for the WROS diversity in t e study area although the logistics of travel and time may not be reasonable 13 If there are very popular shoreline locations eg campgrounds swimming beaches or very popular islands itmay be helpful to do a site inventory from land Also on a very arge water resource eg loosmileslong study area itmay be decided to do initial WROS inventories every 5 or 10 miles while recognizing that a more detailed or nerrlevel inventory might be necessary for parts of the body ofthe water resource on a followrup trip 14 The nal results of the eld inventory include 1 a Working map of t e study area that identifies the inventory sites 2 the team s overall ratings from 1 to 11 for the physical social andmanagedal Above ll l5 lmporlant to lnventory inventories and 3 a file of the completed protocols for the on tne Water administrative record Below WROS engages stakeholders to ensure better declslons Chapter 2 W39ROS Inventory 43 15 This typically concludes the work of the WROS inventory team created in step 1 of this section although some or all of the participants may remain involved in other aspects of WROS At this point the responsible recreation staff person needs to 1 delineate the current overall WROS classes and 2 identify and prioritize inconsistencies that may exist in the current situation These two considerations are discussed in the following sections and examples are provided of the final WROS maps depicting the type and location of the current recreation situation Delineation of Current Overall WROS Class At this point in the WROS inventory each inventory site has an agreed upon team rating for its physical social and managerial attributes Figure 16 is an example of how each inventory site and its ratings can be displayed The next step is for the expert team to use sound professional judgment in aggregating the three attribute ratings to make an overall judgment as to which WROS class best represents the current situation or the supply of recreation opportunities There will be instances when the physical social and managerial WROS ratings are the same eg inventory site 1 More often particularly when WROS is first applied the ratings will be different eg Figure 16 A Tool for Displaying the Setting Attribute Ratings and Overall WROS Classi cation Setting Attribute Ratings Inventory Sites Physical Social Managerial WROS Classi cation 1 Auk39s 30 30 30 Suburban S3 Resort 2 Haas s 53 45 40 Rural Developed RD5 Houseboats 3 Lovejoy s 61 57 51 Rural Developed RD6 Landing 4 Welch s 102 93 82 Semi Primitive SP9 Hunting Camp 44 Chapter 2 WROS Inventory inventory sites 2 3 and 4 When two or three of the setting attribute ratings at a site are similar the decision about the overall WROS classification is relatively easy to make It is more difficult to decide the overall WROS classification if the physical social and managerial classifications at a site differ considerably eg inventory site 4 In instances where there are differences among the setting attribute ratings the 11 point scale in the Inventory Protocol offers a major advantage An 11 point scale allows for a finer level of assessment than a 6 point scale and identifies areas where there are transitions gradations or leanings towards one WROS class versus another It allows for a higher level of accuracy during the inventory stage and helps managers to consider alternative ways to manage the area in the future In effect an 11 point scale gives the expert team the option to indicate up to 16 gradations of recreation opportunities depicted as follows WROS INVENTORY SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 U S RD RN SP P U1 U2 S2 S3 S4 RD4 RDS RD6 RN6 RN7 RN8 SP8 SP9 SP10 P10 P11 The siX primary WROS classes are U1 3 RDS RN7 SP9 and P11 The other ratings reflect a transition or leaning between two primary WROS classes For example RD6 is a score to the right of the primary rural developed WROS class RDS suggesting that there are some attributes in this area that are more typical ofa rural natural setting that pull the overall rating from RDS to RD6 Likewise RN6 indicates that there are some attributes at the site that are more typical ofa rural developed WROS class and these attributes pull the overall rating from the primary rural natural WROS class of RN7 to RN6 A major advantage of using an 11 point scale in the inventory stage is that it conveys more detail and suggests the feasibility of altering the management of an area from one WROS class to another Depending on the rating for an area eg RN6 RN7 or RN8 the greater the probability that a small shift in one or more of the physical social or managerial attributes will cause a shift in the WROS class Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 45 46 ChapterZ WROSInvenlmy The following four maps Illustrate how the overa11 WROS classes can be depicted and show the type and location of water recreation opportunities currently available The New Melones map is the most basic and uses the initials of the sixWROS classes while the Lake Shasta Millerton Lake and San Luis maps show a ner level of detail and how the six WROS classes can be subdivided for purposes ofthe WROS inventory NEW MELONES LAKE RECREATION AREA swam Current WROS Inventory and 1 Management Alternative 1 for the Millerton Lake State Recreation Area mu t n gt w HIP WROS INVENTORY SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 V U S RD RN SP P wm wmwn Current WROS Inventory for the quot urihwm San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area m quotm w W a WROS INVENTORY SCALE 1234567891011 USRD RN SP P WROS Inventory Map of the Current Recreation Situation on Lake Shasta California WROS INVENTORY SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 U S RD RN SP P Inconsistency Mitigation An inconsistency is a situation where the physical7 social7 and managerial ratings are different eg sites 2 3 and 4 of figure 16 that is where the physical7 social7 and managerial attributes are not ali ned or are not consistent For example the physical and social attributes might depict a rural developed WROS class7 yet the lack ofmanagement signage7 facilities7 and patrols might be more consistent with a primitive WROS class Anot er example might be weekends injune when the social attributes depict a suburban WROS class eg large numbers of diverse recreationists while the physical and managerial attributes depict a rural natural WROS class A final 1 00 Chapter 2 WROS Inventory example is an area where the physical and social attributes depict a semi primitive WROS class but the managerial attributes eg oating toilets and ashing strobe safety lights depict a rural developed WROS class Depending on the inconsistency mitigation might be necessary or desired Mitigation might involve a change in current management actions to eliminate inconsistencies and improve the recreation experiences being provided The guidelines in Chapter 4 WROS Management can assist managers in both idenriFvin and miti arin inrnn 139 rPnriP Figure 17 depicts an inconsistency mitigation tool with two dimensions 1 the degree of impact and 2 the degree of reasonableness to mitigate There may be situations where inconsistencies have a high impact on the intended water recreation opportunity yet there is no reasonable way to mitigate eg major highways commercial shipping holiday weekends Alternatively there are inconsistencies with high impact that can be easily mitigated eg remove unnecessary buoys restoration of eroded campsites or institute a speed limit Figure 17 is a tool to help sort the inconsistencies by their relative degree of impact or consequence to assess the ability of management to mitigate and to develop a prioritization scheme The output of inconsistency mitigation is a list and perhaps a map that identifies the type location and degree of inconsistencies Those inconsistencies with a high degree of severity extent or consequence and a Figure 17 A WROS Inconsistency Mitigation Tool Degree of impact or inconsistency Degree of reasonableness Negligible Minor Moderate High to mitigate None Low Priority D Priority C Moderate Priority C Priority B High Priority B PriorityA Chapter 2 WROS Inventory 49 Maps and photos are lmporlanllools m the inventory process 50 Chapter 2 W39ROS Invenwry high degree ofreasonable mitigation should be given the highest priority ie Priority A of attention by management Guidance on how to mitigate inconsistencies and to align the setting attributes is provided in b npter 4 WROS Management This concludes the WROS inventory stage From here the user of this guidebook has two options One if there is no formal planning process underway or anticipated in the near future the manager can take the WROS inventory information proceed to Cbapter 4 LVROS a ement and begin to implement its direction For exam le inconsistencies can be mitigated visitor maps and brochures can be improved to show the type and location ofWROS classes rules and regulations can be explained to the public more clearly as to why certain actions are desirable to protect the integrity of certain recreation opportunities local residents and special interest groups can be advised of the increased clarity in management direction a monitoring program can be initiated the WROS classes can be added to a geographic information system tourism welcome centers and web sites can more clearly inform t e prospective visitor as to what recreation opportunities are available and the WROS guidelines can be used to develop and justify an annual operating pla and budget Note that if the proposed changes in management are considered major and significant a NEPArCOmpliant planning process would be necessary Two if there is a planning process underway or anticipated in the near future the manager can take t e S inventory information proceed to Cbnpter 3 WROS Planning and begin to integrate the inventory information to describe the current situation Chapter 3 WROS Planning WROS Plannin N WROS is not a special or unique planning process WROS is a tool that helps bring water recreation considerations into a comprehensive and integrated planning process Metaphorically WROS is like a tree branch that connects to 39n stem or trunk of the tree that is WROS is one ofmany inventory tools that feed into an agency planning process Reclamation along with all local State and Federal land and water agencies has regulations and procedures describing in detail each step ofits planning process This chapter discusses how WROS integrates with and supplements the key steps ofa public recreation or resource planning process Scoping Identi 39 39r39 39 1 t A public i ne opportunities and constraints Identify recreation stakeholders and develop a plan for collaboration Assess quality and quantity of best available recreadonrrelated science and monitoring information Identify those areas or tirnes unsuitable for recreation nse Above Wllollre resources are often Planmng Cl39ltel39l slgnlrlcant publlc lssues and attractions arwa er Below access olllty ls oliell a slgnlrlcant o Compile important local State and Federal laws regulations policies Wm 55 resource commitments concession contracts maps and p ans 0 Establish operating principles eg recreation management ecosystem management and visitor capacity decision making 0 Define planning area time horizon available resources procedural steps a d responsibilities 0 Develop a working base map determine an appropriate scale of analysis assess GIS capabilities and secure current air photos 0 Select the decision criteria to be used to evaluate alternatives and assess recreational tradeoffs 0 Identify other administrative units or projects comparables or analogs that have similar recreation situations uses and patterns 52 Chapter3 WROSPlanning Scoping Planning Criteria Inventorying Formulating Alternatives Evaluating Alternatives Selecting Alternatives Implementing Monitoring Evaluating Adapting Agency Planning Process InventOIying I Integrate inventory maps depicting the overall current WROS classifications for the study area and all associated information in the development of WROS inventory See Chapter 2 WROS Inventory in this guidebook I Develop WROS GIS overlays if possible that are compatible With other GIS overlays eg vegetation recreation facilities roads Wildlife habitat topography private land and heritage resources I Identify current and future recreation demand Measuring the demand for any public good or service is both an art and a science It involves identifying current use and users in the study area their use locations type of activity duration travel patterns origins participation percentages and quality of recreation opportunities It may also involve asking ie using social surveys What the public in the local or regional area would like to have available that is not currently available Figures 18 and 19 depict several dimensions of measuring recreation demand Who What and how Figure 13 A Recreation Demand Measurement Matrix What to Measure 0 Preferred Preferred Preferred Preferred Who to Measure Recreation Recreation Recreation Recreation Activities Settings Experiences Bene ts Current Visitors Local Community Residents and Stakeholders Regional Residents and Stakeholders 54 Chapter 3 WROS Planning I Many local State and Federal agencies are challenged to measure recreation and tourism demand Thus it would be helpful to examine a variety ofinformation sources such as O The Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans SCORPs developed by each State park agency to secure Land and Water Conservation Fund monies The National Survey on Recreation and the Environment NSRE managed by the US Forest Service s Southeast Forest Experiment Station wwwsrsfsfedustrends The US Fish and Vildlife Service s hunting fishing and watchable wildlife participation database State and county tourism reports of visitation and economic impacts Other public agency plans studies and visitation counts County land use or recreation master plans Special studies by various outdoor recreation groups and special interest groups eg Ducks Unlimited Trout Unlimited Bass Anglers Association American Recreation Coalition American Canoe Association Sporting Goods Manufacturing Association and Outdoor Industry Association University and agency research publications Figure 19 Measuring Recreation Demand Involves Different Types of Tools Types of Recreation Demand Variables to Measure Primary Tools Secondary Tools Recreation Behaviors I What activities do visitors participate in and when where and for how long I What settings do people visit and when where for how long and for what activities I What are the characteristics of the visiting groups e g size age structure family or friends type of equipment favorite locations I Roadtrail counters and turnstiles Cameras and videos Air photos Registrations and reservations Field ranger observation logs Volunteer host logs Rentals purchases leases Visitor diaries Questionnaires interviews focus groups open houses I National State or community surve s I Maintenance and law enforcement reports I Local or State traffic counts I Local sales and taxes on related recreation goods and services I Local or State tourism visitation data I Observations by residents longtime visitors business people and stakeholders Public Preferences I What are the most preferred recreation opportunities I What are the preferences among currently available recreation opportunities I What is the importance of the natural and cultural resources in the area eg wildlife sh history I What are the future trends I What is the economic value of the recreation opportunities I What are the reasons for not visiting the area I How did the visitor learn about the area ie information sources Mail questionnaires Onsite questionnaires Onsite interviews Telephone interviews Focus groups Public open houses Suggestion boxes Field ranger observation and conversation logs Comment cards I Expert panels I National State and county surveys I Letters editorials and conversation logs I Other local State or Federal plans or impact statements I Newspaper surveys Chapter 3 WROS Planning 55 Identify current and anticipated non recreational use and users in the study area location duration type of effect and anticipated changes County records on taxes building permits development plans land use Zoning commerce trends and other local and State reports can be helpful Inventory all human built structures recreation and nonrecreation infrastructure services programs personnel budgets partners and expected operational changes Assess the regional recreation supply of Water recreation opportunities including those provided by other agencies and the private sector Within the visitation region Figure 20 illustrates how the regional supply of opportunities can be depicted Compare current resource and social conditions With the desired quality standards and map locations of known or likely impairment Figure 20 A Hypothetical Comparison of Reservoirs Based on the Percent of Water Surface Acres by WROS Class Regional Lakes Urban Suburban Rural Rural Semi Primitive surface acres shoreline Developed Natural Primitive miles Folsom 1 1400 75 0 20 70 10 0 0 Pardee 225737 0 0 30 60 10 0 Comanche 770053 0 0 75 25 0 0 New Hogan 440050 0 0 60 40 0 0 Tulloch 126031 0 80 20 0 0 0 Don Pedro 12960 160 0 0 50 50 0 0 Lake McClure 740080 0 0 70 30 0 0 Millerton 49005 1 0 10 60 20 10 0 Gross Aver ages 0 10 57 32 2 0 56 Chapter 3 WROS Planning Formulating Alternatives I The WROS map generated in the WROS inventory depicts alternative 1 or the current recreation management situation often referred to as the no action or no changequot alternative I For each additional alternative considered in the planning process a revised WROS map is generated to depict change from the current situation I A matrix is developed to understand key differences and to ensure consideration ofa reasonable range of alternatives Figures 21 22 and 23 provide examples of how WROS can be used to help create a reasonable range of alternatives and also how to display and evaluate alternatives Evaluating Alternatives I Figures 21 22 and 23 are examples of how WROS can be used to help evaluate the proposed alternatives Furthermore the decision criteria identified in the previous planning step ie development of planning criteria are used to evaluate the positive and negative consequences or impacts of each alternative In this instance the planning criteria can also be considered key indicatorsquot to assess the degree of change from one alternative to other alternatives in particular to compare the no action existing condition alternative to the other alternatives I Each alternative Will have different strengths and weaknesses and it is likely that one or two of the alternatives among the range provided Will be preferred It is beneficial to examine the preferred alternatives more closely in order to mitigate their most significant negative consequences or impacts and to integrate the strengths from other alternatives This facet of evaluating the alternatives has been called mitigation assessment and enhancement analysis Implementing and Monitoring I This step involves the implementation of the selected or preferred alternative which includes implementing the WROS strategy proposed in the alternative Inconsistency mitigation and the matrix in figure 17 Chapter 3 WROS Planning 57 Figure 21 An Example Evaluation Matrix for Comparing Management Alternatives Using WROS Evaluation Criteria Alternative 1 S RD RN SPP Alternative 2 S RD RN SPP E 5 U39 0quot gt1 Recreation management prescription for each WROS class eg objectives and quality standards Number and percent of water and land acres by WROS class a Spring b Summer c Fall d Winter Percent of water surface acres by WROS class for other water bodies in the region lVIajor management actions and programs Boat capacity for selected locations Estimated budget and personnel needs Economic benefits a Projected Visitor expenditures b Public valuation Figure 22 A Bar Graph Comparison of Four Alternatives Based on the Percent of water Surface Acres for each WROS Class Urban E Suburban El Rural Developed Rural Natural El Semi Primitive I Primitive 0 5 10 Alter 4 Alter 3 Alter 2 Alter 1 15 20 25 30 35 40 58 Chapter 3 WROS Planning Figm 23 An Example of Using WROS to Compare Alternatives 0 20 40 60 80 Chapter3 WROSPlanning 59 in chapter 2 are useful in prioritizing and scheduling the implementation of activities and programs over time and across the study area I Monitoring is a vital tool to help managers learn from their efforts to be responsive and to make good changes during implementation ie adaptive management It is important to integrate monitoring activities into the responsibilities of all personnel and to View monitoring as an on going and routine management responsibility The monitoring program need not be complex but does need to cover important components 1 monitor selected standards at sample sites see the guidelines in Chapter 4 WROS Management and assess the current situation versus the desired or intended guidelines 2 monitor the actual versus desired or intended water recreation opportunity for an area eg type amount location duration and quality of recreation opportunity and 3 monitor the actual versus planned annual budgets personnel assignments activities actions and programs I Preferably on an annual basis a staff meeting should be held to review the monitoring data identify potential reasons for achieving or not achieving planned targets and standards propose strategies to mitigate negative consequences or new circumstances and discuss priority actions and locations Adaptive management is an expectation in the WROS system Change should be expected as a result of knowledge gained from monitoring as well as from new science information or circumstances Yet adaptation and change should be deliberate and based on the same standards for decision making as prescribed in chapter 1 Evaluating and Adapting I This is an on going step of assessing the information gathered by monitoring and taking steps to alter the management to achieve the desired goals and objectives This concludes Chapter 3 IVROS Planning A preferred alternative has been chosen The manager is now responsible for maintaining the integrity of the resource and the water recreation opportunities as set forth in the plan Chapter 4 WROS Management provides guidelines to help ensure this integrity 60 Chapter 3 WROS Planning WROS Management Above trails are importanth ac Water Center monitoring recreation use l5 critical Bottom this patrol boat and ine law enforcement it rovides a very important management tool 62 Chapter l W39ROS Management N Recall from Cbapter 1 Intrudurlinn that recreation managers provide rerreqlim l npparmnilies Managers provide opportunities for visitors to participate in a type ofrecreation activity in a specific setting defined by its important physical social and management attributes to realize a particular type of experience and subsequent bene ts See figure 1 in chapter 1 This section contains recommended management guidelines for many setting attributes that when considered together compose and define the WROS class and its recreation 39 manager is manag opportuni For exam le ifa inga for r section ofa lake or river ural developed recreation the guidelines in the rural developed column should be duly considered Management guidelines are intended to provide guidance yet be flexible and adaptable to special local situations They serve as triggers or triprwires to signal that further assessment or action may be necessary eg more monitoring patrols or discussion The fact that a guideline or standard is not being met oes not in and ofitself obligate or direct management action but does signal that the appropriate level of due deliberation and diligence be ta en Guidelines also are critical for a quality monitoring program because they provide a reference point baseline or anc or 39ch managers can compare current actual conditions to the desired conditions reflected by the guidelines Deviation from the recommended guidelines will occur occasionally et y a decision to deviate shoul e made only after careful an deliberation of the facts and circumstances It is important to thoughtfully address the basic 39 39l t e deviation violate the integrity of the WROS system Sound professional judgment and questions What is the justification for any deviation and wi the rule of reasonableness see chapter 1 should be the standards for decision making It is also important to include a written detailed explanation in administrative record for future administrative or judicial inquiries Management Guidelines This section provides guidelines for the physical social and management attributes across each WROS class This section will continue to evolve and imp e over time with management experience and greater input from professionals For each specific attribute in this section a qualitative or quantitative descriptor conveys the appropriateness or recommended degree or extent that each attribute may be present for each WROS class Figure 10 is repeated below for clarification of the descriptors used in following guidelines Figure 10 Repeated from Chapter 1 The Scale of Degree used in WROS Rural Rural Semi Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive 80100 5080 2050 1020 310 03 Dominant Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor Very minor Extensive Widespread Common Infrequent Little Very little A great deal Very obvious Apparent Periodic Seldom Rare Extremely Very Moderately Somewhat Slightly Not at all Physical Setting Guidelines Physical Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Degree of Extensive or Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor little Very minor Development dominant or Widespread common infrequent or sel om very little or Degree that dams or apparent or periodic rare major bridges marinas parks resorts highways or other municipal industrial or commercial structures are present Sense of Extensive or Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor little Very minor Closeness to a dominant or Widespread common infrequent or se om very little or Communi or apparent or periodic rare Degree that visitors sense that they are close to the sights sounds and smells typical of a community Chapter 4 WROS Management 63 Physical Setting Guidelines Continued Physical Attributes Urban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive Degree of Natural Resource Modi cation resources have been altered y man activity technology or development Extensive or dom inant Very prevalent or Widespread Prev alent com m on or apparent Oc casional infrequent or periodic Mnor little or seldom Ve minor very little or rare Distance from Development on or Adjacent to the Water Resource Mileage from dams major bridges marinas resorts or other municipal industrial commercial or residential areas Less than 05 mile 052 miles 25 miles 58 miles 810 miles More than 10 miles Degree that Natural Ambiance Dominates the Area Degree that there is a sense of tranquility and opportunity to see hear and smell nature Very minor very little or rare Minor little or seldom Occasional infre quent or periodic Prev alent c om m on or apparent Very prevalent or Wide spread Extensive dominant or a great deal Water quality Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Exceed State Exceed State standards State standards State standards State standards State standards standards standards Air quality Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Meet or exceed Exceed State Exceed State standards State standards State standards State standards State standards standards standards Visual quality Maximum Maximum Modification Partial retention Retention Preservation objective modification modification Communication Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA towers may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom prevalent occasional 64 Chapter 4 WROS Management Physical Setting Guidelines Continued Physical Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Silos and stacks Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom prevalent occasional Break wall Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA riprap may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom channelization prevalent occasional Hum anbuilt Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA structures may be extensive may be very may be common may be seldom and activities prevalent occasional Commercial air Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA traffic eg may be extensive may be very may be common may be seldom noise contrails prevalent occasional number Social Setting Guidelines Social Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive anltlve Degree of Extensive or Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor little Very minor Visitor Presence dominant or Widespread common infrequent or se very little or Degree that the or apparent or periodic rare sights sounds and smells of other visitors their equipment or their impacts or litter are present Degree of Extensive or Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Minor little Very minor Visitor dominant or Widespread common infrequent or seldom very little or Concentration or apparent or periodic rare areas good fishing spots camp areas Chapter 4 WROS Management 65 Social Setting Guidelines Continued Social Attributes Urban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive Degree of Solitude and Remoteness Degree that visitors view themselves as being alone and far Wa from civilization in a Wild Very little Little Occasional Prev alent Very prevalent Dominate or extensive Degree of Non Recreational Use if Any Degree that the sights sounds and smells of non recreational use and users are present ie activities associated With commerce Work places industry roads airplanes agriculture and communications Extensive or dom inant Very prevalent or Widespread Prev alent com m on or apparent Oc casional infrequent or periodic Mnor little or seldom Very minor very little or rare Reasonable standard for the percent of extremely or very satisfied visitors see sca e in Figure 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 Reasonable standard for the percent of extremel dissatisfied visitors see Figure 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Reasonable standard for the percent of visitors who would like to visit the area again 70 70 70 70 70 70 66 Chapter 4 WROS Management Social Setting Guidelines Continued Social Attributes Urban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive Reasonable standard for the percent of visitors Who would tell others that this site is a good place to visit 80 80 80 80 80 80 Reasonable number of audio boat encounters per day NA NA NA NA Less than 10 boats per day Less than 3 boats per day Reasonable number of visual boat encounters per day NA NA NA NA Less than 10 boats per day Less than 3 boats per day Re asonable standard for accidents per number of boat launches 01 01 01 005 005 001 Reasonable standard for the percent of emergency medical responses per number of recreation groups 01 01 01 005 005 001 Reasonable standard for the percent of verbal or physical con icts per number of boat launches 01 01 01 005 005 001 Reasonable standard for the percent of noise disturbances per Lumber of recreation groups 10 10 10 5 1 1 Chapter 4 WROS Management 67 Social Setting Guidelines Continued Social Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban S burban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Reasonable 25 20 20 10 5 5 crowding see scale in Figure 10 Reasonable 20 20 20 20 10 10 standard for the percent of repeat visitors indicating the resource is extremely or very adversely effected see scale in Figure 10 Reasonable 20 20 20 20 20 20 standard for the percent of repeat visi ors indicating the experience has been extremely or very adversely effected since a Figure 10 Reasonable 10 10 10 5 5 5 standard for the percent of visitors complaining about the same specific issue 68 Chapter 4 WROS Management Managerial Setting Guidelines Managerial Attributes Urban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive Degree of management personnel boat patrols signage equipment beacons water mar ers buoys entry stations ss zones d programs are present Extensive or dom inant Very prevalent or Widespre ad Prev alent com m on or apparent Occasional infre quent or periodic Minor little or se m inor little or rare Very very Degree of Public Access Facilities Degree that developed access facilities are present such as boat ramps paved roads and trails or swim beaches Extensive or dom inant Very prevalent or Widespre ad Prev alent com m on or apparent Occasional infrequen or periodic Minor little or se Very minor very little or rare Degree of Developed Recreation Facilities and 39te campgrounds pump stations paved arking utilities hitheaters picnic ay areas centers r concessions such as marinas or resorts are present Extensive or dom inant Very prevalent or Widespre ad Prev alent com m on or apparent Occasional infre quent or periodic Minor little or seldom Very minor very little or rare Chapter 4 WROS Management 69 Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Degree of Extensive or Very prevalent Prevalent Occasional Mnor little Very minor Visitor Services dominant or widespread common infrequent or seldom very little or and or apparent or periodic rare Conveniences Degree that restaurants iel boat rentals guide services food stores medical services utilities lighting or telephones and faxes are within a ew ml 65 Reasonable 6575 decibels 6575 decibels 5565 decibels 5565 decibels 4555 decibels 3545 decibels maximum decibel levels Reasonable 3545 mph 3545 mph 3545 mph 1530 mph 515 mph 5 mph maximum boat slow wake no wake speed Reasonable Less than 30 Less than 30 Less than 30 Less than 15 No wait No wait launch time minutes minutes minutes minutes Reasonable Less than 30 Less than 30 Less than 30 Less than 15 No wait No wait retrieval time minutes minutes minutes minutes Quiet times 10 pm to 6 am 10 pm to 6 am 10 pm to 6 am 10 pm to 6 am 247 247 Reasonable 1 to 10 acres 10 to 20 acres 20 to 50 acres 50 to 110 acres 110 to 480 acres 480 to 3200 minimum 14 sq mi 34 sq mi acres 5 sq mi number of at water acres per oat Reasonable 18 mile 14 mile 14 mile 2 mile or a 20 2 miles or a 1 4 miles separation 220 yds 440 yds 440 yds minute hour separation or a 2 hour between river separation separation boating groups Vehicle parking 25 per acre 20 to 25 per acre 15 to 20 per acre 10 to 15 per acre NA NA at beach and picnic sites Houseboat size 16 feet wide 16 feet wide 16 feet wide 16 feet wide 16 feet wide NA maximum wi t Space between 125 times the 125 times the 125 times the 125 times the NA NA houseboats on mooring balls length of the boat length of the boat length of the boat length of the boat Preferable houseboats would be in dock slips Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Minimum 5 5 5 10 NA NA number of acres per group campsite in developed campground Campsites per 5 to 10 per acre 5 to 10 per acre 3 to 5 per acre 3 per acre NA NA developed campground lLin1mum NA NA 18 mile A mile 12 mile or out of 1 mile or out of distance between 220 yds 440 yds sight and sound sight and sound dispersed of other parties of other parties shoreline campsites outside of developed campgrounds Mnimum NA NA 18 mile A mile 2 mile and out 1 mile and out of distance between 220 yds 440 yds and of sight and sight and sound oating out of sight of sound of other of other campsites other campsites campsites campsites outside developed campgrounds Picnic and day Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA use areas may be extensive may e very may be common prevalent occasional Designated Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA beach areas may be extensive may be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Paved boat Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA ramps may be extensive may e very may be common may be prevalent occasional Unpaved boat NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA ramps may be common may be may be seldom occasional Chapter 4 WROS Management 71 Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Overnight Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA security lights may be extensive may be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Marine Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and sanitation may be required may be required may be required may be required may be required may be required devices on boats Modern Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA restrooms eg may be extensive may be very may be common may be ush toilets prevalent occasional electricity Rustic septic or NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA vault toilets may be common may be seldom occasional Floating NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA camping may be common may be may be seldom platforms occasional Designated Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and campsites may be extensive may be very may be common may be seldom may be very prevalent occasional little Interpretive Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA signs may be extensive may be very may be common ma be may be seldom prevalent occasional Directional signs Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom prevalent occasional Regulatory signs Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom prevalent occasional Visitor centers Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common ma be prevalent occasional Paved trails Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent occasional Unpaved trails NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and may be common may be may be seldom may be very few occasional 72 Chapter 4 WROS Management Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive anltlve Waterbased Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA trails eg boat may be extensive m ybe very may be common may be may be seldom raft scuba prevalent occasional Paved parking Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent Unpaved parking NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA may be common may be may be seldom occasional Modern full Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA service RV and may be extensive may be very may be common tent prevalent occasional campgrounds Rustic or NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA primitive may be common may be may be seldom campgrounds occasional eg no utilities Largegroup Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA picnic and may be extensive may be very may be common may be camping prevalent occasional facilities Full service Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA resorts may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent Full service Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA marinas may be extensive m y be very may be common prevalent Fuel services and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA storage may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent occasional Golf courses Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA may be extensive m ybe very may be common prevalent Sports fields Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent Chapter 4 WROS Management 73 Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive anmve Community boat Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA docks may be extensive may be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Youth camps and NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA dude ranches may be common may be may be seldom occasional Interpretive Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA programs eg may be extensive may be very may be common may be trail or boat prevalent occasional tours F ishi Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA tournaments may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom prevalent occasional Boat racing Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA NA events may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent Life guards Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common prevalent occasional Reservation Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate systems eg launch times p camp51tes tours User fee systems Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate eg camping tours entrance launches services Administrative Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA buildings eg may be extensive may be very may be common entrance stations prevalent occasional employee housing equipment storage Landbased food Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA service may be extensive may be very may be common may be concessions prevalent occasional 74 Chapter 4 WROS Management Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Longterm use Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA permitted may be extensive m y be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Outdoor NA NA Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA shooting or may be common may be archery ranges occasional Amphitheaters Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA may be extensive may be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Wildlife viewing Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA stations may be common occasional General utilities Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA electricity may be extensive may be very may be common may be sewer water prevalent occasional Access for Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate persons with w ere w ere w ere w ere w ere w ere disability reasonable reasonable reasonable reasonable reasonable reasonable Fireplacesgrills Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA may be extensive m y be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Fish cleaning Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and NA NA stations may be extensive may be very may be common may be prevalent occasional Fishery habitat Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate but Appropriate but improvements not intrusive not intrusive Vegetative Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate but Appropriate but management not intrusive not intrusive Wildfire Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate but Appropriate but management not intrusive not intrusive Resource Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate but Appropriate but monitoring not intrusive not intrusive Visitor Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate but Appropriate but monitoring not intrusive not intrusive Chapter 4 WROS Management 75 Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Attributes Urban Suburban Rural Developed Rural Natural Semi Primitive Primitive Minimum standard for m onitoring visitor use type amount location duration Daily in primary season weekly in secondary Daily in primary season weekly in secondary Daily in prim ary season weekly in secondary We ekly 1n secondary Weekly 1n primary season In onthly in se condary Monthly in prim ary season monthly in secondary Minim um standard for m onitoring v isitor satisfaction perceptions pre ferences Every 3 years Every 3 years Every 3 years Every 3 years Every 3 years Every 3 years Minim um standard for recreation dem and and supply trends Every 3 years Every 3 years Every 6 years Every 6 years Every 6 years Every 6 years Limit on the number of visitors to protect the resources Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Limit on the number of visitors to protect quality of experience Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Limit on the number of visitors to protect special or important values Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate 76 Chapter 4 WROS Management Managerial Setting Guidelines Continued Managerial Rural Rural Semi Attributes Urban Suburban Developed Natural Primitive Primitive Limit on the Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate number of visitors to protect health and hum an safety Management Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and zoning eg may be extensive may be very may be common may be seldom may be very wakeless areas prevalent occasional little no camping security areas Speed limits on Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate oats Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and enforcement may be extensive may be very may be common may be may be seldom ay be very presence prevalent occasional little Volunteers Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Cooperating Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate associations Reservoir Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and drawdown may be extensive may be very may be common may be seldom may be very prevalent occasional little ln stream flow Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and Appropriate and or reservoir may be extensive may be very may be common ma be may be seldom may be very elevation prevalent occasional little modification Chapter 4 WROS Management 77 Boating Capacity In 2002 the Federal Interagency Esk Force on Visitor Capacity on Public Lands and Waters delivered its final report to the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks US Department of the Interior The Esk Force Was a 2 year effort to improve visitor capacity decision making affecting the lands and Waters managed by the Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Reclamation Fish and Wildlife Service Forest Service and National Park Service The report contains important background information on the concept of visitor capacity a set of principles and decision criteria for decision making seven tools to help make better and more defensible capacity decisions and a directory of 100 locations in the United States that have numerical visitor capacities Pages 10 22 of the report are particularly relevant to WROS and to this guidebook and are excerpted below The full report can be obtained by contacting the National Recreation and Park Association in Ashburn Virginia or at wwwnrpaorg The citation for the final report is Haas G E 2002 Vixitar Capacity on Public Land and ter5 Making Better Decisions A Report of the Federal Interagency Task Force on Public Lands Submitted to the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks US Department of the Interior Washington DC May 1 2002 Published by the National Recreation and Park Association Ashburn Virginia ISBN 0 929581 66 0 The excerpted pages are followed by a set of recommended boating capacity coefficients for each WROS class and a decision tool to help ensure that important factors are duly considered 78 Chapter 4 WROS Management Visitor Capacity on Public Lands and Waters Making Better Decisions Excerpted 2 Task Force Perspectives An Evolving Tool Management concepts and tools evolve over time with new science information and experience Recent examples of evolving tools include ecosystem management collaborative planning and adaptive management Similarly the concept of visitor capacity has and will continue to evolve Section Two describes how the Task Force views visitor capacity and provides an important foundation for those new to the concept or unfamiliar with public land planning Task Force Perspectives De nition of a Visitor Capacity Visitor capacity is de ned as the supply or prescribed number of appropriate visitor opportunities that will be accommodated in an area The Task Force adopted the phrase visitor capacity because of its clarity its brevity and the public39s familiarity with the concept in everyday life eg restaurants golf courses special events hotels airlines Excerpt Figure 1 Definition of a Visitor Capacity The terms in the definition were chosen carefull Suppy means the quantity or amount available prescribed meanys a decision by a person of The SUPPM or authority number means a speci c number or numeric range appropriate prescribed number means in accordance with management direction visitor opportunity refers of Visitor to the integrated package of activities settings experiences and benefits oppon39untes that will accommodate recognizes that there are conditions and considerations that be accommodated in in uence a decision and implies that the use of public resources is a privilege and has responsibilities and w is an inclusive term that can refer to a facility program recreation system or any geographic scale such as a site unit or region an area Purposes of a Visitor Capacity A capacity is a concept and tool with widespread application and purpose in our everyday lives restaurants airports golf courses concerts classrooms lowincome housing hotel occupancy lobster hanests annual timber cuts ozone alerts airtravel operations water storage mortgage loans insurance policies power grids military response landfills welfare benefits prison facilities urban housing density emergency medical response sport hunting sport shing museums amusement parks group tours and countless other manifestations Chapter 4 WROS Management 79 80 Chapter 4 WROS Management The overarching function of a visitor capacity is to sene as one tool to help sustain natural and cultural resources as well as the recreation opportunities and other benefits these resources afford the public More speci cally the Task Force recognizes nine purposes of a visitor capacity see Figure 2 Types of Capacity Expression A capacity is the number or numeric range related to the relevant social units detailed in the management objectives or desired future conditions for an area In some cases a speci c number may be appropriate while in others a range may be more desirable There are situations where multiple capacities will be decided for an area or where capacities will vary by the time of year Examples of capacity expressions include 35 designated backcountry campsites 15 permitted wildlife viewers per morning 200 camping groups per night 10 large groups of horseback riders per summer season 1518 people per interpretive program or walk 2500 permitted usedays per season 1 educational permittee per summer season 3 per winter season 2 research permits per year 75 boats at one time of less than 25 hp on reservoirX 16 motorized OHV groups per day 5 PWCs at one time beyond 250 yards of shoreline 2O snowmobiles per 45minute intervals 240 per weekday 15 persons per timed entry to historic home museum or cave 5O roaded hatural and 15 semiprimitive campsites in unitX 80100 raft launches per weekday 150170 per weekend 550 boat slips 5O shoreline campsites when water level is below 2550 elevation 25 ice shing groups at one time 4 holes per party 3040 vehicles at one time at the trailhead 200250 persons at one time on the summit 999999999999999999 In any case the numeric capacity represents supply of appropriate visitor opportunities that will be accommodated in an area beyond which important resources recreational opportunities or other important values may be at risk Excerpt Figure 2 Multiple Purpose of a Visitor Capacity Supply measurement a numeric capacity is a measurement of the supply of available recreation opportunities that will be accommodated in an area Trigger foractions and resources a capacity is a trigger point ie a number or numeric range whereby as current use approaches or exceeds the available supply predetermined management responses can be activated or resources allocated Anurneric capacity is in effect a trigger or signal to justify and activate a suite of management responses In some instances use exceeding capacity may justify the expansion of the supply of appropriate recreation opportunities and in other instances it may justify the alteration or limitation of use or eman Public and resource risk management a numeric capacity is a reasonable and responsible risk management tool for situations where nature or human activity creates a highrisk environment for the public or where human behavior might put the natural or cultural resources at risk Private sector and communi predictabili a numeric capacity provides clarity for business people to act and plan accordingly By comparing current demand with available supply private sector perrnittees and communities can anticipate their growth trend and potential plan appropriate investment opportunities or divestiture steps or take collaborative actions with land managers to mitigate negative consequences of demand approaching or exceeding capacity Visitor trip planning a numeric capacity particularly when compared to realtime use levels canbe very helpful information to a discerning recreationist For example visitors might nd it useful to be informed that a beach backcountry lake area or battle eld is at 30 90 or 120 ofvisitor capacity This information may result in a voluntary redistribution of people across place or time while still allowing freedom of choice and help the quality of the experience Administrative and historic record complex decisions needto have supporting documentation detailing how and why decisions were made and the process that was used This record becomes the historic anchor from which to learn by experience and to compare yesterday with today39s new information data and circumstances It also is vital in responding to judicial inquiries for demonstrable evidence of the sound professional judgment Regional recreation planning numeric capacities are fundamental for regional recreation planning recreation demand and supply analysis multijurisdictional allocation decisions coordinated visitor trip plannin information systems identi cation of recreation facility needs and investment opportunities and identi cation of alternate or substitute opportunities reasonably nearby when access is limited at a particular site Allocation decisions a numeric capacity is the supply of available recreation opportunities and is fundamental for making allocation decisions involving where when or how many of a particular recreation opportunity can be accommodated eg out tter and guide permittees birders concessionaires mountain bikes personal water craft youth groups Similarl a numeric capacity metric is fundamental for making multiple use allocations decisions eg timber harvesting research closures reservoir drawdown Limiting public use a numeric capacity can serve as the measurement of allowable use or access that is permissible for a certain time or place Chapter 4 WROS Management 81 Excerpt Figure 3 Capacity Can Trigger Triggering a Change in Supply or Demand A capacity can trigger a change in either the demand for or supply of visitor opportunities During a planning process in which a visitor capacity is established it would also be helpful to establish one or more trigger points that serve as agreed upon visitation levels for activating a management review That is as visitor use demand increases towards or is within the capacity range it would activate a predetermined triggers to signal consideration of alternative management responses Figure 3 graphically depicts how a capacity can trigger a change in the supply or demand in visitor opportunities Figure 3a depicts a desire to decrease the amount of visitor opportunity through one or more management actions ie reducing visitor demand of an area Figure 3b depicts a desire to increase the amount of visitor opportunity ie increasing the supply or capacity of an area through one or more management actions while Figure 3c depicts the desire to reduce the supply of visitor opportunity ie reducing the supply or capacity of an area There are many management actions and combinations of actions that can affect the demand or supply of visitor opportunities in an area Examples would include a change in the design location or type of facilities and infrastructure site hardening facility or site rehabilitation and restoration a change in management presence or regulations an increase in visitor interpretation or stewardship programs such as Leave No Trace Tread Lightly and OHV Safety Rider an increase in interagency marketing efforts to provide better information about the available recreational opportunities in the region a reallocation or tradeoff of visitor opportunities on nearby lands to mitigate for the change of opportunities on other lands an alternative transportation system an inducement for visitors to distribute themselves willingly across time or place of visit a resenation system a differential fee program a realtime intelligent visitation system conveying the current usecapacity level ratio eg 20 80 120 of capacity designating location or time of visit eg assigned campsite climbing route boat launch time limited hunting unit Tuesday mountain biking and Thursday horseback riding and time or area closures a Unacceptable I E I x c 6 III c Acceptable E I 1 Time gt b Increased Supply Unacceptable I E I x c 6 III c Acceptable E I n c Reduced Supply Unacceptable I E I x c 6 III c 9 9V g 30quot Acceptable Time gt 82 Chapter 4 WROS Management The Task Force wishes to highlight two important cautions First public land managers manage an area to provide a particular type of opportunity to the public Each recreation opportunity is an integrated package of activities settings experiences and benefits see Figure 4 Thus to change the setting might also change the type of experience being provided the public For example changing the infrastructure and lowsite density of a primitive campground to one with paved roads flush toilets and hig39isite density would change the type of recreation experience Any change in supply or demand must therefore be consistent with the agency39s mandate mission policy and management objectives for the area in question Second the Task Force embraces adaptive management and recognizes that visitor capacities will change with new science professional experience monitoring information technology trends opportunities and circumstances Adaptive management embraces the concept that the quality of sound professional judgment is enhanced over time with clear and speci c decisions followed by adequate monitoring learning and adaption However any changes must not be arbitrary A reasonable rule of thumb is that a change in capacity requires a level of information science analysis certainty and deliberateness that is greater than what was used to make the previous capacity decision Conserving Resources and Recreation Opportunities The overarching function of a visitor capacity is to help consene resources as well as the opportunities and values they afford For some the goal of sustaining recreation opportunities is not viewed as being compatible with the goal of sustaining resources However the Task Force sees the relationship as synergistic Public land managers provide recreation opportunities to the public A recreation opportunity can be defined as the opportunity for a person to participate in a particular activim in a speci c setting in order to realize a preferred type of experience and subsequent benefits Figure 4 depicts that a recreation opportunity is an integrated package of activities settings experiences and benefits Excerpt Figure 4 A Recreation Opportunity RecreationActivity Setting Experience gtBenefits many activities physical many individual resource dimensions community attributes mutipe economic managerial senses environmemal attributes social attr butes agencies provide remazioni s society gains Chapter 4 WROS Management 83 84 Chapter 4 WROS Management The setting is further composed of three components physical resource attributes social attributes and management attributes Managerial attributes affecting an experience might include recreation facilities roads power lines interpretive programs signage fees rules regulations patrol cleanliness closures resenation systems concessions and OampM activities Social attributes affecting an experience might include other visitors recreation and nonrecreation to an area their behaviors equipment group size sounds and artifacts of previous visitors Natural resource attributes affecting an experience might include the type and variety of wildlife sh topography vegetation water air sounds soils canyons coral cave formations and colors The intersection of natural resources with a recreation opportunity is conveyed in the physical resource attributes That is a particular recreation opportunity is dependent upon a variety of physical resource attributes important to that experience Impairment of important resources natural or cultural is also impairment of recreation opportunities Conversely the provision of recreation opportunities contributes to a citizenry that is more knowledgeable caring and supportive of resource management and protection In a society where the public is sovereign impairment of public support is a tantamount to impairment of natural and cultural resources Stated othenNise consening resources depends upon consening appropriate recreation opportunities There are three important considerations in a successful synergistic relationship Appropriate Use Public land managers should favor those recreation opportunities that are dependent upon the important natural or cultural resource attributes for which the area has been designated or is being managed to protect Other recreation opportunities may not be appropriate and should be given less priority if provided for at all For example the Fish and Wildlife Senice has a mandate to focus on six wildlifedependentquot recreation opportunities for its refuges beyond which other opportunities are reviewed for appropriateness and compatibility The Task Force provides an appropriate usequot decisionmaking protocol later in this report Clarity Public land managers need to develop management objectives desired future conditions and standards that are unambiguous and measurable Qualitative expressions are necessary and helpful to provide contextual understanding but the precision and clarity offered by quantitative or numeric expressions are also needed A successful relationship between resources and recreation requires clear operational definitions of such terms as sustainable impairment adverse significant substantially unnoticeable unacceptable change appropriate use recreation experience and visitor satisfaction Learning and Adaptation The scienti c relationship between resources and recreation is not well understood In fact the multiplicity of factors and interactions may be beyond scientific determination and even human comprehension This possibility adds importance to the process of monitoring learning and adapting Public land managers must prepare to learn and adapt to new knowledge information and circumstances Learning over time requires the ability to look backwards and to understand the details of yesterday in comparison to today Thus it is important to maintain an administrative and historic record of unambiguous and measurable management objectives desired future conditions standards and capacity The Substantive Standard for E xcerpt Figure 5 VISItor Capacity Deciswn Making sound Personal Judgement Sound professional judgment is the substantive standard for decision A r a onable making by responsible public officials deCISIon that has given full and fair lnputs to a Capacity Decision Sound professional judgment relies on many consideration to all informational inputs Those particularly relevant to a visitor capacity decision the appropriate might Include information that is Q management objectives including all legislative and policy based upon guidance prinCIped and Q desired future conditions and quality standards resource social reasoned analysis management and the best Q current and future recreation demand who where what when available science how why Q current resources conditions uniqueness capability and trends and expemse and Q current management capability and suitability that complies With Q current type amount and design of facilities and infrastructure applicable laWS Q appropriateness compatibility of current or proposed recreation opportunities Q regional supply of the same and similar recreational opportunities Chapter 4 WROS Management 85 86 Chapter 4 WROS Management foreseeable changes in recreation and nonrecreational uses existing allocations to permittees and other land usesusers significance of the visitation issues and concerns potential for natural or cultural resource impairment type and amount of best available science and information level of uncertainty and risk surrounding consequences of decision and the O expected quality of the monitoring program 9999 Notes of Clarification The literature contains reference to many carrying capacities such as biological physical desigw social recreational facility transportation infrastructure program and public safety The Task Force views visitor capacity as an omnibus metric that gves due consideration to all these factors and others in the decision process listed above The degree of influence of each factor will vary across situations For example in one situation the biological considerations might weigh heavily while in anotherthey might not be relevant In another situation it might be the accumulative effects of the social transportation and biological considerations that significantly influences the visitor capacity decision The Procedural Standard for Visitor Capacity Decision Making While sound professional judgment is the substantive standard for capacity decision making a rational public planning process is the procedural standard for capacity decision making In addition to the procedural planning guidance provided by the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA each agency has tailored the NEPA guidance to their own agency39s needs and perspectives to create similar but unique planning processes terminology sequencing and other varying features The Task Force does not propose a new planning process but rather views a capacity decision as simply one decision among many that is made as part of an existing agency39s planning process Thus rather than including the planning model for each federal agency a generic planning model Figure 6 is presented to illustrate the link between the Task Force outputs shaded in white and a public planning process A narrative description on the following page further clarifies this link Generic Public Land Agency Planning Process The purpose of this generic planning process is to generally show where the products bolded of this Task Force t within a public planning process and to illustrate where numeric capacities are part of each alternative for due consideration in assessing consequences and selecting a preferred alternative Excerpt Figure 6 Planning Process u Planning Criteria Formulate Alternatives I A g B c g D Evaluate Alternatives I A B c D Select Preferred Alternative ImplementJMonitor EvaluateAdapt I l 8 Q I 5 lt l lt z 9 Q 0 Lu 0 Scoping Q identify significant public issues management concerns problems and opportunities Q identify stakeholders and a plan of collaboration Q assess the quality and quantity of scientific data and monitoring information Planning criteria Q laws regulations agency mission and policies Q principles eg biodiversity ecosystem management visitor capacity social justice Q planning horizon resources process and scale Q decision criteria to assess consequences of alternatives Q identi cation of units that have had similar experiences for consultation comparables or analogs Chapter 4 WROS Management 87 88 Chapter 4 WROS Management Q Inventory of the affected planning area Q resources types locations conditions uniqueness and ecosystem function Q social use and users locations type and quality of experience regional demandsupply and trends Q management infrastructure services programs personnel budget partners and expected changes Q recreation opportunities provided by other agenciesprivate sector within the visitation region Formulate a reasonable range of alternatives with each containing Q management prescriptions with narrative description and objectives Q desired future conditions and standards for important resource social and managerial attributes Q application of prescriptions to all or part of planning area zoning Q selected management tools and actions budget requirements and expected level of monitoring Q numeric capacity ranges and allocations if and where appropriate Q decision analysis tools that can help create a reasonable range of alternatives Evaluate alternatives see gure 7 Q application of decision criteria to assess consequences Q application of decision analysis tools Excerpt Figure 7 Evaluate Alternatives Management Objectives Desired Conditions Indicators and Standards I Management Actions 0 Zones 0 Capacities o Allocations Budget Requirement I Other Descriptors Q best available science and sliding scale of analysis Q consideration of tradeoffs and mitigation actions Select preferred alternative Q principles and decision criteria Q sound professional judgment Implement and monitor Q implement planned management activitiesprograms Q monitor actual visitation number and type Q monitor natural and humaninduced change to the natural and cultural resources Q monitor resource social and managerial indicators Evaluate and adapt Q systematically evaluate monitoring data and new information science and circumstances Q application of appropriate decision criteria and decision tools to proposed changes Q sound professional judgment 3 Principles and Decision Criteria This section addresses the first output of the Task Force principles and decision criteria for visitor capacity decision making Principles for Visitor Capacity Decision Making The Administrative Procedure Act 1946 60 Stat 237 5 USCA set forth the legal standard that decisions must be principled and reasoned39 that is arbitrary decisions are in violation of federal law Professional principles help meet this responsibility by clarifying institutional values philosophy and perspectives They sene as a guide and rule of thumb for making decisions and taking action and very importantly they help stakeholders understand and meaningfully participate in a planning process Below are principles that reflect important and central values for visitor capacity decision making Full and deliberate consideration of these Chapter 4 WROS Management 89 90 Chapter 4 WROS Management principles will contribute to a logical reasoned transparent and defensible decision Management direction principally de nes the visitor capacity regardless of whether the management direction or visitor capacity is explicitly stated or not stated at all A visitor capacity helps to sustain the integrity of natural and cultural resources as well as the important recreational and nonrecreational benefits they afford to local regional and national publics A visitor capacity is a complex decision that is based upon sound professional judgment ie de ned as a decision that has given full and fair consideration to all appropriate information that is based upon principled and reasoned analysis and the best available science and expertise and that complies with applicable laws A visitor capacity decision is made by a responsible official as part of a public planning process and in some instances may benefit from the thoroughness and legal sufficiency afforded by a NEPAcompliant planning process A visitor capacity quanti es the supply of available visitor opportunities that an area can accommodate and may also address the allocation of opportunities across the variety of affected visitors types of recreationists commercial operators educational programs scientists and others A visitor capacity decision considers the larger regional landscape and system of opportunities affecting the particular area of recreation concern A visitor capacity provides clarity for focused dialogue and an analysis of consequences across the proposed management alternatives under consideration in a planning process A visitor capacity decision uses a slidingscale rule in which the level of analysis is commensurate with the potential consequence of the decision A visitor capacity serves as a trigger or signal for managers permittees the general public and all stakeholders Q Visitor use approaching a capacity triggers consideration of a full range of reasonable management responses Q A visitor capacity decision needs to be adaptive to new science information uses technology trends conditions and other circumstances of importance Q The effectiveness of a visitor capacity depends on an adequate program of monitoring that is commensurate with the level of potential consequences risk and uncertainty Decision Criteria for Visitor Capacity Decision Making Arbitrary decisions are those made without principle and reason In natural resource planning nomenclature and in this report reasons for decisions are referred to as decision criteria Making Complex Decisions Less Complex A capacity decision is a complex decision The field of decision science provides many insights into making decisions For example one reason why decisions are complex is because while one person approaches a situation from one perspective and set of concerns another person approaches the same situation from another perspective and set of concerns Individuals will also view a situation differently because each carries their own suitcase of biases prejudices perceptions stereotypes backgrounds knowledge past experiences and other mental artifacts Another reason why decisions are complex is because humans have a limited mental capacity and memory to consider the multiple factors that are important This limitation works against a full and comprehensive analysis Thus an explicit list of decision criteria can serve several important functions in rational public planning First an explicit list of decision criteria developed early in the planning process with public input helps to make a decision process transparent and trackable to stakeholders These criteria help to establish the ground rules the rationale in a rational process and the pieces of the puzzle to be considered in the decision Second decision criteria can help in creatively developing a full set of reasonable alternatives In the formulation of the alternatives the decision criteria will identify Chapter 4 WROS Management 91 92 Chapter 4 WROS Management important content areas to be included in the description of the alternatives Third an explicit list of decision criteria helps assure a full fair adequate and deliberate evaluation and assessment of the consequences of each alternative Fourth decision criteria can improve communications and increase meaningful public participation understanding and support Fifth an explicit list of criteria is important when more advanced decision analysis is desired such as weighting ranking or mathematical computations Sixth an explicit list is demonstrable evidence for the administrative record And nally criteria are important for adaptive management because they help us understand and learn from past decisions and experiences Choosing Decision Criteria A decision maker has a responsibility to use sound judgment which is defined as full and fair considerationquot of the important issues and concerns expressed by managers and stakeholders The number and selection of criteria used to evaluate and assess the consequences of each alternative need to fully reflect and duly consider the circumstances at hand as well as being commensurate with the potential consequences of the decision to be made A reasonable rule of thumb is that as the magnitude of the potential consequences of the decision increase the number of criteria needed to adequately assess the situation also increases Sample Decision Criteria As previously discussed in the planning section a visitor capacity is one feature among many that can de ne and discriminate proposed alternatives The following list illustrates a wide variety of decision criteria that can be used to evaluate alternatives It is not intended to suggest that every criteria be used for each planning effort nor is it intended to suggest that a special set of criteria is needed for a capacity decision Excerpt Figure 3 Sample Decision Criteria Effects Ecological Integrity The degree to Which each alternative a ects unique or sensitive resources locally regionally or nationally affects the ecological integrity of site local vicinity or bioregion impacts the desired future conditions or quality standards ie extent of physicalaudio footprint duration timing reversibility cumulative effects affects the important or priority resources or values the area is being managed to protect hel s build or connect a larger regional system of resources has irreversible effects on resources or effects that cannot be restored or recovered coniinued Excerpt Figure 3 Sample Decision Criteria Continued Supported by Science The degree to which each alternative 0 is supported by scienti c study and expert consensus is supported by agency professionals advisors and consultants has a level of analysis that is commensurate with potential consequences 0 is based upon reasonable assumptions and trends 0 may involve highly uncertain risks or consequences 0 is based on unavailable or incomplete scienti c information 0 will secure needed scienti c information in the future 0 has an adequate monitoring program involving resource social and managerial attributes Level of Public Support The degree to which each alternative 0 is controversial among visitors locals regional and national publics is supported by visitors locales regional and national publics contributes to the desired welfare of stakeholders eg local communities the tourism industry adjacentlandowners educationalresearch institutions private operators concessionaires and special interest groups builds meaningful and appropriate partnerships with collaborators 0 causes harm or a unfair negative consequences to less advantagedpeople allows for options and opportunities for future generations Effects Integrity of Recreation Experience The degree to which each alternative affects the integrity ofthe recreation experience that the area is being managed for o is appropriate and consistent vviththe management objectives for the area 0 may compromise desired future conditions or quality standards ie extent of physicalaudio footprint duration timing reversibility cumulative effects affects unique or rare recreation opportunities locally regionally or nationally provides for unique or rare recreation opportunities locally regionally or nationally contributes to a large regional system ofrecreation opportunities 0 is based upon reasonable future social trends and assumptions 0 makes recreation opportunities more available to less advantaged publics attracts visitors who otherwise wouldnot visit 0 considers the latent or unmet demand of those publics not visiting provides an appropriate recreation experience by the least intrusive means 0 allows for personal choice freedom and spontaneity among visiting publics Management Suitability and Capability The degree to which each alternative affects the commemorative integrity or legislated purpose of the area affects public health and safety or contributes to public risks addresses consequences of delaying or not taking action can be changed or adapted given new science information or circumstances complements other important resource usesusers or values eg educational commercial research extractive restoration establishes a precedent for future action represents a future decision or commitment in principle as cumulative effects that are likely to be signi cant requires reallocated or increased resourcesin services personnel facilities programs or equrpmen is administratively feasible eg budget personnel equipment facilities OampM standards affects other management programs and services has consequences that can be mitigated ie avoid minimize or limit extent compensate restore rehabilitate reduce or eliminate End Of Excerpt Chapter 4 WROS Management 93 Boating capacity decisions are important Reasonable recreation boating capacity coef cients To help managers make better and more defensible boating capacity decisions a set of boating capacity coefficients has been developed based on collaborative expert opinion professional experience published articles and plans sound professional judgment the rule of reasonableness and the sliding scale rule of analysis discussed in chapter 1 of this guide oo oating coef cients in Figure 24 would be reasonable for a Level 1 analysis see Figure 9 A beating capacity me lrz39ent is de ned as tbe number nfwater smfare acres adequate fur eacb recreational boat in a partimlar lVROS class These coefficients can be multiplied by the suitable or available Water surface acres at each WROS class at a body ofWater to help justify and defend a boating capacity decision Additional scientific study and manitatitig can help teritie these boating capacity coefficients A beating capacity is de ned as tbe number nfrerreatz39nnal boats at ne time BAOT tbat will be acmmmmlatetl in an area 0139 tbe BAOTsfnr an area BAOT refers to the number of boats that are untethered from the shoreline or any docking apparatus whose occupants are pursuing recreational opportunities The following coefficients do not account for the inactive tecteatiatiaI boats moored at a tacit marina at a10tig the thateIitie tiat do they account at nonrrecreational boating activity eg commercial fishing shipping and law enforcement Because ofthe many factors that in uence a boating capacity decision a range of reasonable coefficients is provided for each WROS class in figure 24 A decision tool is also provided in figure 25 to help ensure that important factors are duly considered by managers deciding what part of the range may be most appropriate for the area in question Figure 24 A Range Reasonable Boating Capacity Coef cients WROS Class Range of Boating Coefficients Low end of range High end of range Urban 1 acreboat 10 acresboat Suburban 10 acresboat 20 acresboat Rural developed 20 acresboat 50 acresboat Rural natural 50 acresboat 110 acresboat 14 sq mi Semi primitive 1 10 acresboat 480 acresboat 34 sq mi Primitive 480 acresboat 3200 acresboat 5 sq mi Figure 25 A Boating Capacity Range Decision Tool The purposes of this decision tool are to help ensure that managers consider important factors affecting boating capacity and to help document the reasoned analysis used in making a boating capacity decision For each WROS zone consider the following factors that may affect boating capacity Circle the descriptor that best matches the situation The preponderance of the answers will indicate which part of the capacity range may be more reasonable Typical size of boats lt15 feet 16 to 25 feet gt25 feet Typical speed of boats lt10 mph 10 to 25 feet gt25 feet Diversity of boating 1 different types of boats low moderate high 2 different size of boats low moderate high 3 different speed of boats low moderate high Boater visitation pattern simple moderate complex predictable unpredictable Level of boater stewardship high moderate low civilityrespect for resource and others visitors Shoreline configuration simple moderate complex circular meandering Boater destination passthrough m ixed destination or passthrough area corridorintransit areaovernight area Extent of sensitive resources low medium high potential for impac Compatibility with adjacent high moderate low recreationnonrecreation land uses Islandsshallowshazards infrequent occasional frequent Historic public safety record infrequent occasional frequent accidentscomplaintsconflicts Level of boater managem entrules high moderate low inform ationeducationcompliance Other factors Suggested capacity range lower end mid r an ge higher end more boats fewer boats Chapter 4 WROS Management 95 96 Chapter 4 WROS Management