New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Kingdom Animalia-Sponges

by: Crystal Boutwell

Kingdom Animalia-Sponges BIOL 1030

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1030 > Kingdom Animalia Sponges
Crystal Boutwell
GPA 3.82

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the beginning of the notes on Kingdom Animalia and go through what has been covered on sponges so far. They are notes for the week of 3/21-3/24. This is material that will be on E...
Organismal Biology
Debbie Folkerts
Class Notes
vocab, Folkerts, Biology, organismal, Organismal Biology, BIOL 1030, animalia, animals, Sponges, Biodiversity, eukaryotes, Exam 3
25 ?




Popular in Organismal Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


Reviews for Kingdom Animalia-Sponges


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/24/16
K INGDOM A NIMALIA C OMMON C HARACTERISTICS -No cell walls -Oviparous (egg bearing) or ovoviviparous (the egg hatches in the womb) or viviparous (live bearing) -heterotrophic by ingestion  digestion  egestion -multicellular -monophyletic -asexual/sexual reproduction – gametic meiosis -motility, locomotory structures, some sessile -diverse. E VOLUTIONARY T RENDS 1. Level of Organization a. Cellular: cells carry out work as individuals, each cell is divided a task. b. Tissue: cells work together in groups, each group is assigned a task. c. Organ: a combination of tissues that work together d. Organ system: a combination of organs that work together. 2. Symmetry a. Animals gained symmetry as locomotion developed b. Asymmetrical  radial  bilateral (cephalization: the development of a head)  secondary radial symmetry 3. Body cavity a. Eucoelomate: has muscles on both sides of the body wall, complex, contains real organs b. Psuedocoelomate: has fluid or some other thing between the gut and the body wall, has sort of organs c. Acoelomate: without a body cavity. 4. Embryological development a. Zygote  MITOSIS IN PATTERNS  2 celled  4 celled  morula (wall of cells)  blastula stage gastrula stage (with development of a blastocoel and blastopore  Process of blastopore pushing in (gastolation)  diploblastic organism (2 germ layers, ectoderm and endoderm). Note: some animals development may stop here. However others continue.  more gastrulation  triploblastic (with ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) (have a simple gut) SECOND OPENING FORMS HERE; complete gut  b. If the mouth forms from the first opening (pushing in of blastopore), the animal is referred to as a Protostome c. If the anus forms from the first opening, the animal is referred to as a deuterostome. This is where we fit. d. 5. Segmentation = metamerism a. Tagmosis: body segments have slowly become fused to form a body region b. Comes in different levels 6. Other a. Feeding structures like in the lophophores b. Larval stages like in the trochophore K INGDOM A NIMALIA = M ETAZOA (A S OPPOSED TO P ROTOZOA ) A. Parazoa-sponges: lack tissues and symmetry. 1 Phylum B. Eumetazoa: animals with true tissues. SuperPhylum a. Radiata-radial symmetry b. Bilateria-bilateral symmetry i. Protostoma-the blastopore developed into a mouth. 1. Lophotrochozoa: have feeding structures 2. Ecdysozoa: molting animals ii.Dueterostomia (including the Phylum Chordata) 1. Includes us 2. Includes those that have returned radial B ASAL M ETAZOA -A CURRENT CONTROVERSY Who are the Metazoa closest to the base of the tree? Phylum Porifera or Phylum Cnetophera? B EGINNING OF THE SURVEY I. Phylum Porifera II. Subphylum Parazoa i. Sponges ii. Cellular level of organization iii. Lack of symmetry iv. Sessile adults b. Structure: Matrix (like the dough of chocolate chip cookies) i. Mesophyll (with cells and skeleton embedded) c. Cell Types 1. ( not labelled balloon shaped in diagram)Choanocytes-sisters to choanoflagellates a. Filter feed b. Water flow: benefits respiratory gas, gamete flow, egestion c. Collar cells 2. Archaeocytes (labelled 3) a. Secrete mesophyll and skeleton b. psuedopods 3. Porocyte (unique to sponges) (labelled 4) a. Holes in sponges b. Individual cells in the shape of tubes with holes c. Water enters from outside  inside 4. Pinacocytes (labelled 6 and 5) a. Flat, cover surface, protect mesopyle b. Line and support canals c. NOTE: label 2 is mesohyle and label 1 is spicules d. d. Skeleton i. Organic fibers: 1. Collagen 2. Spongin ii. Inorganic spicules 1. Calcareous (CaCO3) 2. Siliceous (SiO2) like glass e. 3 Body types i. Ascon (Asconoid) 1. Simple 2. Thin body wall 3. Limited number of choanocyte 4. Limited in size to be pretty small 5. Single osculum (where water gets out) 6. Porocytes form ostia (where water gets in) 7. ii. Sycon (syconoid) 1. Single osculum 2. More choanocytes 3. Choanocytes line flagellated chambers 4. Ostia lead to incurrent canals 5. Prosopyle: the function of a porocyte leading from an incurrent canal to a flagellated chamber. iii. Leucon (Leuconoid) 1. Multiple oscula 2. No spongocoel (atrium) 3. Incurrent and excurrent canals 4. Prosopyles and Apapyles (a porocyte leading away from an incurrent canal) 5. f. Aquiferous system: tracing water flow through structures. g. 3 Classes: i. Calcarea 1. Ascon, sycon, leucon 2. Calcareous spicules 3. Marine 4. Small ii. Hexactinellida-glass spicules 1. Hexactine-6 rayed spicules 2. Siliceous 3. Deep marine 4. Syncytium 5. Fused spicules 6. a. Spongicola: little shrimp that live in the sponge. iii. Demospongiae 1. All the rest of the sponges are here; 80% of the diversity 2. Leucon body type 3. Marine and fresh water 4. Siliceous spicules and or sponging 5. Variety of shapes 6. Baths sponges a. Sponging only 7. Boring sponge- Cliona celate a. Archaeocytes (able or producing acid and edging their way into calc. shells) b. Bioerosion 8. Fresh water sponges a. Gemmules: produced by FW sponges; function: dormancy and dispersal. i. Birotulate ii. Amoeboid archeocytes are the only cells in there that will emerge from the ostule in the water. 1. Archeocytes are totipotent: can specialize into other cells, can produce all of the other types of cells. 9. Hard Sponges: a. Hard, calcareous, basal skeleton b. Sclerospongiae (usually combined with Demospongiae)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.