Kingdom Animalia-Sponges BIOL 1030
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
K INGDOM A NIMALIA C OMMON C HARACTERISTICS -No cell walls -Oviparous (egg bearing) or ovoviviparous (the egg hatches in the womb) or viviparous (live bearing) -heterotrophic by ingestion digestion egestion -multicellular -monophyletic -asexual/sexual reproduction – gametic meiosis -motility, locomotory structures, some sessile -diverse. E VOLUTIONARY T RENDS 1. Level of Organization a. Cellular: cells carry out work as individuals, each cell is divided a task. b. Tissue: cells work together in groups, each group is assigned a task. c. Organ: a combination of tissues that work together d. Organ system: a combination of organs that work together. 2. Symmetry a. Animals gained symmetry as locomotion developed b. Asymmetrical radial bilateral (cephalization: the development of a head) secondary radial symmetry 3. Body cavity a. Eucoelomate: has muscles on both sides of the body wall, complex, contains real organs b. Psuedocoelomate: has fluid or some other thing between the gut and the body wall, has sort of organs c. Acoelomate: without a body cavity. 4. Embryological development a. Zygote MITOSIS IN PATTERNS 2 celled 4 celled morula (wall of cells) blastula stage gastrula stage (with development of a blastocoel and blastopore Process of blastopore pushing in (gastolation) diploblastic organism (2 germ layers, ectoderm and endoderm). Note: some animals development may stop here. However others continue. more gastrulation triploblastic (with ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) (have a simple gut) SECOND OPENING FORMS HERE; complete gut b. If the mouth forms from the first opening (pushing in of blastopore), the animal is referred to as a Protostome c. If the anus forms from the first opening, the animal is referred to as a deuterostome. This is where we fit. d. 5. Segmentation = metamerism a. Tagmosis: body segments have slowly become fused to form a body region b. Comes in different levels 6. Other a. Feeding structures like in the lophophores b. Larval stages like in the trochophore K INGDOM A NIMALIA = M ETAZOA (A S OPPOSED TO P ROTOZOA ) A. Parazoa-sponges: lack tissues and symmetry. 1 Phylum B. Eumetazoa: animals with true tissues. SuperPhylum a. Radiata-radial symmetry b. Bilateria-bilateral symmetry i. Protostoma-the blastopore developed into a mouth. 1. Lophotrochozoa: have feeding structures 2. Ecdysozoa: molting animals ii.Dueterostomia (including the Phylum Chordata) 1. Includes us 2. Includes those that have returned radial B ASAL M ETAZOA -A CURRENT CONTROVERSY Who are the Metazoa closest to the base of the tree? Phylum Porifera or Phylum Cnetophera? B EGINNING OF THE SURVEY I. Phylum Porifera II. Subphylum Parazoa i. Sponges ii. Cellular level of organization iii. Lack of symmetry iv. Sessile adults b. Structure: Matrix (like the dough of chocolate chip cookies) i. Mesophyll (with cells and skeleton embedded) c. Cell Types 1. ( not labelled balloon shaped in diagram)Choanocytes-sisters to choanoflagellates a. Filter feed b. Water flow: benefits respiratory gas, gamete flow, egestion c. Collar cells 2. Archaeocytes (labelled 3) a. Secrete mesophyll and skeleton b. psuedopods 3. Porocyte (unique to sponges) (labelled 4) a. Holes in sponges b. Individual cells in the shape of tubes with holes c. Water enters from outside inside 4. Pinacocytes (labelled 6 and 5) a. Flat, cover surface, protect mesopyle b. Line and support canals c. NOTE: label 2 is mesohyle and label 1 is spicules d. d. Skeleton i. Organic fibers: 1. Collagen 2. Spongin ii. Inorganic spicules 1. Calcareous (CaCO3) 2. Siliceous (SiO2) like glass e. 3 Body types i. Ascon (Asconoid) 1. Simple 2. Thin body wall 3. Limited number of choanocyte 4. Limited in size to be pretty small 5. Single osculum (where water gets out) 6. Porocytes form ostia (where water gets in) 7. ii. Sycon (syconoid) 1. Single osculum 2. More choanocytes 3. Choanocytes line flagellated chambers 4. Ostia lead to incurrent canals 5. Prosopyle: the function of a porocyte leading from an incurrent canal to a flagellated chamber. iii. Leucon (Leuconoid) 1. Multiple oscula 2. No spongocoel (atrium) 3. Incurrent and excurrent canals 4. Prosopyles and Apapyles (a porocyte leading away from an incurrent canal) 5. f. Aquiferous system: tracing water flow through structures. g. 3 Classes: i. Calcarea 1. Ascon, sycon, leucon 2. Calcareous spicules 3. Marine 4. Small ii. Hexactinellida-glass spicules 1. Hexactine-6 rayed spicules 2. Siliceous 3. Deep marine 4. Syncytium 5. Fused spicules 6. a. Spongicola: little shrimp that live in the sponge. iii. Demospongiae 1. All the rest of the sponges are here; 80% of the diversity 2. Leucon body type 3. Marine and fresh water 4. Siliceous spicules and or sponging 5. Variety of shapes 6. Baths sponges a. Sponging only 7. Boring sponge- Cliona celate a. Archaeocytes (able or producing acid and edging their way into calc. shells) b. Bioerosion 8. Fresh water sponges a. Gemmules: produced by FW sponges; function: dormancy and dispersal. i. Birotulate ii. Amoeboid archeocytes are the only cells in there that will emerge from the ostule in the water. 1. Archeocytes are totipotent: can specialize into other cells, can produce all of the other types of cells. 9. Hard Sponges: a. Hard, calcareous, basal skeleton b. Sclerospongiae (usually combined with Demospongiae)
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