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Society and Natural Resources

by: Ms. Alene Howell

Society and Natural Resources FOR 235

Ms. Alene Howell
GPA 3.99


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This 71 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Alene Howell on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOR 235 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/227839/for-235-university-of-idaho in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
FROM LEOPOLD TO POTTER OR HOW A GLOBAL BIOETHIC GREW FROM A LAND ETHIC GL 7 BAL 1 BIOETHICS JASON JOHNSTONEYELLIN SEPTEMBER 22 2008 Aldo Leopold Leopold s Land Elflie Van Rensselaer Potter Potter s Global Bioethic The importance of Leopold Example Pinedale Mesa ALDO LEOPOLD 18871948 A land ethic changes the role of homo sapiens from conqueror of the land community to plain member and citizen of it It implies respect for his fellow members and also respect for the community as such LEOPOLD ON EDUCATION Is education possibly a process of trading awareness for things of lesser worth The goose who trades his awareness is soon a pile of feathers Leopold p18 A Sand County Almanac LEOPOLD ON ENVIRON M ENTAL EDUCATION The usual answer to the environmental dilemma is more conservation education No one will debate this but is it certain that only the volume of education needs stepping up Is something lacking in the content as well Leopold p207 A Sand County Almanac THE ECONOMIC PROBLEM w Land use ethics are still governed wholly by economic selfinterest just as social ethics were a century ago ASCA p209 a It of course goes without saying that economic feasibility limits the tether of what can or cannot be done for land It always has and it always will The fallacy the economic determinists have tied around our collective neck and which we now need to cast off is the belief that economics determines all land use This is simply not true ASCA p225 THE ECONOMIC PROBLEM a Land use ethics are still governed wholly by economic selfinterest just as social ethics were a century ago ASCA p209 a It of course goes without saying that economic feasibility limits the tether of what can or cannot be done for land It always has and it always will The fallacy the economic determinists have tied around our collective neck and which we now need to cast off is the belief that economics determines all land use This is simply not true ASCA p225 OBLIGATIONS The land relation is still strictly economic entailing privileges but not obligations ASCA p203 s Obligations have no meaning without conscience and the problem we face is the extension of the social conscience from people to land ASCA p209 LEOPOLD S LAND ETHIC A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community it is wrong when it tends otherwise ASCA p224 VAN RENSSELAER POTTER 19112001 Bioethics Biology combined with diverse huInanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival THREE POINTS OF INSPIRATION l No biological law can be relied on to ensure that our species will continue to prosper or indeed that it will continue to exist 2 The human species is the sole product of evolution that knows it has evolved and continues to evolve 3 It is up to our collective wisdom to supply the program for evolutionary developments that nature has failed to provide THE ONGOING ECONOMIC PROBLEM With laissezfajre and price atomic Ecology s Uneconomic But with another kind of logic Economy s Unecologic Kenneth E Boulding 1966 6 In essence the issue is whether the quality of life concept is ethically similar to quality of the environment and whether the sanctity of life position has its counterpart in the sanctity of the dollar Potter 1389 Global Bloellzlm 5 Obviously we must seek a balance between ecological bioethics and economic domination just as we need to nd a balance between sanctity of life and meaningful life Potter p9 Global Bloellzlm POTTER S GLOBAL BIOETHIC MEDICAL BIOETHICS ECOLOGICAL BIOETHICSj INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS SOCIETAL PROBLEMSHPOPULATION PROBLEMS GLOBAL BIOETHICS lt J SHORTTERM VIEW LONGTERM VIEW HEALTHFUL INDIVIDUAL SPECIES HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT HEALTH SURVIVAL ECOSYSTEM CONTROLLED HUMAN FERTILITY I STABILIZED WORLD POPULATION gt K gt ACCEPTABLE SURVIVAL lt J THE IMPORTANCE OF LEOPOLD As the rst person to couple and de ne the words land and ethic in ecological terms Leopold was unquestionably the rst bioethicist he was rst to enVision a new ethical basis for human conduct rst to develop an ecological ethic and rst to explain clearly why it is needed Potter7 pXiii Global Bioethics m uZmUgtrm 2mm o 02 on 29 0 DEC 1 N QUESTIONS How should wildlife species like grouse or deer be valued and how much should that value be balanced against the economic interests of a company like Questar In light of the US economy s dependence on oil and in light of the environmental impact of Questar s drilling operations is Questar morally obligated to cease its drilling operations on the Pinedale Mesa Explain RECOMMENDED POINTS FOR REFLECTION 0 W7 hat role should our economic concerns play in our ethical decision making W7 hat does it mean to act responsibly For what are any of us actually responsible e Acceptable survival Meaningful survival Which one are you pursuing Moving from Conflict to Consensus in Small Groups Building Bridges to Better Decisionmaking by Professor Ed Kmmpe Dept of Conservation Social Sciences 7 It seems like we are surrounded by conflict o What causes it o How can we work with it o How can we resolve it Why is it so hard to make decisions in a group 0 Sometimes the wrong people are involved 0 We have different goals 0 Ourvalues clash c We perceive differences 0 We fail to listen 0 We don t communicate well 0 We are trained to mistrust How to involve the right people Ensure the diversity of interests affected are included Include those with veto power amp those who have 39t to represent their irou Allow interest groups to choose their own tatives Select people willing to listen negotiate compromise munlcate Select a group that is well balanced Limit the size of the group 10 works great 15 works 20 creates work Sometimes our goals clash Does everyone understand why we are eeting Are some people trying to solve different problems Do we have any hidden agendas Sometimes our values clash 0 Values are deeply held 0 We are suspicious of people with different values c We cannot simply change it people s values 0 People can only work together when they share some common values Perceived differences can be as important as real differences 0 Our perceptions our reality 0 Misperceptions foster mistrust 0 We can39t change our perceptions unless we m 0 People can39t listen unless they speak brie 39 o It takes time Building bridges Some Tips and Techniques Select the rlght people gre sorne roles or nnduct USE transactlve ur cullaburatlve dEElSluncmaklng Avuld vutlrl 9 Use a pusltlvE approacn tn address lSSuES 15 Step Select the right people szenasDecxaonMakex szenca lt rm comm DlVErSlty cxomocposolr V Doom empower WW I Guud llstErlErs counsew Guud cummunlcaturs Pasmehmnpmm Guud negutlaturs Guud corn r lsers Cmnascmmm comp Gooo representatlves szenLe OmrMmpuhted Govt DecidesNanPamupatmn Step 2 Agree to how you will conduct business All members should agree to o Represent amprepurttu o Wurktuvvards tnelr unstltuency consensus o womasateam o Speak cunclselyamp o lee people a cnance tn llsten Wlthuut speak lrlterruptlrlg o Fucus on loeas e lssoes I Dlscuss amp resalve nut on people or tnelr prublems vvlthln the persurlalltles a F rou n Otner7 Step 3 Use transactive or collaborative decisionmaking 0 Small groups 0 Facetoface dialogue ns 0 Mutual understanding amp support will result Fnedmann39s The Step 4 Avoid VotingWork towards Consensus o sl 49 may stlll ermers xllabol atlol l llkely to be SEldDm to reach Four levels of support to reach consensus 1 39ly support the action 2 I can support it but it may not be a preference 3 I can support the action ifminor changes are made 4 I cannot support it unless major changes are made Use positive approach to identify 39 sues amp set goals NEPA nas got itWrongl Scoping to identity issues Mam by ioentirying issues rirsti issuesroeus on tne negative Poiarizes rnernpers amp ieaosto stereoggingotner rnernpers Pits one group against anotner issues orten have a harrowfocus snort sighted hot issues may overlook longr terrn propierns ousethe rouridrot1iri or values Step 5 Use RoundRobin to Identify Values Eaen rnernper siienti Writes iist or Wnat they like orvaiiatmutt e supiem ion of discuss 2 mvaiue rrorn tneir iist 7 repeat untii all values are isplayed Use RoundRobin to Identify Threats to Their Values Next each person s n rites potentiai tnese values Tnis paves tne Way to iie ti W threats to start developing goais amp ooieetives to aoo ess tne so m m m group propierns or tnreats ask eae rnern erto presentmthreat from tneir iist repeat until aii threats are dispiaved Now peopie unoerstano Wnat s penino negative reeiings Building Bridges to Better Decisionmaking Summary Create an atrnospnere or rnutuai respect amptrust Foster listening dialogue ano rnutuai iearning Buiio upon snareo values amp srnaii success reate partners tor a C future actions Requirements for Collaborative Planning Transactive pianning reguires speeiai skills Average or 2D rneetings over 2 to 4 ears Lots or tirne reguireo ror preparation LeaderMLeperceived as irngartiai ano o en Surrieient paseiine oata seioorn vailahle Conclusions Advantages of Collaboration 0 Improved mutual learning by managers amp citizens 0 Improved transfer of knowledge over time 0 Acceptance of divergent viewpoints 0 Greater shared commitment to agreed upon actions 0 Way less expensive than liti Thank you Professor Ed Krumpe PhD Dept ofCol39lserVatlol39l Soclal Sclerlces College of Natural Resources Ul llverslty of Idaho oscow ID 8384471139 208 88577428 Emall ekrumpeuldaho edu Small Group Rotations 1st Rotation 3m1 Rotation 2m1 Rotation Conclusions Advantages of LAC o Expanded amp Enriched Public Input 7 80 said collaboration had positive impact on public s image of the Forest 7 100 of Participants said collaboration was a valuable use of theirtime 0 It s Trackable and Traceable This was a key value to the public Group 1 Gmup 2 Gmup 3 Gmup 4 Gmup s Principles of Nuclear Engineering An Introduction to Nuclear Science amp Engineering Lecture 18 29 October 2008 Reactor Physics Part I Universityofldaho STATE UNIVERSITY o o Outline Review Chain Reactions The Multiplication Factor The Four Factor Formula The Six Factor Formula NUCLEUS FRAGMEN1 V V 6 NUCLEUS 7 N NEUTRON NeurkoNOEgt gt o gt Q T v Review Neutron Interactions Elastic Inelastic Radiative Capture Charged particle reactions Neutron producing reactions Fissions Cross Sections Units are barns 103924 cm2 0 0603070f 0a 070fm 039s 0603 O39t 0a O39S Problem 1 There are only two absorption reactions that can occur when 0253 eV neutrons interact with U235 The crosssection for these reactions are 99 b and 582 b for radiative capture and fission respectively When a 00253 eV neutron is absorbed by U235 what is the relative probability that fission will occur Solution 1 039 039 ff5 855 07039f 0a 681 Neutron Attenuation derivation Neutron Attenuation Results 611 x N0Ixdx ZtIxdx I x Ice Z I d x 36 pxdx e z thdx probablity traveled dis tan 66 x and then collided e z x is probablity n0t colided dis tancex thxjs probabilty colided inadis tan cedx xe z thdx meanfreepath 21 fe axztdx 8 Problem 2 Calculate the mean free path of lOOkeV neutrons in liquid sodium At this energy the total crosssection of sodium is 34 b Solution 2 Atomic density of sodium is 0254E24 The macroscopic cross section is then 00254E2434103924 00864 cm l The mean free path is therefore 1cm00864116cm Homogeneous Mixture Have a mixture of 2 nuclear species X and Y containing NX and NV atomscm3 Let ox and 0V be the cross sections Total cross section is calculated as follows 222x Zy Nx039x Ny039y Example 3 The absorption crosssection of U235 and U238 at 0253eV are 6800b and 270b respectively Calculate the total absorption macroscopic cross section for natural uranium at this energy Results 3 Ni niNA NU235 007g235U 191 g3 177101 235 6022E24at0ms 2348E4 atoms cm U 1mol barns Cm lmol 6022E24at0ms atoms 235 0483 23 80508g U lmol barns cm NU238 993 g238U 191i 3 cm 2 348E 4Mx6808bams 00483MX270barns 2 367cm391 barns cm barns cm Neutron Flux 1 neutrons Z ZS known as the Int eractzon rate cm szS neutrons cm n 3 v cm s Problem 4 A research reactor has a flux of 1E13 neutronscmZsec and a volume of 64000 cm3 If the macroscopic fission cross section in the reactors is 1 cm l what is the power of the reactor Assume 200MeVfission Solution 4 ssion rate Zf Power Efo V 200MeV16E 13J 1 1E13neutron lMeV cm2 sec Power 2 cm jlt640006m3 sszon Power 205E6i 205MW s Chain Reaction contd What is needed to continue the chain reaction More neutrons What can kill the chain reaction Loss of neutrons Neutron Source The major source of neutrons for nuclear power systems is nuclear fission Tolal NurBar Curves Neutrons may also come as a decay product Some sources may be used to help start up a nuclear reactor i i i i i n2 m3 in in m5 m7 Neutrons produced per fission Incident Neutron Energy Neutrons generated per fission Fa Fission Reactors Fission reactors operate by maintaining a fission chain reaction Neutrons emitted by fission induce fissions in other nuclei And so on and so on A population of neutrons must be maintained to sustain the chain reaction Population can be increasing decreasing or approximately constant Need to slow Neutrons Down U235 Fission Cross Section 05 I 9 Cross Section barns 3 3 o 71 i i i i i i i i i i i 10510416316210quot 10 10 102 103 10 105 10 m7 10 Energy EV The fission crosssection for 285U increases significantlyfor thermal neutrons 2L Need to slow Neutrons Down contd Neutrons are slowed down by having them go through a moderator Neutrons loose a greater amount of energy per scattering event when they interact with light nuclei eg H You do not want a moderator that has a high absorption crosssection The Multiplication Factor Let s consider some fission reactor at a time where N neutrons are produced by fission For now we ll pretend that there are only N neutrons in the reactor We will define this as a generation of neutrons Some of these neutrons will cause fissions A second generation of neutrons will be produced by the second round of fissions Let s define k as the multiplication factor for now k of neutrons in a generation of neutrons in the previous generation Neutron Multiplication cont The value of k has significance For k lt 1 Neutron population is decreasing Subcritical For k 1 Neutron population is constant Critical For k gt 1 Neutron population is increasing Supercritical Neutron Multiplication cont We can also define the multiplication factor as k neutron production rate neutron loss rate Neutron generations are somewhat vague But we already know something about calculating reaction rates Neutron Multiplication cont We now have a definition for k Note that our definitions is a first order approximation Other things can happen to affect the neutron population Another important note k is a property of a reactor k is not a property ofthe neutrons in a reactor Six Factor Formula Let s develop a formula for the multiplication factor k in a finite thermal reactor We will do this by considering the potential interactions of a generation of neutrons We will start with N fission neutrons Fission neutrons have high energy Six Factor Formula cont Initially the fast fission neutrons can do one of two things Leakfrom the reactor Or not leak from the reactor PFNL is the fast nonleakage probability Probability that a fast neutron does not leak while it s fast 27 Six Factor Formula cont We are only interested in neutrons that do not leak Fast neutrons that do not leak can do one of two things Slow to thermal energy Or be absorbed Resonance absorptions p is the resonance escape probability Probability that a fast neutron is not absorbed while slowing down 39 Given that it doesn t leak 28 Six Factor Formula cont We are interested in neutron production Fast neutron absorption can cause fission PFF is the probability that a fast neutron absorption results in fission V fast neutrons are produced per fission 29 Six Factor Formula cont Now for the neutrons that slowed to thermal energies Initially thermal neutrons can do one of two things Leak from the reactor Or not leak from the reactor PTNL is the thermal nonleakage probability Probability that a thermal neutron does not leak 30 Six Factor Formula cont A thermal neutron that doesn t leak can only be absorbed Absorbed in the fuel Absorbed in some other material 1 is the thermal utilization Probability that a thermal neutron is absorbed in fuel Given that it doesn t leak 31 Six Factor Formula cont We ll assume that neutrons that are absorbed in quotnonfuelquot do not cause fissions Those neutrons are lost A neutron that is absorbed in the fuel may or may not cause fission PF is the probability that thermal absorption in fuel causes fission 32 Six Factor Formula cont Egbap s Ep39ither39ma l Riggld 1rd 1 MW 33 Six Factor Formula cont Neutron multiplication will be the sum of the probabilities of each neutron producing branch Expected number of neutrons from thermal fission Expected number of neutrons from fast fission k PFNLpP TN L fPFV PFNL 1 39 pPFFV Six Factor Formula cont This formula is traditionally rearranged with some variable substitution Starting with e the fast fission factor expected of neutrons from all fissions expected of neutrons from thermal fission PFNLpPTNL fPFV PFNL 1 39 pPFFV PFNLpPTNL fPFV Six Factor Formula cont We will also define the reproduction factor n as n 2 expected of neutrons produced per thermal absorption in fuel 2 PFV Six Factor Formula cont If we apply these substitutions to k P pP fPFV PFNL 1 pPFFV FN L TNL We obtain the six factor formula H You may also see this written as k 8L fastfp L thermal Lu l Six Factor Formula Parts number utquot li39ust neutruna prurIusccl by all limitIns numbr mtquot lust neutrons Pl39t39dUCCd by thermth 1159mm g numbcr 01 that ncutrr ins that Lb not Icult l39rt39nm rutactor r number of fast nautrmm prt39mlutcd by all limit wnb I1 number LIIquot nuutruna thut renth thcrmul mus1g number Inquot hat ncutruns that start to slow altmm E numbu ut thermal nusutrt wnra that L1 not lmk 1151111 reactor I q numbcr 0 ncutruna that rcncl r tl mrmnl curry3 numbcr utquot thermal ncutruns t rl wurl lctl in thc t ucl numbcr 0f thermal ncutrtwtm absurbn vcl in all rcnult ar n mtcriuls n number 0quot that nuutrt39wns l39tquotI1LIL II bjt39 thcrmul I39traa39iun nttnwbcr ut tbcrmul nuutrnna ubrat vrbcd in the l ucl Four Factor Formula If we apply the six factor formula to an infinite reactor the nonleakage probabilities become unity Nothing leaks from an infinite system This is the four factor formula km is an upper limit for k Multiplication The 6 factor formula can be used to calculate the multiplication factor of a thermal reactor Apply named because it contains six terms Later on we ll come up with more useful ways of calculating neutron multiplication However understandingthe terms in the 6 factor formula helps conceptualize how neutrons behave in a fission reactor Multiplication cont The multiplication factor is a very important property of a reactor Determines basic state 39 Sub critical critical or super critical 39 It is important to know the state of your reactor The multiplication factor for an infinitely large reactor km is the upper bound of k for a finite reactor of the same materials A fission reactor that can only remain subcritical is not very useful By the same token a fission reactor that cannot be made subcritical is an accident waiting to happen F tltgt1e gt Thermal lt1 eV Neutron Balance in a Thermal Reactor 139l prFNLPTNL New lt Fast Leakage Q 1PFNL thermal fission Remember n VOH1 nprFNLPT Captured in 81mprFNLPTNL D C Resonances 1p Fast gt1 eV Fast Fission Thermal lt1 eV Fissions prFNLPTNLa39 Thermal Leakage 139PTNL Neutrons from absorbed in fuel reading to Captured in Neutron Balance In NY Non fuel materials iiom 10 a Thermal Reactgr 1 1172008 F R 39 39Ar dlh W ld Sustalnable Forestry ores Eglons noun 6 01 Are Planted Forests The Answer O V About onerthxrd of the earth s surface 1s covered wxm Ian The dxsmbutxon offorests desem and grasslands are primanly a function of precxpxmuon and temperature LAUREN PINS FORUSS 235 About third ameh Amer10a fdr s39te mamame 1 1172008 In additionto producing wood FAQ39s 2007 Seventh Biennial Issue of the State oftlte World39s Forests and storage and cycles of carbon an water g o Forests provide habitat for diverse arrays l s 0 Forests affect the earth s heat balance d ofp ant and animal specie I V o Forests provide ecological services such I as soil stability and ood control V i 0 These statementscan also be made for planted forests Considered progress toward sustainable forest mart gemertt at the regional and global levels General conclusion Progress is being made but is very uneven Deforestation continues at an alarming rate 7 about 13 million ha net loss per year t Forest planting and natural expansion offorests have significantlyreduced the netloss of forest areaquot Summary of FAO ndings A FAO39s State of the World39s Forests 2007 n 0 Between 1990 and 2005 39 World lost aboutg percent of total forest area w o 2 percentlostper year slower between 20002005 Equals 73million ha lostper year or 20000 ha per day About6 million ha ofprimary forest are lost or modified each year U 0 Trends differed by region examples a Europe and North Ameri Forest area generallystable or increasing instituuons strong 3 Tropical areas Continuing loss o orest area especially incountrtes with developing nomies an tropical ecosystems r institutions too weak to reverse trend Stun M man letsultan m ms quotmom was quotmg m mmusand mam1 ri Mi i 2m FAQ39S State of the World39s Forests 2007 n V 0 Some positive indicators 0 Forest area designated for conservation increasing in many countries a Globally 36 percent ofremaining forests are categorized as primary forests 1 1172008 FAQ39s State of the World39s Forests 2007 I U FAQ39S State of the World39s Forests 2007 1quotquot 0 Additional positive indicators o Growing trendtoward adopting more sustainable management shategies ixedspecies plantings Mixedage stands Investmenm in bode fire prevention and firecontrol e y se management internanonal collaboration increasin Govemmentincentives and promotion of susminable practices V 0 Positive indicators continued About 50 percent of world39s forest area was designated for wood production as one management obiective About 34 percent of world39s forest area was designated as primarily for wood producnon Note This is a decline of about 5 percent since i9 0 Notsurpnsing due to increase in designated conservation acres FAQ39s Stale of the World39s Forests 2007 M V FAQ ndings 0 Positive indicators continued Butsome countn including Us and Canada report large areas designated for multiple use Area designated as productive forest plantations increased by 25 million ha between 2000 and 200 Suggests that forest plantations maycontnbute larger proportion ofwood in future 93990 31112005 0 ca e Lost gt9 percent ofits forest area r But between 200072005 African countries designated gt35 million ha ofrorest to be managed primarily for conservation of biological diversity o New forest policies and forest laws ii Efforts to improve law enforcement FAD findings 19902u1cl 200i 0 Asia andthe Paci c a Net forest area increased between 2000 and 2005 Increase primarily attributed to plannng in China Deforestation actually accelerated in Southeast Asia and South Asia o Illegal logging increasing onomic development in china and India may help a Forest institutions getting stronger in some countries iore participatory decisioneinalaing FAQ findings tggo and 2005 o N orthAmerica Netforest area Stableln Canada and us Declining in Mexico N American forests account for 17 percent ofworld forest area 40 percent of world39s wood removals c Forestry contributionto economies is declining i Region is a net importer offorest products targelydue to us impors which are double are exporcs 1 1172008 Forest plantations and planted forests 2000 2005 Wood for energy 0 Planted forests continue to expand 272 million ha total Wood increasingly used for ener In Africa almost 90 percent ofall wood removedis used for ergy 0 Supply almost 50 percent ofglobal wood production 0 Asia has most area in planted forest a Most biofuels used for residential cooking and heating 7 a China naslargest area of plantation forests in world a mainly Africa Asia and Latin Amenc o Eiuopean countriesincreasingly use biofuels to produce electIicity Growing market for forest byproducts as raw matenals for energyproductlon Population as ofNovembel39 9 zoos n U 0 US 39 305519315 China 39 1333255211 0 India 39 115475587595 t Canad 2 E a o a US China inula Canadawmld d 6735892536 I l LII 1 l39 I39I I a k 39 fore 1 VVOOd energy quot and equitable economic progrefaat same Lime FAO V 0 Criteria established by Ministerial 9 Heating and cooking Conference on the Protection of Will remain principle uses of wood in future Forests in Europe MCPFE 39 Solid biofuels for production of electricity Forest I souroes and carbon sequestration Expected to triple by 2030 Forest lrealtli and vitallt Wood fuels expected to comedlrectly from to39ress and tree Production of goods and sermes plantations Biodiversit Y lntematlonal trade in wood fuels expected to increase in Central rotective functions and South America Sodioaeconomie benefits Oauldcontnbute to deforestation and forest degradation o Increased demand for woody biomass for energy could Plantation forests meet challenges spul39 development and expansion offorest activities well 1 1172008 Othel Analyses Take Home Message f A U V 0 Maritime ine in southwestern France p 0 Planted and plantation forests should and Will play a netic galns plus plantation forestry naye resulted ln gt4o96 gain ln growh and str ghmess greater role in sustainable wood supply around theworld smdy concludes Plantain mm can be sustainable t M st of the global area of planted forests was establlslleol since 39 19 80s Sh ey Journal Forest 2006 t t Thewood from theseplantauons will affect global markets Concludes intensive plantation cul ture can help morease prooluouon and move Us toward sustalnable forestry 0 Sutton NZ Journal of Forestry 1999 Planted forests would reduce need 0 harvest in natural forests Could reduce need for f ll oss fuels lanylronrnentally friendly sustainable renewable What Can We Do To Ensure Sustainability ofForesLs A U I Demand nae ayerage us citizen uses about u7cu ft of wood per year 19 cu meters Questions n U I msrs more than 3 times the global per capita V average Zlcu ft perperson E Can we redqu this amount 7 H0W7 up ply Plant genetloally improved trees and use responsible management techniques Moves world toward sustainable Wood supply and sooal responsibility s UScan supply our own needs through planted forests and plantation forests


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