Psychology 1410 - Human Development pt. 1
Psychology 1410 - Human Development pt. 1 Psy-1410-007
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Ch. 9 Human Development Genetics and the Environment Can we pull these apart? o 3 different Kinship Studies 1. Identical twins reared apart They have the exact same genes, but are raised in different locations Identical twins separated at birth exhibit astonishing similarities (40-50%) Examples: o Likelihood of getting divorced o Likelihood of being addicted to tobacco o Hours spent watching TV o Political attitudes o Attitudes related to the death penalty o Religiosity o Taste in music First Law of Behavioral Genetics: All behavioral traits are partially heritable 2. 2 Non-related people (adopted children) raised in the same environment Similarity provides support for shared environment 0-10% (very small) 3. Identical twins reared in the same environment Why are they different if they have the SAME genes and the SAME environment? Differences provide support for non-shared environment Unique experiences of person even though they may have the same environment 50% Example: one twin breaks their leg in the summer and one does not. The one that broke their leg must stay indoors and joins the chess team, while the other one joins a soccer team. They make different friends and have different experiences that help shape them into different people o Genes + Shared Environment + Non-Shared Environment = Particular Trait Does high heritability imply immutability? No – it is not all nature over nurture (or vise versa) Example: there is a high percentage that if your identical twin or both parents have a mental disorder such as schizophrenia that the other twin or child will have it too, but it is NOT a given truth Three components o Genotype – inherited genetic endowment o Environment – the conditions in which you were born o Phenotype – the expression of the genotype Epigenetic “marks” Our genotype (heredity) gives us a reaction range (upper and lower boundaries) The environment interacts within these limits, determining what will eventually be developed (our phenotype) Epigenetics Examples: diet, physical activity, exposure to toxins, stress, etc. Infant and Child Development Jean-Jacques Rousseau called the baby “a perfect idiot” “The baby, assailed by eyes, ears, noes, and skin, and entails at once, feels it all as one great blooming, buzzing confusion” – William James Building Blocks of Infant Cognitive Development Are babies “blank slates?” o No Moro Reflex o Arms flail out if babies head is tipped backwards Palmar Grasp o Baby holds tightly onto adult’s finger Plantar Grasp o Toes try to grasp something just like Palmar Grasp Sucking Rooting Reflex o If you put something near a baby’s mouth it will try to put it in their mouth to suck Walking Reflex Tonic Neck Reflex o If one arm is stretched out, the other is bowed inward Swimming Reflex o Will hold breath in water and flair limbs Imitation How long before an infant can imitate a facial expression of someone else? Alan Meltzoff’s studies suggest that infants as young as 42 minutes can Pre-Birth Learning and Memory Studies In developmental terms, birth could be relatively insignificant o Consider examples of thinking, learning, and remembering Prenatal Senses o Studies of discrimination of sensory input Test: as soon as a baby is born, they can administer a stranger’s milk rather than the mother’s milk. Look at the baby’s reaction – how much it drinks, its facial expressions, etc. Test: cry melodies Newborn babies’ cry melodies correspond to their mother’s tongue o German o French Babies appear to be reproducing sounds heard in the womb Test: expose baby to mother’s voice vs stranger’s voice. Measures baby’s brain waves. EEGs show that the brain recognizes the mother’s voice. “Motherese” Mother is primary initiator of language Consider: neurobiological link between prenatal language acquisition and motor skills involved in speech “Non-Nutritive Nipple” o Pacifier o Makes the baby suck What is a baby thinking? Sucking – pacifier o Expose baby different sounds or images, and sees how much the baby is sucking on the pacifier Looking – eye tracking Brain imaging Heart rate Habituation A change in behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure Habituation in newborns related to IQ and language ability in children What does a baby like to look like? They like to look at faces o Believed that immediately after birth they seek out faces One week of age – infants prefer their mother’s face to a stranger’s French babies prefer to look at persons speaking French; Russian babies prefer to watch people speaking French o Watching their mouths as they talk What does a baby see? A baby at birth is only able to see the distance between its mother’s arms up to her face Vision is very blurry Beautiful vs. Less Beautiful Faces? o Faces rated by adults for attractiveness o Similar faces (in contrast, brightness, etc.) matched but on opposite ends of the attractive scale o Babies shown the pictures, and are said to be drawn to the more attractive faces o Looking for symmetry in faces How Social Are Babies? Babies look at their caregiver’s faces for their expression – has an effect on the baby’s reaction afterwards Jean Piaget (1896-1980) “Children do not think like grownups.” Piaget’s Developmental Theory o Schemas – a mental picture/idea/representation of an object/something o Assimilation – fitting new info into pre-existing mental schemas o Accommodation – people create new schemas or adjust old ones o Disequilibrium – when people find that a new thing that they put into an old schema doesn’t quite fit Must reach equitation o We are prone to use assimilation before accommodation Stages of Development o Sensorimotor – infancy (birth-2 years old) Reflexes Habits – circular reactions Coordination – roll over, scoot around, crawl, toddle Goal orientation – as their field of vision increases, they will want to act on the world when they see interesting things Lack of object permanence – “out of sight, out of mind” Babies’ short term memory (frontal lobe) is not developed o Preoperational – ages 2-7 Symbolic functioning – the ability to represent the world mentally A child creates mental images of objects Pretend play Centration – the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Appearance Reality Distinction - Whatever they observe is reality to them Egocentrism – difficulty in seeing the world from another person’s point of view They think everyone can see what they’re seeing Example: when children over their eyes to not see the world, they believe they no one else can see them either Theory of Mind – awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others Conservation – a child’s ability to realize that some aspect of an object or substance remain unchanged, no matter how its form may be altered o Concrete Operational – ages 7-11 Classification – Appearance reality distinction Can differentiate between reality and fantasy/pretend Decentering Elimination of Ego - False Belief Task – testing egocentrism o Formal Operational – ages 11-15 Abstract thinking Ability to develop hypotheses and then test then against reality Debate Argumentative behavior Idealism Criticism Planning and decision-making