Engineering Risk Assessment for Hazardous Waste Evaluations
Engineering Risk Assessment for Hazardous Waste Evaluations CHE 480
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazlyn Schultz III on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 480 at University of Idaho taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/227847/che-480-university-of-idaho in Chemical Engineering at University of Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
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early 1980s le ntic system grounds gt 95of California appeared in the last century cal Ity chemical contamination Observation of reproductive failure in aquatic birds and ducks Selenium was leaching from agricultural soils and depositing in the drainage impoundments Food chain bioaccumulation observed Water sediments aquatic plants insects fish birdsducks Obsenlation of teratogenesis n aquatic birds and ducks caused great public outcry The Poisoning ofthe Westquot m 35 Dew M Haief39 a DNA Brittle hoove s larln an ingrnwn Inenall served in Livesmck Gross Di gnoses u n Extensive hoof wall dysplasia Acute Inxicns39 hnnllvsinns alnpecia opeciaV mane and an 3 animals leslrnyeil ovine H II hlnnll leveb oiiusunneii rule in reprnllucllve lailures Vll39le High hlnml leveb oiiusunneii rule Inllnck health prnhlems V 2 1514 39 W 1 quot I h I whw v7 nmsmmmcancnmAua neMmal mm lrnmlrmsilessnns a rEIJressnns m Pennaquot V seas M 9 51110215116 5n arlqms 5 Cummings 11 um sues Mnslml nuhllclauls rur am sue mam thnu NILFDIESI Salli sllflIlJS ID u Er mamas an chemmls Maybe Canyon Mine and Fill Considered a clean strip mining operation moved and s rep a where phosphoria layers are re overburden waste rock and soi I ced ML mm may well aerated alkallne Pole Creek French Dram Inlet Heavymelal Elemental 52 39 Selemles I Selenales s 5 i C mm Fm Orljannrse FetOHiSeO cnmmms Insolublei V Leach u m zllmem nns Su zleRedu mam z Release Mechanism amummemm Cyclmlj n 52 Lower Pole Creek and Pasture Environmental Chemistry French drain effects on water quality Inlelcreekw 1 r lt7 5 pH an own creek water San m L Se 3 MM 3350 IH Waste rock overburden 5n mgekg Inlal Se Dr Hnle Cm AnaIys 32Rquot Baclscaler Mg Geochemistry Elemental Selenium 31 391 was rm mums E 9lt um R 2 umszm Simone Shale 7 Inlalse s ammsnmka 52 human assnclalell mum snslnm ane mumjmms mllam ahmn Min 6 52 mm L aw 2 SE04 Decullovibri39o Thioba quotUS HSe39 FeSe gt FeSe2 Seoaz39 gt SeOf39 OrganoSe 3 Reduction P39 Oxidation Phase Colloidal iron metal Granular iron metal scrap Potato waste Potato starch Felll thermal polyaspartic acid tpAsp Sulfate reducing bacteria inoculum Desulfatomaculum orientis and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans SRB inoculum plus all of above Anaerobic Have the ability to use selenate or selenite as their final electron acceptor Selenate is stoichiometrically reduced to selenide according to the equation chzo SeOf gt 2HCO HESe Microbial Reduction Chemical Reduction Fe provides a chemically reducing environment Oxldanon Fe H Fe 2e Fe Fe e Reductlon OgtEH Ee H 4HgtO 2H 2e H H SRB Growth on Corroding Iron NIeml in Testwell construction Amendment application Ch ease Whey mnnilnrim s acrns 2er and 2 eld plnls 4 pan lysimeters and 2 ceramic lysimeters per cell Cells Control Iron granules Iron and Potato waste Potato waste Iron granule fertilizer Applied prior to reseeding Potato Waste Applied prior to reseeding Applied prior to reseeding 16 pan lysimeters 32 by direct 2quot water chemistry b pro e 8 ceramic lysimeters Central sampling utility corridor amp shed mm Sampling Dales m Sampling Date wun n Sample Date 390 Identification and characterization of the release pathway Naturally occurr g selenium reducing microbes present in the soils Combination ame nd ments consistently out perform lone amendments Possible heel The amendments stimuiated a partiai sequestration ofSe in amended zones through a combined chemical microbiai pathway Bunker Hill Superfund Site Kellogg Idaho Bunker HIII Sne lenq Rive Basin Bunker Hill Superfund Site a MEAN BLOOD LEAD LEVELS 1974 K We 9 9 v 3 y 353 stanuem Muesvam Smdter 1974 BLOOD LEAD REGRESSION ANALYSIS noon LEAD AI R Exrosmz LEAD HOME numNEss A GE FATHER39S occumnow MENTAL MEDIA CONCENTRATIONS r 1974 man smxmne mam mm Comm mm WandPig 255m 1L w m Ma 15 m 55 s m xxw 7m 3m 1192 317 Nunskg m2 11355 2211 m6 swagan mugs 521 m 349 219 j COMPARISON OF 1974 AND 1983 LEAD EXPOSURE LEVELS Ll MILE 1974 1983 200 02 mm SOL 75 00 5500 mg DUST 12000 4100 mg quotwH m H mm Imm m Hunk lhll E Sensitive Populations Pre school Children Adults living on site Pregnant Women Women of childbearing ages exposed in 1970 s Children born in early 1970 s Potential Health Effects Pre school Children LEAD Brain and central nervous system damage Intelligence and behavioral effects Potential Health Effects Pregnant Women Concern for the fetus Birth defects amp developmental impairment due to lead arsenic cadmium mercury Potential Health Effects Adult Lifetime Effects Chronic damage to kidney and cardiovascular system due to lead zinc cadmium antimony mercury Cancer of skin and respiratory system due to arsenic cadmium Use of Site Speci c Data Identify Pathways Quantify ExposureIntake Assess doseresponse health risks Possible Pathways of Exposure Soils and Dusts 7 Inhalation of airborne dust 7 Ingestion of airborne dust 7 Ingestion ofsoils 7 Ingestions ofhousedust Dietary 7 Ingestion ofgarden Vegetables 7 Ingestionof drinking Water Bunker Hill Superfund Site Remedial Action Objectives RAO 95 of all children in each community with blood lead levels lt10 pgdl No children ie lt1 with blood lead levels 2 15 pgdl Superfund Record of Decision ROD I Populated Areas yard soils commercial properties rights of way Nonpopulated Areas caps and barriers future development Institutional Controls Program ICP ll Strategy to Accomplish RAOs I Ren39ediating all yards commercial properties and rightsofwaywith soils that have gt 1000 rrgkg to lt 100 rrgkg Pb less than 350 mgkg Controlling fugitive dust and stabilizing and covering contam39nated soils throughout the site sun 39 39 ad 39 of lt 500 mgkg with no individual house dust lead concentration exceeding 100 mgkg I 4 II Screenmg mtewenuon Remedlallon Health Response Activities 7 Screming d intervention by local health dept Emlugcal Mumtunng Nursmg and Envlmnmentzl 7 ruuuwup Educatmn yarentalschnulsnagqburhuud ldenufythlem ms 7 modifybehavmr 7 ellm ale special lazards Remedial Strategies mean up sm s m hume yavds and yesmmax aveas m meet Snnrmnn ppm Pb cmena Reduce dus ead uadmgs m humes mug save gavdenmg aveas 5mm mm mm m pvevem vecumammahun 5mm cumammams un madswdas cummema pvupemes a m pvwem vecumammauun HOW Clean is Clean 0 Depends on 7 VVhich child 7 Which environmental situation 7 Which blood lead Stan 7 Arithmetic Mean Blood Lead Level mgldl Children s Blood Lead Levels by Year 1974 1999 ELTERVILLE Smaller manllngwmnu 70 Pnllullnn Cnnlrd Eyagerm Rasmnse ln Epldemlc Smells ClnsAre 1331 lnlervmllnn ngm ml rag Track Removals l l We mallnnaagms lea Pwulalzdmdllm K museums 3 new 39 I lam lBTZ WM 1975 mm lBED lBEZ lam lBEE WEE lBBD lBBZ law was lBBE ZDDD Vear m 0 1983mm Hedlhsmdy 1 Bunker Hill Superfund Site Remedial Action Objectives RAO 95 of all children in each community with blood lead levels lt10 pgdl No children le lt1 with blood lead levels 315 pgdl mama Mean nneaa Cnnc lrannn lugquotEv 1m 1m 1m 1915 1m 19m 1m 1m ms 1m 1m Year KELL066 MEDICAL cLINIc i PINEHURST scHooL I39SLVERKING scHooL SMELTERVILLE CITY HALL Yard Soil Lead Exposue Yam Remvals lnmatm 1mm Geometric Mean son Lead Exposure m glkg 1971 1975 1931 1935 1991 1995 v House Dust Lead Exposue Exposure 11nng I Soil and Dust Lead to Blood Pathways Neighborhood 5 on Blood Lead Level by City 19881999 I 19m 19m 199a 1991 1992 um 1m 1996 1995 1991 1m 1999 v uumcc PIIENHRSI SMELIERVILLE ll Percent Children with Blood Lead Above 10 1ng by City I 19 999 955 was 199m 994 992 1995 99 1995 1995 1997 m we KEHD Rnehur5 sneuemue RAO Homes Yards 19881999 E E R k Kelnuu Plnehurs1 snnmn snevnne Permm m Eh dren as m a 1351 1332 m m 1335 13 1951 m Veg wwwmmmwmamumm mum Neighhnrhnnd Snil 39 39 199E EFDmB m A caimnogen C 0005 mgI pentachlorophenol CR 2 Ild EFD 5 dyr 70 yr SW 70 kg AT 70 yr 365 dyr 1mm 0000142 mgkgd 7070365 CCREFD intake in pCi com in pg or IE I contact rate 2 V01 20 m3d exposurefrequem and duration daysVDXIYF c 3 poiI Iodine131 CR 2day EFD 365 dyr 70 yr 15331 pCi 39 Y mgkg da Hazard Quat ients HQ Hazard Qudient IlRfD Wnere intake 39n mgkgd or Eforexposure RfD re erer ce dose in mgkgd R39sk intakexSFXSF R39sk probability 0 deebpingcar cer Intake chronic daiiy intake CDI avg over 70years in mgkg dfor nonrad or Lifetime ntake in pCi for rad slopefactor mgkgdquot0r 900quot Compare to targd risk 1 0quot7 to 104 39i 392 wt NumerwsHQ s Numerws r39sks due tochem and rad carcinogens Non Ca n Separate H 05 by39 9 Chronic subchronic shortterm HQ gt 10 indicates need for concern r d Index SumtheHQ war all pathways and e fects to delelop Tdal Hazard ndex for each exposure period Hazardlndex IRfD IRfD RfD ADDITIVE assumption Exposure period 70years Separate risksfor toxicological effect eg largd organ exposure pathway eg inhalation Don t add inthe Radionuclde car cer risk Risk Calculation Radiological Total Risk SFD xlntake 39om direct ingestion of radionuclide in oil SF x Intake from inhalation ofvolatile radionuclide SF2 x lnta ke from inhalation ofreupended radioactive particulates concentration ofgamma emitting radionuclide in dl eg 0021 mgl Cd Expected lifdime average Could present average and upper bwnd c e get a rangethat prwides measure 0 uncertainty on estimate but UCL 395 too high and average is too low Reasor able Maximum Exposure RME rm Exposure highest exposure reasonabiy expected to oocur estimated for ind39vidual pathways av gltRMEltUCL Use Pro essionalJudgment Consult with EPA amp others an Le on fr 1 Drinking Water Standard Maximum Contamir ant Leel 00 5 So originalcor centration o 0021mgI was 42Xthe NCL HQwas 12 wt 42 MCL isstricterthan RfD would suggest because Cd is also ingested fromfood lm other Lemon from From IRIS unit camer risk 395 3X1 ugl Drinking Water Standard Maximum Contamir ant Leel 0001mgI 1 ugI Originalcor centration o 0005mgI 5 ugI 5 ug3X1 15X1 was 5 Xthe NCL
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